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71 versions of Linux.

ProgramAgeSizeByWWWSummary
Linux 4.13.2-r1 925  88794 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
Linux 4.9.16-r3 1096  100651 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
Linux 4.9.4-r5 1152  99374 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
Linux 4.8.2-r2 1218  89394 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
Linux 4.7.4-r1 1288  82767 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
Linux 4.7.0-r4 1343  82585 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
Linux 3.13.3-r1 2223  252629 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
Linux 3.12.6-r1 2283  238949 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
view entry at GitHub | download recipe.bz2 file
01-gobohide.patch
02-aufs.patch
Recipe
Resources/BuildDependencies
Resources/BuildInformation
Resources/Dependencies
Resources/Description
cell/02-memcpy-cell.patch
cell/Recipe
cell/dot-config
i686/Recipe
i686/dot-config
ppc/Recipe
ppc/dot-config
x86_64/Recipe
x86_64/dot-config
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/drivers/block/loop.c linux-3.12.6/drivers/block/loop.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/drivers/block/loop.c	2014-01-01 09:01:22.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/drivers/block/loop.c	2014-01-01 22:02:58.000000000 -0200
@@ -513,7 +513,7 @@ out:
 }
 
 struct switch_request {
-	struct file *file;
+	struct file *file, *virt_file;
 	struct completion wait;
 };
 
@@ -575,7 +575,8 @@ static int loop_thread(void *data)
  * First it needs to flush existing IO, it does this by sending a magic
  * BIO down the pipe. The completion of this BIO does the actual switch.
  */
-static int loop_switch(struct loop_device *lo, struct file *file)
+static int loop_switch(struct loop_device *lo, struct file *file,
+		       struct file *virt_file)
 {
 	struct switch_request w;
 	struct bio *bio = bio_alloc(GFP_KERNEL, 0);
@@ -583,6 +584,7 @@ static int loop_switch(struct loop_devic
 		return -ENOMEM;
 	init_completion(&w.wait);
 	w.file = file;
+	w.virt_file = virt_file;
 	bio->bi_private = &w;
 	bio->bi_bdev = NULL;
 	loop_make_request(lo->lo_queue, bio);
@@ -599,7 +601,7 @@ static int loop_flush(struct loop_device
 	if (!lo->lo_thread)
 		return 0;
 
-	return loop_switch(lo, NULL);
+	return loop_switch(lo, NULL, NULL);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -618,6 +620,7 @@ static void do_loop_switch(struct loop_d
 	mapping = file->f_mapping;
 	mapping_set_gfp_mask(old_file->f_mapping, lo->old_gfp_mask);
 	lo->lo_backing_file = file;
+	lo->lo_backing_virt_file = p->virt_file;
 	lo->lo_blocksize = S_ISBLK(mapping->host->i_mode) ?
 		mapping->host->i_bdev->bd_block_size : PAGE_SIZE;
 	lo->old_gfp_mask = mapping_gfp_mask(mapping);
@@ -626,6 +629,13 @@ out:
 	complete(&p->wait);
 }
 
+static struct file *loop_real_file(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct file *f = NULL;
+	if (file->f_dentry->d_sb->s_op->real_loop)
+		f = file->f_dentry->d_sb->s_op->real_loop(file);
+	return f;
+}
 
 /*
  * loop_change_fd switched the backing store of a loopback device to
@@ -639,6 +649,7 @@ static int loop_change_fd(struct loop_de
 			  unsigned int arg)
 {
 	struct file	*file, *old_file;
+	struct file	*f, *virt_file = NULL, *old_virt_file;
 	struct inode	*inode;
 	int		error;
 
@@ -655,9 +666,16 @@ static int loop_change_fd(struct loop_de
 	file = fget(arg);
 	if (!file)
 		goto out;
+	f = loop_real_file(file);
+	if (f) {
+		virt_file = file;
+		file = f;
+		get_file(file);
+	}
 
 	inode = file->f_mapping->host;
 	old_file = lo->lo_backing_file;
+	old_virt_file = lo->lo_backing_virt_file;
 
 	error = -EINVAL;
 
@@ -669,17 +687,21 @@ static int loop_change_fd(struct loop_de
 		goto out_putf;
 
 	/* and ... switch */
-	error = loop_switch(lo, file);
+	error = loop_switch(lo, file, virt_file);
 	if (error)
 		goto out_putf;
 
 	fput(old_file);
+	if (old_virt_file)
+		fput(old_virt_file);
 	if (lo->lo_flags & LO_FLAGS_PARTSCAN)
 		ioctl_by_bdev(bdev, BLKRRPART, 0);
 	return 0;
 
  out_putf:
 	fput(file);
+	if (virt_file)
+		fput(virt_file);
  out:
 	return error;
 }
@@ -691,6 +713,24 @@ static inline int is_loop_device(struct
 	return i && S_ISBLK(i->i_mode) && MAJOR(i->i_rdev) == LOOP_MAJOR;
 }
 
+/*
+ * for AUFS
+ * no get/put for file.
+ */
+struct file *loop_backing_file(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct file *ret;
+	struct loop_device *l;
+
+	ret = NULL;
+	if (MAJOR(sb->s_dev) == LOOP_MAJOR) {
+		l = sb->s_bdev->bd_disk->private_data;
+		ret = l->lo_backing_file;
+	}
+	return ret;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(loop_backing_file);
+
 /* loop sysfs attributes */
 
 static ssize_t loop_attr_show(struct device *dev, char *page,
@@ -822,7 +862,7 @@ static void loop_config_discard(struct l
 static int loop_set_fd(struct loop_device *lo, fmode_t mode,
 		       struct block_device *bdev, unsigned int arg)
 {
-	struct file	*file, *f;
+	struct file	*file, *f, *virt_file = NULL;
 	struct inode	*inode;
 	struct address_space *mapping;
 	unsigned lo_blocksize;
@@ -837,6 +877,12 @@ static int loop_set_fd(struct loop_devic
 	file = fget(arg);
 	if (!file)
 		goto out;
+	f = loop_real_file(file);
+	if (f) {
+		virt_file = file;
+		file = f;
+		get_file(file);
+	}
 
 	error = -EBUSY;
 	if (lo->lo_state != Lo_unbound)
@@ -885,6 +931,7 @@ static int loop_set_fd(struct loop_devic
 	lo->lo_device = bdev;
 	lo->lo_flags = lo_flags;
 	lo->lo_backing_file = file;
+	lo->lo_backing_virt_file = virt_file;
 	lo->transfer = transfer_none;
 	lo->ioctl = NULL;
 	lo->lo_sizelimit = 0;
@@ -929,6 +976,7 @@ out_clr:
 	lo->lo_thread = NULL;
 	lo->lo_device = NULL;
 	lo->lo_backing_file = NULL;
+	lo->lo_backing_virt_file = NULL;
 	lo->lo_flags = 0;
 	set_capacity(lo->lo_disk, 0);
 	invalidate_bdev(bdev);
@@ -938,6 +986,8 @@ out_clr:
 	lo->lo_state = Lo_unbound;
  out_putf:
 	fput(file);
+	if (virt_file)
+		fput(virt_file);
  out:
 	/* This is safe: open() is still holding a reference. */
 	module_put(THIS_MODULE);
@@ -984,6 +1034,7 @@ loop_init_xfer(struct loop_device *lo, s
 static int loop_clr_fd(struct loop_device *lo)
 {
 	struct file *filp = lo->lo_backing_file;
+	struct file *virt_filp = lo->lo_backing_virt_file;
 	gfp_t gfp = lo->old_gfp_mask;
 	struct block_device *bdev = lo->lo_device;
 
@@ -1017,6 +1068,7 @@ static int loop_clr_fd(struct loop_devic
 
 	spin_lock_irq(&lo->lo_lock);
 	lo->lo_backing_file = NULL;
+	lo->lo_backing_virt_file = NULL;
 	spin_unlock_irq(&lo->lo_lock);
 
 	loop_release_xfer(lo);
@@ -1059,6 +1111,8 @@ static int loop_clr_fd(struct loop_devic
 	 * bd_mutex which is usually taken before lo_ctl_mutex.
 	 */
 	fput(filp);
+	if (virt_filp)
+		fput(virt_filp);
 	return 0;
 }
 
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/drivers/block/loop.h linux-3.12.6/drivers/block/loop.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/drivers/block/loop.h	2014-01-01 09:01:22.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/drivers/block/loop.h	2014-01-01 22:02:58.000000000 -0200
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ struct loop_device {
 	int		(*ioctl)(struct loop_device *, int cmd, 
 				 unsigned long arg); 
 
-	struct file *	lo_backing_file;
+	struct file *	lo_backing_file, *lo_backing_virt_file;
 	struct block_device *lo_device;
 	unsigned	lo_blocksize;
 	void		*key_data; 
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/aufs.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/aufs.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/aufs.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/aufs.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * all header files
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_H__
+#define __AUFS_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#define AuStub(type, name, body, ...) \
+	static inline type name(__VA_ARGS__) { body; }
+
+#define AuStubVoid(name, ...) \
+	AuStub(void, name, , __VA_ARGS__)
+#define AuStubInt0(name, ...) \
+	AuStub(int, name, return 0, __VA_ARGS__)
+
+#include "debug.h"
+
+#include "branch.h"
+#include "cpup.h"
+#include "dcsub.h"
+#include "dbgaufs.h"
+#include "dentry.h"
+#include "dir.h"
+#include "dynop.h"
+#include "file.h"
+#include "fstype.h"
+#include "inode.h"
+#include "loop.h"
+#include "module.h"
+#include "opts.h"
+#include "rwsem.h"
+#include "spl.h"
+#include "super.h"
+#include "sysaufs.h"
+#include "vfsub.h"
+#include "whout.h"
+#include "wkq.h"
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/branch.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/branch.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/branch.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/branch.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1211 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * branch management
+ */
+
+#include <linux/compat.h>
+#include <linux/statfs.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/*
+ * free a single branch
+ */
+
+/* prohibit rmdir to the root of the branch */
+/* todo: another new flag? */
+static void au_br_dflags_force(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	h_dentry = au_br_dentry(br);
+	spin_lock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+	br->br_dflags = h_dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_MOUNTED;
+	h_dentry->d_flags |= DCACHE_MOUNTED;
+	spin_unlock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+}
+
+/* restore its d_flags */
+static void au_br_dflags_restore(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	if (br->br_dflags)
+		return;
+
+	h_dentry = au_br_dentry(br);
+	spin_lock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+	h_dentry->d_flags &= ~DCACHE_MOUNTED;
+	spin_unlock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_free(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+	struct au_dykey **key;
+
+	au_hnotify_fin_br(br);
+
+	if (br->br_xino.xi_file)
+		fput(br->br_xino.xi_file);
+	mutex_destroy(&br->br_xino.xi_nondir_mtx);
+
+	AuDebugOn(atomic_read(&br->br_count));
+
+	wbr = br->br_wbr;
+	if (wbr) {
+		for (i = 0; i < AuBrWh_Last; i++)
+			dput(wbr->wbr_wh[i]);
+		AuDebugOn(atomic_read(&wbr->wbr_wh_running));
+		AuRwDestroy(&wbr->wbr_wh_rwsem);
+	}
+
+	key = br->br_dykey;
+	for (i = 0; i < AuBrDynOp; i++, key++)
+		if (*key)
+			au_dy_put(*key);
+		else
+			break;
+
+	au_br_dflags_restore(br);
+
+	/* recursive lock, s_umount of branch's */
+	lockdep_off();
+	path_put(&br->br_path);
+	lockdep_on();
+	kfree(wbr);
+	kfree(br);
+}
+
+/*
+ * frees all branches
+ */
+void au_br_free(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bmax;
+	struct au_branch **br;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	bmax = sbinfo->si_bend + 1;
+	br = sbinfo->si_branch;
+	while (bmax--)
+		au_br_do_free(*br++);
+}
+
+/*
+ * find the index of a branch which is specified by @br_id.
+ */
+int au_br_index(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t br_id)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (au_sbr_id(sb, bindex) == br_id)
+			return bindex;
+	return -1;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * add a branch
+ */
+
+static int test_overlap(struct super_block *sb, struct dentry *h_adding,
+			struct dentry *h_root)
+{
+	if (unlikely(h_adding == h_root
+		     || au_test_loopback_overlap(sb, h_adding)))
+		return 1;
+	if (h_adding->d_sb != h_root->d_sb)
+		return 0;
+	return au_test_subdir(h_adding, h_root)
+		|| au_test_subdir(h_root, h_adding);
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns a newly allocated branch. @new_nbranch is a number of branches
+ * after adding a branch.
+ */
+static struct au_branch *au_br_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int new_nbranch,
+				     int perm)
+{
+	struct au_branch *add_branch;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	int err;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	add_branch = kmalloc(sizeof(*add_branch), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!add_branch))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_hnotify_init_br(add_branch, perm);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_br;
+
+	add_branch->br_wbr = NULL;
+	if (au_br_writable(perm)) {
+		/* may be freed separately at changing the branch permission */
+		add_branch->br_wbr = kmalloc(sizeof(*add_branch->br_wbr),
+					     GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(!add_branch->br_wbr))
+			goto out_hnotify;
+	}
+
+	err = au_sbr_realloc(au_sbi(sb), new_nbranch);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_di_realloc(au_di(root), new_nbranch);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_ii_realloc(au_ii(root->d_inode), new_nbranch);
+	if (!err)
+		return add_branch; /* success */
+
+	kfree(add_branch->br_wbr);
+
+out_hnotify:
+	au_hnotify_fin_br(add_branch);
+out_br:
+	kfree(add_branch);
+out:
+	return ERR_PTR(err);
+}
+
+/*
+ * test if the branch permission is legal or not.
+ */
+static int test_br(struct inode *inode, int brperm, char *path)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = (au_br_writable(brperm) && IS_RDONLY(inode));
+	if (!err)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	pr_err("write permission for readonly mount or inode, %s\n", path);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns:
+ * 0: success, the caller will add it
+ * plus: success, it is already unified, the caller should ignore it
+ * minus: error
+ */
+static int test_add(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_add *add, int remount)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	if (unlikely(bend >= 0
+		     && au_find_dbindex(root, add->path.dentry) >= 0)) {
+		err = 1;
+		if (!remount) {
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			pr_err("%s duplicated\n", add->pathname);
+		}
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -ENOSPC; /* -E2BIG; */
+	if (unlikely(AUFS_BRANCH_MAX <= add->bindex
+		     || AUFS_BRANCH_MAX - 1 <= bend)) {
+		pr_err("number of branches exceeded %s\n", add->pathname);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -EDOM;
+	if (unlikely(add->bindex < 0 || bend + 1 < add->bindex)) {
+		pr_err("bad index %d\n", add->bindex);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	inode = add->path.dentry->d_inode;
+	err = -ENOENT;
+	if (unlikely(!inode->i_nlink)) {
+		pr_err("no existence %s\n", add->pathname);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (unlikely(inode->i_sb == sb)) {
+		pr_err("%s must be outside\n", add->pathname);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (unlikely(au_test_fs_unsuppoted(inode->i_sb))) {
+		pr_err("unsupported filesystem, %s (%s)\n",
+		       add->pathname, au_sbtype(inode->i_sb));
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = test_br(add->path.dentry->d_inode, add->perm, add->pathname);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (bend < 0)
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (unlikely(test_overlap(sb, add->path.dentry,
+					  au_h_dptr(root, bindex)))) {
+			pr_err("%s is overlapped\n", add->pathname);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), WARN_PERM)) {
+		h_inode = au_h_dptr(root, 0)->d_inode;
+		if ((h_inode->i_mode & S_IALLUGO) != (inode->i_mode & S_IALLUGO)
+		    || !uid_eq(h_inode->i_uid, inode->i_uid)
+		    || !gid_eq(h_inode->i_gid, inode->i_gid))
+			pr_warn("uid/gid/perm %s %u/%u/0%o, %u/%u/0%o\n",
+				add->pathname,
+				i_uid_read(inode), i_gid_read(inode),
+				(inode->i_mode & S_IALLUGO),
+				i_uid_read(h_inode), i_gid_read(h_inode),
+				(h_inode->i_mode & S_IALLUGO));
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * initialize or clean the whiteouts for an adding branch
+ */
+static int au_br_init_wh(struct super_block *sb, struct au_branch *br,
+			 int new_perm)
+{
+	int err, old_perm;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct mutex *h_mtx;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+	struct au_hinode *hdir;
+
+	err = vfsub_mnt_want_write(au_br_mnt(br));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	wbr = br->br_wbr;
+	old_perm = br->br_perm;
+	br->br_perm = new_perm;
+	hdir = NULL;
+	h_mtx = NULL;
+	bindex = au_br_index(sb, br->br_id);
+	if (0 <= bindex) {
+		hdir = au_hi(sb->s_root->d_inode, bindex);
+		au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(hdir, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	} else {
+		h_mtx = &au_br_dentry(br)->d_inode->i_mutex;
+		mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	}
+	if (!wbr)
+		err = au_wh_init(br, sb);
+	else {
+		wbr_wh_write_lock(wbr);
+		err = au_wh_init(br, sb);
+		wbr_wh_write_unlock(wbr);
+	}
+	if (hdir)
+		au_hn_imtx_unlock(hdir);
+	else
+		mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+	vfsub_mnt_drop_write(au_br_mnt(br));
+	br->br_perm = old_perm;
+
+	if (!err && wbr && !au_br_writable(new_perm)) {
+		kfree(wbr);
+		br->br_wbr = NULL;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_init(struct au_branch *br, struct super_block *sb,
+		       int perm)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct kstatfs kst;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+
+	wbr = br->br_wbr;
+	au_rw_init(&wbr->wbr_wh_rwsem);
+	memset(wbr->wbr_wh, 0, sizeof(wbr->wbr_wh));
+	atomic_set(&wbr->wbr_wh_running, 0);
+	wbr->wbr_bytes = 0;
+
+	/*
+	 * a limit for rmdir/rename a dir
+	 * cf. AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN in include/uapi/linux/aufs_type.h
+	 */
+	err = vfs_statfs(&br->br_path, &kst);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (kst.f_namelen >= NAME_MAX)
+		err = au_br_init_wh(sb, br, perm);
+	else
+		pr_err("%.*s(%s), unsupported namelen %ld\n",
+		       AuDLNPair(au_br_dentry(br)),
+		       au_sbtype(au_br_dentry(br)->d_sb), kst.f_namelen);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* intialize a new branch */
+static int au_br_init(struct au_branch *br, struct super_block *sb,
+		      struct au_opt_add *add)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	memset(&br->br_xino, 0, sizeof(br->br_xino));
+	mutex_init(&br->br_xino.xi_nondir_mtx);
+	br->br_perm = add->perm;
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(br->br_dflags)
+		     != sizeof(br->br_path.dentry->d_flags));
+	br->br_dflags = DCACHE_MOUNTED;
+	br->br_path = add->path; /* set first, path_get() later */
+	spin_lock_init(&br->br_dykey_lock);
+	memset(br->br_dykey, 0, sizeof(br->br_dykey));
+	atomic_set(&br->br_count, 0);
+	atomic_set(&br->br_xino_running, 0);
+	br->br_id = au_new_br_id(sb);
+	AuDebugOn(br->br_id < 0);
+
+	if (au_br_writable(add->perm)) {
+		err = au_wbr_init(br, sb, add->perm);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_err;
+	}
+
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO)) {
+		err = au_xino_br(sb, br, add->path.dentry->d_inode->i_ino,
+				 au_sbr(sb, 0)->br_xino.xi_file, /*do_test*/1);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			AuDebugOn(br->br_xino.xi_file);
+			goto out_err;
+		}
+	}
+
+	sysaufs_br_init(br);
+	path_get(&br->br_path);
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_err:
+	memset(&br->br_path, 0, sizeof(br->br_path));
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_add_brp(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     struct au_branch *br, aufs_bindex_t bend,
+			     aufs_bindex_t amount)
+{
+	struct au_branch **brp;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	brp = sbinfo->si_branch + bindex;
+	memmove(brp + 1, brp, sizeof(*brp) * amount);
+	*brp = br;
+	sbinfo->si_bend++;
+	if (unlikely(bend < 0))
+		sbinfo->si_bend = 0;
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_add_hdp(struct au_dinfo *dinfo, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     aufs_bindex_t bend, aufs_bindex_t amount)
+{
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&dinfo->di_rwsem);
+
+	hdp = dinfo->di_hdentry + bindex;
+	memmove(hdp + 1, hdp, sizeof(*hdp) * amount);
+	au_h_dentry_init(hdp);
+	dinfo->di_bend++;
+	if (unlikely(bend < 0))
+		dinfo->di_bstart = 0;
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_add_hip(struct au_iinfo *iinfo, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     aufs_bindex_t bend, aufs_bindex_t amount)
+{
+	struct au_hinode *hip;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&iinfo->ii_rwsem);
+
+	hip = iinfo->ii_hinode + bindex;
+	memmove(hip + 1, hip, sizeof(*hip) * amount);
+	hip->hi_inode = NULL;
+	au_hn_init(hip);
+	iinfo->ii_bend++;
+	if (unlikely(bend < 0))
+		iinfo->ii_bstart = 0;
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_add(struct super_block *sb, struct au_branch *br,
+			 aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct dentry *root, *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *root_inode;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, amount;
+
+	au_br_dflags_force(br);
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	root_inode = root->d_inode;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	amount = bend + 1 - bindex;
+	h_dentry = au_br_dentry(br);
+	au_sbilist_lock();
+	au_br_do_add_brp(au_sbi(sb), bindex, br, bend, amount);
+	au_br_do_add_hdp(au_di(root), bindex, bend, amount);
+	au_br_do_add_hip(au_ii(root_inode), bindex, bend, amount);
+	au_set_h_dptr(root, bindex, dget(h_dentry));
+	au_set_h_iptr(root_inode, bindex, au_igrab(h_dentry->d_inode),
+		      /*flags*/0);
+	au_sbilist_unlock();
+}
+
+int au_br_add(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_add *add, int remount)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, add_bindex;
+	struct dentry *root, *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *root_inode;
+	struct au_branch *add_branch;
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	root_inode = root->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(root_inode);
+	err = test_add(sb, add, remount);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+	if (err) {
+		err = 0;
+		goto out; /* success */
+	}
+
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	add_branch = au_br_alloc(sb, bend + 2, add->perm);
+	err = PTR_ERR(add_branch);
+	if (IS_ERR(add_branch))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_br_init(add_branch, sb, add);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		au_br_do_free(add_branch);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	add_bindex = add->bindex;
+	if (!remount)
+		au_br_do_add(sb, add_branch, add_bindex);
+	else {
+		sysaufs_brs_del(sb, add_bindex);
+		au_br_do_add(sb, add_branch, add_bindex);
+		sysaufs_brs_add(sb, add_bindex);
+	}
+
+	h_dentry = add->path.dentry;
+	if (!add_bindex) {
+		au_cpup_attr_all(root_inode, /*force*/1);
+		sb->s_maxbytes = h_dentry->d_sb->s_maxbytes;
+	} else
+		au_add_nlink(root_inode, h_dentry->d_inode);
+
+	/*
+	 * this test/set prevents aufs from handling unnecesary notify events
+	 * of xino files, in case of re-adding a writable branch which was
+	 * once detached from aufs.
+	 */
+	if (au_xino_brid(sb) < 0
+	    && au_br_writable(add_branch->br_perm)
+	    && !au_test_fs_bad_xino(h_dentry->d_sb)
+	    && add_branch->br_xino.xi_file
+	    && add_branch->br_xino.xi_file->f_dentry->d_parent == h_dentry)
+		au_xino_brid_set(sb, add_branch->br_id);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * delete a branch
+ */
+
+/* to show the line number, do not make it inlined function */
+#define AuVerbose(do_info, fmt, ...) do { \
+	if (do_info) \
+		pr_info(fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__); \
+} while (0)
+
+static int au_test_ibusy(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bstart,
+			 aufs_bindex_t bend)
+{
+	return (inode && !S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) || bstart == bend;
+}
+
+static int au_test_dbusy(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bstart,
+			 aufs_bindex_t bend)
+{
+	return au_test_ibusy(dentry->d_inode, bstart, bend);
+}
+
+/*
+ * test if the branch is deletable or not.
+ */
+static int test_dentry_busy(struct dentry *root, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			    unsigned int sigen, const unsigned int verbose)
+{
+	int err, i, j, ndentry;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart, bend;
+	struct au_dcsub_pages dpages;
+	struct au_dpage *dpage;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	err = au_dpages_init(&dpages, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_dcsub_pages(&dpages, root, NULL, NULL);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_dpages;
+
+	for (i = 0; !err && i < dpages.ndpage; i++) {
+		dpage = dpages.dpages + i;
+		ndentry = dpage->ndentry;
+		for (j = 0; !err && j < ndentry; j++) {
+			d = dpage->dentries[j];
+			AuDebugOn(!d_count(d));
+			if (!au_digen_test(d, sigen)) {
+				di_read_lock_child(d, AuLock_IR);
+				if (unlikely(au_dbrange_test(d))) {
+					di_read_unlock(d, AuLock_IR);
+					continue;
+				}
+			} else {
+				di_write_lock_child(d);
+				if (unlikely(au_dbrange_test(d))) {
+					di_write_unlock(d);
+					continue;
+				}
+				err = au_reval_dpath(d, sigen);
+				if (!err)
+					di_downgrade_lock(d, AuLock_IR);
+				else {
+					di_write_unlock(d);
+					break;
+				}
+			}
+
+			/* AuDbgDentry(d); */
+			bstart = au_dbstart(d);
+			bend = au_dbend(d);
+			if (bstart <= bindex
+			    && bindex <= bend
+			    && au_h_dptr(d, bindex)
+			    && au_test_dbusy(d, bstart, bend)) {
+				err = -EBUSY;
+				AuVerbose(verbose, "busy %.*s\n", AuDLNPair(d));
+				AuDbgDentry(d);
+			}
+			di_read_unlock(d, AuLock_IR);
+		}
+	}
+
+out_dpages:
+	au_dpages_free(&dpages);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int test_inode_busy(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			   unsigned int sigen, const unsigned int verbose)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long long max, ull;
+	struct inode *i, **array;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart, bend;
+
+	array = au_iarray_alloc(sb, &max);
+	err = PTR_ERR(array);
+	if (IS_ERR(array))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", bindex);
+	for (ull = 0; !err && ull < max; ull++) {
+		i = array[ull];
+		if (i->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO)
+			continue;
+
+		/* AuDbgInode(i); */
+		if (au_iigen(i, NULL) == sigen)
+			ii_read_lock_child(i);
+		else {
+			ii_write_lock_child(i);
+			err = au_refresh_hinode_self(i);
+			au_iigen_dec(i);
+			if (!err)
+				ii_downgrade_lock(i);
+			else {
+				ii_write_unlock(i);
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+
+		bstart = au_ibstart(i);
+		bend = au_ibend(i);
+		if (bstart <= bindex
+		    && bindex <= bend
+		    && au_h_iptr(i, bindex)
+		    && au_test_ibusy(i, bstart, bend)) {
+			err = -EBUSY;
+			AuVerbose(verbose, "busy i%lu\n", i->i_ino);
+			AuDbgInode(i);
+		}
+		ii_read_unlock(i);
+	}
+	au_iarray_free(array, max);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int test_children_busy(struct dentry *root, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			      const unsigned int verbose)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+
+	sigen = au_sigen(root->d_sb);
+	DiMustNoWaiters(root);
+	IiMustNoWaiters(root->d_inode);
+	di_write_unlock(root);
+	err = test_dentry_busy(root, bindex, sigen, verbose);
+	if (!err)
+		err = test_inode_busy(root->d_sb, bindex, sigen, verbose);
+	di_write_lock_child(root); /* aufs_write_lock() calls ..._child() */
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_del_brp(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo,
+			     const aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     const aufs_bindex_t bend)
+{
+	struct au_branch **brp, **p;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	brp = sbinfo->si_branch + bindex;
+	if (bindex < bend)
+		memmove(brp, brp + 1, sizeof(*brp) * (bend - bindex));
+	sbinfo->si_branch[0 + bend] = NULL;
+	sbinfo->si_bend--;
+
+	p = krealloc(sbinfo->si_branch, sizeof(*p) * bend, AuGFP_SBILIST);
+	if (p)
+		sbinfo->si_branch = p;
+	/* harmless error */
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_del_hdp(struct au_dinfo *dinfo, const aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     const aufs_bindex_t bend)
+{
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp, *p;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&dinfo->di_rwsem);
+
+	hdp = dinfo->di_hdentry;
+	if (bindex < bend)
+		memmove(hdp + bindex, hdp + bindex + 1,
+			sizeof(*hdp) * (bend - bindex));
+	hdp[0 + bend].hd_dentry = NULL;
+	dinfo->di_bend--;
+
+	p = krealloc(hdp, sizeof(*p) * bend, AuGFP_SBILIST);
+	if (p)
+		dinfo->di_hdentry = p;
+	/* harmless error */
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_del_hip(struct au_iinfo *iinfo, const aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     const aufs_bindex_t bend)
+{
+	struct au_hinode *hip, *p;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&iinfo->ii_rwsem);
+
+	hip = iinfo->ii_hinode + bindex;
+	if (bindex < bend)
+		memmove(hip, hip + 1, sizeof(*hip) * (bend - bindex));
+	iinfo->ii_hinode[0 + bend].hi_inode = NULL;
+	au_hn_init(iinfo->ii_hinode + bend);
+	iinfo->ii_bend--;
+
+	p = krealloc(iinfo->ii_hinode, sizeof(*p) * bend, AuGFP_SBILIST);
+	if (p)
+		iinfo->ii_hinode = p;
+	/* harmless error */
+}
+
+static void au_br_do_del(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			 struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct dentry *root, *h_root;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+	struct au_hinode *hinode;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	inode = root->d_inode;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	bend = sbinfo->si_bend;
+
+	h_root = au_h_dptr(root, bindex);
+	hinode = au_hi(inode, bindex);
+	h_inode = au_igrab(hinode->hi_inode);
+	au_hiput(hinode);
+
+	au_sbilist_lock();
+	au_br_do_del_brp(sbinfo, bindex, bend);
+	au_br_do_del_hdp(au_di(root), bindex, bend);
+	au_br_do_del_hip(au_ii(inode), bindex, bend);
+	au_sbilist_unlock();
+
+	dput(h_root);
+	iput(h_inode);
+	au_br_do_free(br);
+}
+
+int au_br_del(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_del *del, int remount)
+{
+	int err, rerr, i;
+	unsigned int mnt_flags;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend, br_id;
+	unsigned char do_wh, verbose;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+
+	err = 0;
+	bindex = au_find_dbindex(sb->s_root, del->h_path.dentry);
+	if (bindex < 0) {
+		if (remount)
+			goto out; /* success */
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		pr_err("%s no such branch\n", del->pathname);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	AuDbg("bindex b%d\n", bindex);
+
+	err = -EBUSY;
+	mnt_flags = au_mntflags(sb);
+	verbose = !!au_opt_test(mnt_flags, VERBOSE);
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	if (unlikely(!bend)) {
+		AuVerbose(verbose, "no more branches left\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	AuDebugOn(!path_equal(&br->br_path, &del->h_path));
+	i = atomic_read(&br->br_count);
+	if (unlikely(i)) {
+		AuVerbose(verbose, "%d file(s) opened\n", i);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	wbr = br->br_wbr;
+	do_wh = wbr && (wbr->wbr_whbase || wbr->wbr_plink || wbr->wbr_orph);
+	if (do_wh) {
+		/* instead of WbrWhMustWriteLock(wbr) */
+		SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+		for (i = 0; i < AuBrWh_Last; i++) {
+			dput(wbr->wbr_wh[i]);
+			wbr->wbr_wh[i] = NULL;
+		}
+	}
+
+	err = test_children_busy(sb->s_root, bindex, verbose);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		if (do_wh)
+			goto out_wh;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	br_id = br->br_id;
+	if (!remount)
+		au_br_do_del(sb, bindex, br);
+	else {
+		sysaufs_brs_del(sb, bindex);
+		au_br_do_del(sb, bindex, br);
+		sysaufs_brs_add(sb, bindex);
+	}
+
+	if (!bindex) {
+		au_cpup_attr_all(sb->s_root->d_inode, /*force*/1);
+		sb->s_maxbytes = au_sbr_sb(sb, 0)->s_maxbytes;
+	} else
+		au_sub_nlink(sb->s_root->d_inode, del->h_path.dentry->d_inode);
+	if (au_opt_test(mnt_flags, PLINK))
+		au_plink_half_refresh(sb, br_id);
+
+	if (au_xino_brid(sb) == br_id)
+		au_xino_brid_set(sb, -1);
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_wh:
+	/* revert */
+	rerr = au_br_init_wh(sb, br, br->br_perm);
+	if (rerr)
+		pr_warn("failed re-creating base whiteout, %s. (%d)\n",
+			del->pathname, rerr);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_ibusy(struct super_block *sb, struct aufs_ibusy __user *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart, bend;
+	struct aufs_ibusy ibusy;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+
+	err = -EPERM;
+	if (unlikely(!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = copy_from_user(&ibusy, arg, sizeof(ibusy));
+	if (!err)
+		err = !access_ok(VERIFY_WRITE, &arg->h_ino, sizeof(arg->h_ino));
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	if (unlikely(ibusy.bindex < 0 || ibusy.bindex > au_sbend(sb)))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	err = 0;
+	ibusy.h_ino = 0; /* invalid */
+	inode = ilookup(sb, ibusy.ino);
+	if (!inode
+	    || inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO
+	    || is_bad_inode(inode))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	ii_read_lock_child(inode);
+	bstart = au_ibstart(inode);
+	bend = au_ibend(inode);
+	if (bstart <= ibusy.bindex && ibusy.bindex <= bend) {
+		h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, ibusy.bindex);
+		if (h_inode && au_test_ibusy(inode, bstart, bend))
+			ibusy.h_ino = h_inode->i_ino;
+	}
+	ii_read_unlock(inode);
+	iput(inode);
+
+out_unlock:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	if (!err) {
+		err = __put_user(ibusy.h_ino, &arg->h_ino);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			err = -EFAULT;
+			AuTraceErr(err);
+		}
+	}
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+long au_ibusy_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	return au_ibusy(file->f_dentry->d_sb, (void __user *)arg);
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+long au_ibusy_compat_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	return au_ibusy(file->f_dentry->d_sb, compat_ptr(arg));
+}
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * change a branch permission
+ */
+
+static void au_warn_ima(void)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_IMA
+	/* since it doesn't support mark_files_ro() */
+	AuWarn1("RW -> RO makes IMA to produce wrong message\n");
+#endif
+}
+
+static int do_need_sigen_inc(int a, int b)
+{
+	return au_br_whable(a) && !au_br_whable(b);
+}
+
+static int need_sigen_inc(int old, int new)
+{
+	return do_need_sigen_inc(old, new)
+		|| do_need_sigen_inc(new, old);
+}
+
+static unsigned long long au_farray_cb(void *a,
+				       unsigned long long max __maybe_unused,
+				       void *arg)
+{
+	unsigned long long n;
+	struct file **p, *f;
+	struct super_block *sb = arg;
+
+	n = 0;
+	p = a;
+	lg_global_lock(&files_lglock);
+	do_file_list_for_each_entry(sb, f) {
+		if (au_fi(f)
+		    && file_count(f)
+		    && !special_file(file_inode(f)->i_mode)) {
+			get_file(f);
+			*p++ = f;
+			n++;
+			AuDebugOn(n > max);
+		}
+	} while_file_list_for_each_entry;
+	lg_global_unlock(&files_lglock);
+
+	return n;
+}
+
+static struct file **au_farray_alloc(struct super_block *sb,
+				     unsigned long long *max)
+{
+	*max = atomic_long_read(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nfiles);
+	return au_array_alloc(max, au_farray_cb, sb);
+}
+
+static void au_farray_free(struct file **a, unsigned long long max)
+{
+	unsigned long long ull;
+
+	for (ull = 0; ull < max; ull++)
+		if (a[ull])
+			fput(a[ull]);
+	au_array_free(a);
+}
+
+static int au_br_mod_files_ro(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	int err, do_warn;
+	unsigned int mnt_flags;
+	unsigned long long ull, max;
+	aufs_bindex_t br_id;
+	unsigned char verbose;
+	struct file *file, *hf, **array;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct au_hfile *hfile;
+
+	mnt_flags = au_mntflags(sb);
+	verbose = !!au_opt_test(mnt_flags, VERBOSE);
+
+	array = au_farray_alloc(sb, &max);
+	err = PTR_ERR(array);
+	if (IS_ERR(array))
+		goto out;
+
+	do_warn = 0;
+	br_id = au_sbr_id(sb, bindex);
+	for (ull = 0; ull < max; ull++) {
+		file = array[ull];
+
+		/* AuDbg("%.*s\n", AuDLNPair(file->f_dentry)); */
+		fi_read_lock(file);
+		if (unlikely(au_test_mmapped(file))) {
+			err = -EBUSY;
+			AuVerbose(verbose, "mmapped %.*s\n",
+				  AuDLNPair(file->f_dentry));
+			AuDbgFile(file);
+			FiMustNoWaiters(file);
+			fi_read_unlock(file);
+			goto out_array;
+		}
+
+		inode = file_inode(file);
+		hfile = &au_fi(file)->fi_htop;
+		hf = hfile->hf_file;
+		if (!S_ISREG(inode->i_mode)
+		    || !(file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE)
+		    || hfile->hf_br->br_id != br_id
+		    || !(hf->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE))
+			array[ull] = NULL;
+		else {
+			do_warn = 1;
+			get_file(file);
+		}
+
+		FiMustNoWaiters(file);
+		fi_read_unlock(file);
+		fput(file);
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (do_warn)
+		au_warn_ima();
+
+	for (ull = 0; ull < max; ull++) {
+		file = array[ull];
+		if (!file)
+			continue;
+
+		/* todo: already flushed? */
+		/* cf. fs/super.c:mark_files_ro() */
+		/* fi_read_lock(file); */
+		hfile = &au_fi(file)->fi_htop;
+		hf = hfile->hf_file;
+		/* fi_read_unlock(file); */
+		spin_lock(&hf->f_lock);
+		hf->f_mode &= ~FMODE_WRITE;
+		spin_unlock(&hf->f_lock);
+		if (!file_check_writeable(hf)) {
+			__mnt_drop_write(hf->f_path.mnt);
+			file_release_write(hf);
+		}
+	}
+
+out_array:
+	au_farray_free(array, max);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_br_mod(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_mod *mod, int remount,
+	      int *do_refresh)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	bindex = au_find_dbindex(root, mod->h_root);
+	if (bindex < 0) {
+		if (remount)
+			return 0; /* success */
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		pr_err("%s no such branch\n", mod->path);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	AuDbg("bindex b%d\n", bindex);
+
+	err = test_br(mod->h_root->d_inode, mod->perm, mod->path);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	AuDebugOn(mod->h_root != au_br_dentry(br));
+	if (br->br_perm == mod->perm)
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	if (au_br_writable(br->br_perm)) {
+		/* remove whiteout base */
+		err = au_br_init_wh(sb, br, mod->perm);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+
+		if (!au_br_writable(mod->perm)) {
+			/* rw --> ro, file might be mmapped */
+			DiMustNoWaiters(root);
+			IiMustNoWaiters(root->d_inode);
+			di_write_unlock(root);
+			err = au_br_mod_files_ro(sb, bindex);
+			/* aufs_write_lock() calls ..._child() */
+			di_write_lock_child(root);
+
+			if (unlikely(err)) {
+				rerr = -ENOMEM;
+				br->br_wbr = kmalloc(sizeof(*br->br_wbr),
+						     GFP_NOFS);
+				if (br->br_wbr)
+					rerr = au_wbr_init(br, sb, br->br_perm);
+				if (unlikely(rerr)) {
+					AuIOErr("nested error %d (%d)\n",
+						rerr, err);
+					br->br_perm = mod->perm;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	} else if (au_br_writable(mod->perm)) {
+		/* ro --> rw */
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		br->br_wbr = kmalloc(sizeof(*br->br_wbr), GFP_NOFS);
+		if (br->br_wbr) {
+			err = au_wbr_init(br, sb, mod->perm);
+			if (unlikely(err)) {
+				kfree(br->br_wbr);
+				br->br_wbr = NULL;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!err) {
+		if ((br->br_perm & AuBrAttr_UNPIN)
+		    && !(mod->perm & AuBrAttr_UNPIN))
+			au_br_dflags_force(br);
+		else if (!(br->br_perm & AuBrAttr_UNPIN)
+			 && (mod->perm & AuBrAttr_UNPIN))
+			au_br_dflags_restore(br);
+		*do_refresh |= need_sigen_inc(br->br_perm, mod->perm);
+		br->br_perm = mod->perm;
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/branch.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/branch.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/branch.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/branch.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,264 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * branch filesystems and xino for them
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_BRANCH_H__
+#define __AUFS_BRANCH_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/mount.h>
+#include "dynop.h"
+#include "rwsem.h"
+#include "super.h"
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* a xino file */
+struct au_xino_file {
+	struct file		*xi_file;
+	struct mutex		xi_nondir_mtx;
+
+	/* todo: make xino files an array to support huge inode number */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
+	struct dentry		 *xi_dbgaufs;
+#endif
+};
+
+/* members for writable branch only */
+enum {AuBrWh_BASE, AuBrWh_PLINK, AuBrWh_ORPH, AuBrWh_Last};
+struct au_wbr {
+	struct au_rwsem		wbr_wh_rwsem;
+	struct dentry		*wbr_wh[AuBrWh_Last];
+	atomic_t		wbr_wh_running;
+#define wbr_whbase		wbr_wh[AuBrWh_BASE]	/* whiteout base */
+#define wbr_plink		wbr_wh[AuBrWh_PLINK]	/* pseudo-link dir */
+#define wbr_orph		wbr_wh[AuBrWh_ORPH]	/* dir for orphans */
+
+	/* mfs mode */
+	unsigned long long	wbr_bytes;
+};
+
+/* ext2 has 3 types of operations at least, ext3 has 4 */
+#define AuBrDynOp (AuDyLast * 4)
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HFSNOTIFY
+/* support for asynchronous destruction */
+struct au_br_hfsnotify {
+	struct fsnotify_group	*hfsn_group;
+};
+#endif
+
+/* sysfs entries */
+struct au_brsysfs {
+	char			name[16];
+	struct attribute	attr;
+};
+
+enum {
+	AuBrSysfs_BR,
+	AuBrSysfs_BRID,
+	AuBrSysfs_Last
+};
+
+/* protected by superblock rwsem */
+struct au_branch {
+	struct au_xino_file	br_xino;
+
+	aufs_bindex_t		br_id;
+
+	int			br_perm;
+	unsigned int		br_dflags;
+	struct path		br_path;
+	spinlock_t		br_dykey_lock;
+	struct au_dykey		*br_dykey[AuBrDynOp];
+	atomic_t		br_count;
+
+	struct au_wbr		*br_wbr;
+
+	/* xino truncation */
+	atomic_t		br_xino_running;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HFSNOTIFY
+	struct au_br_hfsnotify	*br_hfsn;
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
+	/* entries under sysfs per mount-point */
+	struct au_brsysfs	br_sysfs[AuBrSysfs_Last];
+#endif
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline struct vfsmount *au_br_mnt(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	return br->br_path.mnt;
+}
+
+static inline struct dentry *au_br_dentry(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	return br->br_path.dentry;
+}
+
+static inline struct super_block *au_br_sb(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	return au_br_mnt(br)->mnt_sb;
+}
+
+/* branch permissions and attributes */
+#define AuBrPerm_RW		1		/* writable, hardlinkable wh */
+#define AuBrPerm_RO		(1 << 1)	/* readonly */
+#define AuBrPerm_RR		(1 << 2)	/* natively readonly */
+#define AuBrPerm_Mask		(AuBrPerm_RW | AuBrPerm_RO | AuBrPerm_RR)
+
+#define AuBrRAttr_WH		(1 << 3)	/* whiteout-able */
+
+#define AuBrWAttr_NoLinkWH	(1 << 4)	/* un-hardlinkable whiteouts */
+
+#define AuBrAttr_UNPIN		(1 << 5)	/* rename-able top dir of
+						   branch */
+
+static inline int au_br_writable(int brperm)
+{
+	return brperm & AuBrPerm_RW;
+}
+
+static inline int au_br_whable(int brperm)
+{
+	return brperm & (AuBrPerm_RW | AuBrRAttr_WH);
+}
+
+static inline int au_br_wh_linkable(int brperm)
+{
+	return !(brperm & AuBrWAttr_NoLinkWH);
+}
+
+static inline int au_br_rdonly(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	return ((au_br_sb(br)->s_flags & MS_RDONLY)
+		|| !au_br_writable(br->br_perm))
+		? -EROFS : 0;
+}
+
+static inline int au_br_hnotifyable(int brperm __maybe_unused)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+	return !(brperm & AuBrPerm_RR);
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* branch.c */
+struct au_sbinfo;
+void au_br_free(struct au_sbinfo *sinfo);
+int au_br_index(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t br_id);
+struct au_opt_add;
+int au_br_add(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_add *add, int remount);
+struct au_opt_del;
+int au_br_del(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_del *del, int remount);
+long au_ibusy_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned long arg);
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+long au_ibusy_compat_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned long arg);
+#endif
+struct au_opt_mod;
+int au_br_mod(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_mod *mod, int remount,
+	      int *do_refresh);
+
+/* xino.c */
+static const loff_t au_loff_max = LLONG_MAX;
+
+int au_xib_trunc(struct super_block *sb);
+ssize_t xino_fread(au_readf_t func, struct file *file, void *buf, size_t size,
+		   loff_t *pos);
+ssize_t xino_fwrite(au_writef_t func, struct file *file, void *buf, size_t size,
+		    loff_t *pos);
+struct file *au_xino_create2(struct file *base_file, struct file *copy_src);
+struct file *au_xino_create(struct super_block *sb, char *fname, int silent);
+ino_t au_xino_new_ino(struct super_block *sb);
+void au_xino_delete_inode(struct inode *inode, const int unlinked);
+int au_xino_write(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex, ino_t h_ino,
+		  ino_t ino);
+int au_xino_read(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex, ino_t h_ino,
+		 ino_t *ino);
+int au_xino_br(struct super_block *sb, struct au_branch *br, ino_t hino,
+	       struct file *base_file, int do_test);
+int au_xino_trunc(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+
+struct au_opt_xino;
+int au_xino_set(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_xino *xino, int remount);
+void au_xino_clr(struct super_block *sb);
+struct file *au_xino_def(struct super_block *sb);
+int au_xino_path(struct seq_file *seq, struct file *file);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* Superblock to branch */
+static inline
+aufs_bindex_t au_sbr_id(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	return au_sbr(sb, bindex)->br_id;
+}
+
+static inline
+struct vfsmount *au_sbr_mnt(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	return au_br_mnt(au_sbr(sb, bindex));
+}
+
+static inline
+struct super_block *au_sbr_sb(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	return au_br_sb(au_sbr(sb, bindex));
+}
+
+static inline void au_sbr_put(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	atomic_dec(&au_sbr(sb, bindex)->br_count);
+}
+
+static inline int au_sbr_perm(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	return au_sbr(sb, bindex)->br_perm;
+}
+
+static inline int au_sbr_whable(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	return au_br_whable(au_sbr_perm(sb, bindex));
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * wbr_wh_read_lock, wbr_wh_write_lock
+ * wbr_wh_read_unlock, wbr_wh_write_unlock, wbr_wh_downgrade_lock
+ */
+AuSimpleRwsemFuncs(wbr_wh, struct au_wbr *wbr, &wbr->wbr_wh_rwsem);
+
+#define WbrWhMustNoWaiters(wbr)	AuRwMustNoWaiters(&wbr->wbr_wh_rwsem)
+#define WbrWhMustAnyLock(wbr)	AuRwMustAnyLock(&wbr->wbr_wh_rwsem)
+#define WbrWhMustWriteLock(wbr)	AuRwMustWriteLock(&wbr->wbr_wh_rwsem)
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_BRANCH_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/conf.mk linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/conf.mk
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/conf.mk	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/conf.mk	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+
+AuConfStr = CONFIG_AUFS_FS=${CONFIG_AUFS_FS}
+
+define AuConf
+ifdef ${1}
+AuConfStr += ${1}=${${1}}
+endif
+endef
+
+AuConfAll = BRANCH_MAX_127 BRANCH_MAX_511 BRANCH_MAX_1023 BRANCH_MAX_32767 \
+	SBILIST \
+	HNOTIFY HFSNOTIFY \
+	EXPORT INO_T_64 \
+	RDU \
+	SP_IATTR \
+	SHWH \
+	BR_RAMFS \
+	BR_FUSE POLL \
+	BR_HFSPLUS \
+	BDEV_LOOP \
+	DEBUG MAGIC_SYSRQ
+$(foreach i, ${AuConfAll}, \
+	$(eval $(call AuConf,CONFIG_AUFS_${i})))
+
+AuConfName = ${obj}/conf.str
+${AuConfName}.tmp: FORCE
+	@echo ${AuConfStr} | tr ' ' '\n' | sed -e 's/^/"/' -e 's/$$/\\n"/' > $@
+${AuConfName}: ${AuConfName}.tmp
+	@diff -q $< $@ > /dev/null 2>&1 || { \
+	echo '  GEN    ' $@; \
+	cp -p $< $@; \
+	}
+FORCE:
+clean-files += ${AuConfName} ${AuConfName}.tmp
+${obj}/sysfs.o: ${AuConfName}
+
+-include ${srctree}/${src}/conf_priv.mk
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/cpup.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/cpup.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/cpup.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/cpup.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1267 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * copy-up functions, see wbr_policy.c for copy-down
+ */
+
+#include <linux/fs_stack.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+void au_cpup_attr_flags(struct inode *dst, unsigned int iflags)
+{
+	const unsigned int mask = S_DEAD | S_SWAPFILE | S_PRIVATE
+		| S_NOATIME | S_NOCMTIME | S_AUTOMOUNT;
+
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(iflags) != sizeof(dst->i_flags));
+
+	dst->i_flags |= iflags & ~mask;
+	if (au_test_fs_notime(dst->i_sb))
+		dst->i_flags |= S_NOATIME | S_NOCMTIME;
+}
+
+void au_cpup_attr_timesizes(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, au_ibstart(inode));
+	fsstack_copy_attr_times(inode, h_inode);
+	fsstack_copy_inode_size(inode, h_inode);
+}
+
+void au_cpup_attr_nlink(struct inode *inode, int force)
+{
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	bindex = au_ibstart(inode);
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+	if (!force
+	    && !S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode)
+	    && au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK)
+	    && au_plink_test(inode))
+		return;
+
+	/*
+	 * 0 can happen in revalidating.
+	 * h_inode->i_mutex is not held, but it is harmless since once i_nlink
+	 * reaches 0, it will never become positive.
+	 */
+	set_nlink(inode, h_inode->i_nlink);
+
+	/*
+	 * fewer nlink makes find(1) noisy, but larger nlink doesn't.
+	 * it may includes whplink directory.
+	 */
+	if (S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode)) {
+		bend = au_ibend(inode);
+		for (bindex++; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+			if (h_inode)
+				au_add_nlink(inode, h_inode);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+void au_cpup_attr_changeable(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, au_ibstart(inode));
+	inode->i_mode = h_inode->i_mode;
+	inode->i_uid = h_inode->i_uid;
+	inode->i_gid = h_inode->i_gid;
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+	au_cpup_attr_flags(inode, h_inode->i_flags);
+}
+
+void au_cpup_igen(struct inode *inode, struct inode *h_inode)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+
+	iinfo->ii_higen = h_inode->i_generation;
+	iinfo->ii_hsb1 = h_inode->i_sb;
+}
+
+void au_cpup_attr_all(struct inode *inode, int force)
+{
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, au_ibstart(inode));
+	au_cpup_attr_changeable(inode);
+	if (inode->i_nlink > 0)
+		au_cpup_attr_nlink(inode, force);
+	inode->i_rdev = h_inode->i_rdev;
+	inode->i_blkbits = h_inode->i_blkbits;
+	au_cpup_igen(inode, h_inode);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* Note: dt_dentry and dt_h_dentry are not dget/dput-ed */
+
+/* keep the timestamps of the parent dir when cpup */
+void au_dtime_store(struct au_dtime *dt, struct dentry *dentry,
+		    struct path *h_path)
+{
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	dt->dt_dentry = dentry;
+	dt->dt_h_path = *h_path;
+	h_inode = h_path->dentry->d_inode;
+	dt->dt_atime = h_inode->i_atime;
+	dt->dt_mtime = h_inode->i_mtime;
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+}
+
+void au_dtime_revert(struct au_dtime *dt)
+{
+	struct iattr attr;
+	int err;
+
+	attr.ia_atime = dt->dt_atime;
+	attr.ia_mtime = dt->dt_mtime;
+	attr.ia_valid = ATTR_FORCE | ATTR_MTIME | ATTR_MTIME_SET
+		| ATTR_ATIME | ATTR_ATIME_SET;
+
+	err = vfsub_notify_change(&dt->dt_h_path, &attr);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		pr_warn("restoring timestamps failed(%d). ignored\n", err);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* internal use only */
+struct au_cpup_reg_attr {
+	int		valid;
+	struct kstat	st;
+	unsigned int	iflags; /* inode->i_flags */
+};
+
+static noinline_for_stack
+int cpup_iattr(struct dentry *dst, aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct dentry *h_src,
+	       struct au_cpup_reg_attr *h_src_attr)
+{
+	int err, sbits;
+	struct iattr ia;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct inode *h_isrc, *h_idst;
+	struct kstat *h_st;
+
+	h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dst, bindex);
+	h_idst = h_path.dentry->d_inode;
+	h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(dst->d_sb, bindex);
+	h_isrc = h_src->d_inode;
+	ia.ia_valid = ATTR_FORCE | ATTR_UID | ATTR_GID
+		| ATTR_ATIME | ATTR_MTIME
+		| ATTR_ATIME_SET | ATTR_MTIME_SET;
+	if (h_src_attr && h_src_attr->valid) {
+		h_st = &h_src_attr->st;
+		ia.ia_uid = h_st->uid;
+		ia.ia_gid = h_st->gid;
+		ia.ia_atime = h_st->atime;
+		ia.ia_mtime = h_st->mtime;
+		if (h_idst->i_mode != h_st->mode
+		    && !S_ISLNK(h_idst->i_mode)) {
+			ia.ia_valid |= ATTR_MODE;
+			ia.ia_mode = h_st->mode;
+		}
+		sbits = !!(h_st->mode & (S_ISUID | S_ISGID));
+		au_cpup_attr_flags(h_idst, h_src_attr->iflags);
+	} else {
+		ia.ia_uid = h_isrc->i_uid;
+		ia.ia_gid = h_isrc->i_gid;
+		ia.ia_atime = h_isrc->i_atime;
+		ia.ia_mtime = h_isrc->i_mtime;
+		if (h_idst->i_mode != h_isrc->i_mode
+		    && !S_ISLNK(h_idst->i_mode)) {
+			ia.ia_valid |= ATTR_MODE;
+			ia.ia_mode = h_isrc->i_mode;
+		}
+		sbits = !!(h_isrc->i_mode & (S_ISUID | S_ISGID));
+		au_cpup_attr_flags(h_idst, h_isrc->i_flags);
+	}
+	err = vfsub_notify_change(&h_path, &ia);
+
+	/* is this nfs only? */
+	if (!err && sbits && au_test_nfs(h_path.dentry->d_sb)) {
+		ia.ia_valid = ATTR_FORCE | ATTR_MODE;
+		ia.ia_mode = h_isrc->i_mode;
+		err = vfsub_notify_change(&h_path, &ia);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_do_copy_file(struct file *dst, struct file *src, loff_t len,
+			   char *buf, unsigned long blksize)
+{
+	int err;
+	size_t sz, rbytes, wbytes;
+	unsigned char all_zero;
+	char *p, *zp;
+	struct mutex *h_mtx;
+	/* reduce stack usage */
+	struct iattr *ia;
+
+	zp = page_address(ZERO_PAGE(0));
+	if (unlikely(!zp))
+		return -ENOMEM; /* possible? */
+
+	err = 0;
+	all_zero = 0;
+	while (len) {
+		AuDbg("len %lld\n", len);
+		sz = blksize;
+		if (len < blksize)
+			sz = len;
+
+		rbytes = 0;
+		/* todo: signal_pending? */
+		while (!rbytes || err == -EAGAIN || err == -EINTR) {
+			rbytes = vfsub_read_k(src, buf, sz, &src->f_pos);
+			err = rbytes;
+		}
+		if (unlikely(err < 0))
+			break;
+
+		all_zero = 0;
+		if (len >= rbytes && rbytes == blksize)
+			all_zero = !memcmp(buf, zp, rbytes);
+		if (!all_zero) {
+			wbytes = rbytes;
+			p = buf;
+			while (wbytes) {
+				size_t b;
+
+				b = vfsub_write_k(dst, p, wbytes, &dst->f_pos);
+				err = b;
+				/* todo: signal_pending? */
+				if (unlikely(err == -EAGAIN || err == -EINTR))
+					continue;
+				if (unlikely(err < 0))
+					break;
+				wbytes -= b;
+				p += b;
+			}
+			if (unlikely(err < 0))
+				break;
+		} else {
+			loff_t res;
+
+			AuLabel(hole);
+			res = vfsub_llseek(dst, rbytes, SEEK_CUR);
+			err = res;
+			if (unlikely(res < 0))
+				break;
+		}
+		len -= rbytes;
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	/* the last block may be a hole */
+	if (!err && all_zero) {
+		AuLabel(last hole);
+
+		err = 1;
+		if (au_test_nfs(dst->f_dentry->d_sb)) {
+			/* nfs requires this step to make last hole */
+			/* is this only nfs? */
+			do {
+				/* todo: signal_pending? */
+				err = vfsub_write_k(dst, "\0", 1, &dst->f_pos);
+			} while (err == -EAGAIN || err == -EINTR);
+			if (err == 1)
+				dst->f_pos--;
+		}
+
+		if (err == 1) {
+			ia = (void *)buf;
+			ia->ia_size = dst->f_pos;
+			ia->ia_valid = ATTR_SIZE | ATTR_FILE;
+			ia->ia_file = dst;
+			h_mtx = &file_inode(dst)->i_mutex;
+			mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_CHILD2);
+			err = vfsub_notify_change(&dst->f_path, ia);
+			mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+		}
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_copy_file(struct file *dst, struct file *src, loff_t len)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long blksize;
+	unsigned char do_kfree;
+	char *buf;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	blksize = dst->f_dentry->d_sb->s_blocksize;
+	if (!blksize || PAGE_SIZE < blksize)
+		blksize = PAGE_SIZE;
+	AuDbg("blksize %lu\n", blksize);
+	do_kfree = (blksize != PAGE_SIZE && blksize >= sizeof(struct iattr *));
+	if (do_kfree)
+		buf = kmalloc(blksize, GFP_NOFS);
+	else
+		buf = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!buf))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (len > (1 << 22))
+		AuDbg("copying a large file %lld\n", (long long)len);
+
+	src->f_pos = 0;
+	dst->f_pos = 0;
+	err = au_do_copy_file(dst, src, len, buf, blksize);
+	if (do_kfree)
+		kfree(buf);
+	else
+		free_page((unsigned long)buf);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * to support a sparse file which is opened with O_APPEND,
+ * we need to close the file.
+ */
+static int au_cp_regular(struct au_cp_generic *cpg)
+{
+	int err, i;
+	enum { SRC, DST };
+	struct {
+		aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+		unsigned int flags;
+		struct dentry *dentry;
+		int force_wr;
+		struct file *file;
+		void *label, *label_file;
+	} *f, file[] = {
+		{
+			.bindex = cpg->bsrc,
+			.flags = O_RDONLY | O_NOATIME | O_LARGEFILE,
+			.label = &&out,
+			.label_file = &&out_src
+		},
+		{
+			.bindex = cpg->bdst,
+			.flags = O_WRONLY | O_NOATIME | O_LARGEFILE,
+			.force_wr = !!au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, RWDST),
+			.label = &&out_src,
+			.label_file = &&out_dst
+		}
+	};
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	/* bsrc branch can be ro/rw. */
+	sb = cpg->dentry->d_sb;
+	f = file;
+	for (i = 0; i < 2; i++, f++) {
+		f->dentry = au_h_dptr(cpg->dentry, f->bindex);
+		f->file = au_h_open(cpg->dentry, f->bindex, f->flags,
+				    /*file*/NULL, f->force_wr);
+		err = PTR_ERR(f->file);
+		if (IS_ERR(f->file))
+			goto *f->label;
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		if (unlikely(!f->file->f_op))
+			goto *f->label_file;
+	}
+
+	/* try stopping to update while we copyup */
+	IMustLock(file[SRC].dentry->d_inode);
+	err = au_copy_file(file[DST].file, file[SRC].file, cpg->len);
+
+out_dst:
+	fput(file[DST].file);
+	au_sbr_put(sb, file[DST].bindex);
+out_src:
+	fput(file[SRC].file);
+	au_sbr_put(sb, file[SRC].bindex);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_do_cpup_regular(struct au_cp_generic *cpg,
+			      struct au_cpup_reg_attr *h_src_attr)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	loff_t l;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct inode *h_src_inode;
+
+	err = 0;
+	h_src_inode = au_h_iptr(cpg->dentry->d_inode, cpg->bsrc);
+	l = i_size_read(h_src_inode);
+	if (cpg->len == -1 || l < cpg->len)
+		cpg->len = l;
+	if (cpg->len) {
+		/* try stopping to update while we are referencing */
+		mutex_lock_nested(&h_src_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+		au_pin_hdir_unlock(cpg->pin);
+
+		h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(cpg->dentry, cpg->bsrc);
+		h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(cpg->dentry->d_sb, cpg->bsrc);
+		h_src_attr->iflags = h_src_inode->i_flags;
+		err = vfs_getattr(&h_path, &h_src_attr->st);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			mutex_unlock(&h_src_inode->i_mutex);
+			goto out;
+		}
+		h_src_attr->valid = 1;
+		err = au_cp_regular(cpg);
+		mutex_unlock(&h_src_inode->i_mutex);
+		rerr = au_pin_hdir_relock(cpg->pin);
+		if (!err && rerr)
+			err = rerr;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_do_cpup_symlink(struct path *h_path, struct dentry *h_src,
+			      struct inode *h_dir)
+{
+	int err, symlen;
+	mm_segment_t old_fs;
+	union {
+		char *k;
+		char __user *u;
+	} sym;
+
+	err = -ENOSYS;
+	if (unlikely(!h_src->d_inode->i_op->readlink))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	sym.k = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!sym.k))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* unnecessary to support mmap_sem since symlink is not mmap-able */
+	old_fs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	symlen = h_src->d_inode->i_op->readlink(h_src, sym.u, PATH_MAX);
+	err = symlen;
+	set_fs(old_fs);
+
+	if (symlen > 0) {
+		sym.k[symlen] = 0;
+		err = vfsub_symlink(h_dir, h_path, sym.k);
+	}
+	free_page((unsigned long)sym.k);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static noinline_for_stack
+int cpup_entry(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct dentry *dst_parent,
+	       struct au_cpup_reg_attr *h_src_attr)
+{
+	int err;
+	umode_t mode;
+	unsigned int mnt_flags;
+	unsigned char isdir;
+	const unsigned char do_dt = !!au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, DTIME);
+	struct au_dtime dt;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct dentry *h_src, *h_dst, *h_parent;
+	struct inode *h_inode, *h_dir;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	/* bsrc branch can be ro/rw. */
+	h_src = au_h_dptr(cpg->dentry, cpg->bsrc);
+	h_inode = h_src->d_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(h_inode != au_h_iptr(cpg->dentry->d_inode, cpg->bsrc));
+
+	/* try stopping to be referenced while we are creating */
+	h_dst = au_h_dptr(cpg->dentry, cpg->bdst);
+	if (au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, RENAME))
+		AuDebugOn(strncmp(h_dst->d_name.name, AUFS_WH_PFX,
+				  AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN));
+	h_parent = h_dst->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(h_dir);
+	AuDebugOn(h_parent != h_dst->d_parent);
+
+	sb = cpg->dentry->d_sb;
+	h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, cpg->bdst);
+	if (do_dt) {
+		h_path.dentry = h_parent;
+		au_dtime_store(&dt, dst_parent, &h_path);
+	}
+	h_path.dentry = h_dst;
+
+	isdir = 0;
+	mode = h_inode->i_mode;
+	switch (mode & S_IFMT) {
+	case S_IFREG:
+		err = vfsub_create(h_dir, &h_path, mode | S_IWUSR,
+				   /*want_excl*/true);
+		if (!err)
+			err = au_do_cpup_regular(cpg, h_src_attr);
+		break;
+	case S_IFDIR:
+		isdir = 1;
+		err = vfsub_mkdir(h_dir, &h_path, mode);
+		if (!err) {
+			/*
+			 * strange behaviour from the users view,
+			 * particularry setattr case
+			 */
+			if (au_ibstart(dst_parent->d_inode) == cpg->bdst)
+				au_cpup_attr_nlink(dst_parent->d_inode,
+						   /*force*/1);
+			au_cpup_attr_nlink(cpg->dentry->d_inode, /*force*/1);
+		}
+		break;
+	case S_IFLNK:
+		err = au_do_cpup_symlink(&h_path, h_src, h_dir);
+		break;
+	case S_IFCHR:
+	case S_IFBLK:
+		AuDebugOn(!capable(CAP_MKNOD));
+		/*FALLTHROUGH*/
+	case S_IFIFO:
+	case S_IFSOCK:
+		err = vfsub_mknod(h_dir, &h_path, mode, h_inode->i_rdev);
+		break;
+	default:
+		AuIOErr("Unknown inode type 0%o\n", mode);
+		err = -EIO;
+	}
+
+	mnt_flags = au_mntflags(sb);
+	if (!au_opt_test(mnt_flags, UDBA_NONE)
+	    && !isdir
+	    && au_opt_test(mnt_flags, XINO)
+	    && h_inode->i_nlink == 1
+	    /* todo: unnecessary? */
+	    /* && cpg->dentry->d_inode->i_nlink == 1 */
+	    && cpg->bdst < cpg->bsrc
+	    && !au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, KEEPLINO))
+		au_xino_write(sb, cpg->bsrc, h_inode->i_ino, /*ino*/0);
+		/* ignore this error */
+
+	if (do_dt)
+		au_dtime_revert(&dt);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_do_ren_after_cpup(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct path *h_path)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *h_dentry, *h_parent, *parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	aufs_bindex_t bdst;
+
+	dentry = cpg->dentry;
+	bdst = cpg->bdst;
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bdst);
+	if (!au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, OVERWRITE)) {
+		dget(h_dentry);
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bdst, NULL);
+		err = au_lkup_neg(dentry, bdst, /*wh*/0);
+		if (!err)
+			h_path->dentry = dget(au_h_dptr(dentry, bdst));
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bdst, h_dentry);
+	} else {
+		err = 0;
+		parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+		h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bdst);
+		dput(parent);
+		h_path->dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(&dentry->d_name, h_parent);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_path->dentry))
+			err = PTR_ERR(h_path->dentry);
+	}
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_parent = h_dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(h_dir);
+	AuDbg("%.*s %.*s\n", AuDLNPair(h_dentry), AuDLNPair(h_path->dentry));
+	err = vfsub_rename(h_dir, h_dentry, h_dir, h_path);
+	dput(h_path->dentry);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * copyup the @dentry from @bsrc to @bdst.
+ * the caller must set the both of lower dentries.
+ * @len is for truncating when it is -1 copyup the entire file.
+ * in link/rename cases, @dst_parent may be different from the real one.
+ * basic->bsrc can be larger than basic->bdst.
+ */
+static int au_cpup_single(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct dentry *dst_parent)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	aufs_bindex_t old_ibstart;
+	unsigned char isdir, plink;
+	struct dentry *h_src, *h_dst, *h_parent;
+	struct inode *dst_inode, *h_dir, *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	/* to reuduce stack size */
+	struct {
+		struct au_dtime dt;
+		struct path h_path;
+		struct au_cpup_reg_attr h_src_attr;
+	} *a;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kmalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+	a->h_src_attr.valid = 0;
+
+	sb = cpg->dentry->d_sb;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, cpg->bdst);
+	a->h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+	h_dst = au_h_dptr(cpg->dentry, cpg->bdst);
+	h_parent = h_dst->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(h_dir);
+
+	h_src = au_h_dptr(cpg->dentry, cpg->bsrc);
+	inode = cpg->dentry->d_inode;
+
+	if (!dst_parent)
+		dst_parent = dget_parent(cpg->dentry);
+	else
+		dget(dst_parent);
+
+	plink = !!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK);
+	dst_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, cpg->bdst);
+	if (dst_inode) {
+		if (unlikely(!plink)) {
+			err = -EIO;
+			AuIOErr("hi%lu(i%lu) exists on b%d "
+				"but plink is disabled\n",
+				dst_inode->i_ino, inode->i_ino, cpg->bdst);
+			goto out_parent;
+		}
+
+		if (dst_inode->i_nlink) {
+			const int do_dt = au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, DTIME);
+
+			h_src = au_plink_lkup(inode, cpg->bdst);
+			err = PTR_ERR(h_src);
+			if (IS_ERR(h_src))
+				goto out_parent;
+			if (unlikely(!h_src->d_inode)) {
+				err = -EIO;
+				AuIOErr("i%lu exists on a upper branch "
+					"but not pseudo-linked\n",
+					inode->i_ino);
+				dput(h_src);
+				goto out_parent;
+			}
+
+			if (do_dt) {
+				a->h_path.dentry = h_parent;
+				au_dtime_store(&a->dt, dst_parent, &a->h_path);
+			}
+
+			a->h_path.dentry = h_dst;
+			err = vfsub_link(h_src, h_dir, &a->h_path);
+			if (!err && au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, RENAME))
+				err = au_do_ren_after_cpup(cpg, &a->h_path);
+			if (do_dt)
+				au_dtime_revert(&a->dt);
+			dput(h_src);
+			goto out_parent;
+		} else
+			/* todo: cpup_wh_file? */
+			/* udba work */
+			au_update_ibrange(inode, /*do_put_zero*/1);
+	}
+
+	isdir = S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode);
+	old_ibstart = au_ibstart(inode);
+	err = cpup_entry(cpg, dst_parent, &a->h_src_attr);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_rev;
+	dst_inode = h_dst->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&dst_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD2);
+	/* todo: necessary? */
+	/* au_pin_hdir_unlock(cpg->pin); */
+
+	err = cpup_iattr(cpg->dentry, cpg->bdst, h_src, &a->h_src_attr);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		/* todo: necessary? */
+		/* au_pin_hdir_relock(cpg->pin); */ /* ignore an error */
+		mutex_unlock(&dst_inode->i_mutex);
+		goto out_rev;
+	}
+
+	if (cpg->bdst < old_ibstart) {
+		if (S_ISREG(inode->i_mode)) {
+			err = au_dy_iaop(inode, cpg->bdst, dst_inode);
+			if (unlikely(err)) {
+				/* ignore an error */
+				/* au_pin_hdir_relock(cpg->pin); */
+				mutex_unlock(&dst_inode->i_mutex);
+				goto out_rev;
+			}
+		}
+		au_set_ibstart(inode, cpg->bdst);
+	} else
+		au_set_ibend(inode, cpg->bdst);
+	au_set_h_iptr(inode, cpg->bdst, au_igrab(dst_inode),
+		      au_hi_flags(inode, isdir));
+
+	/* todo: necessary? */
+	/* err = au_pin_hdir_relock(cpg->pin); */
+	mutex_unlock(&dst_inode->i_mutex);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_rev;
+
+	if (!isdir
+	    && h_src->d_inode->i_nlink > 1
+	    && plink)
+		au_plink_append(inode, cpg->bdst, h_dst);
+
+	if (au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, RENAME)) {
+		a->h_path.dentry = h_dst;
+		err = au_do_ren_after_cpup(cpg, &a->h_path);
+	}
+	if (!err)
+		goto out_parent; /* success */
+
+	/* revert */
+out_rev:
+	a->h_path.dentry = h_parent;
+	au_dtime_store(&a->dt, dst_parent, &a->h_path);
+	a->h_path.dentry = h_dst;
+	rerr = 0;
+	if (h_dst->d_inode) {
+		if (!isdir)
+			rerr = vfsub_unlink(h_dir, &a->h_path, /*force*/0);
+		else
+			rerr = vfsub_rmdir(h_dir, &a->h_path);
+	}
+	au_dtime_revert(&a->dt);
+	if (rerr) {
+		AuIOErr("failed removing broken entry(%d, %d)\n", err, rerr);
+		err = -EIO;
+	}
+out_parent:
+	dput(dst_parent);
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* unused */
+struct au_cpup_single_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct au_cp_generic *cpg;
+	struct dentry *dst_parent;
+};
+
+static void au_call_cpup_single(void *args)
+{
+	struct au_cpup_single_args *a = args;
+
+	au_pin_hdir_acquire_nest(a->cpg->pin);
+	*a->errp = au_cpup_single(a->cpg, a->dst_parent);
+	au_pin_hdir_release(a->cpg->pin);
+}
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * prevent SIGXFSZ in copy-up.
+ * testing CAP_MKNOD is for generic fs,
+ * but CAP_FSETID is for xfs only, currently.
+ */
+static int au_cpup_sio_test(struct au_pin *pin, umode_t mode)
+{
+	int do_sio;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	do_sio = 0;
+	sb = au_pinned_parent(pin)->d_sb;
+	if (!au_wkq_test()
+	    && (!au_sbi(sb)->si_plink_maint_pid
+		|| au_plink_maint(sb, AuLock_NOPLM))) {
+		switch (mode & S_IFMT) {
+		case S_IFREG:
+			/* no condition about RLIMIT_FSIZE and the file size */
+			do_sio = 1;
+			break;
+		case S_IFCHR:
+		case S_IFBLK:
+			do_sio = !capable(CAP_MKNOD);
+			break;
+		}
+		if (!do_sio)
+			do_sio = ((mode & (S_ISUID | S_ISGID))
+				  && !capable(CAP_FSETID));
+		/* this workaround may be removed in the future */
+		if (!do_sio) {
+			h_dir = au_pinned_h_dir(pin);
+			do_sio = h_dir->i_mode & S_ISVTX;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return do_sio;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* unused */
+int au_sio_cpup_single(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct dentry *dst_parent)
+{
+	int err, wkq_err;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(cpg->dentry, cpg->bsrc);
+	if (!au_cpup_sio_test(pin, h_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = au_cpup_single(cpg, dst_parent);
+	else {
+		struct au_cpup_single_args args = {
+			.errp		= &err,
+			.cpg		= cpg,
+			.dst_parent	= dst_parent
+		};
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(au_call_cpup_single, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * copyup the @dentry from the first active lower branch to @bdst,
+ * using au_cpup_single().
+ */
+static int au_cpup_simple(struct au_cp_generic *cpg)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int flags_orig;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+
+	AuDebugOn(cpg->bsrc < 0);
+
+	dentry = cpg->dentry;
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+
+	err = au_lkup_neg(dentry, cpg->bdst, /*wh*/1);
+	if (!err) {
+		flags_orig = cpg->flags;
+		au_fset_cpup(cpg->flags, RENAME);
+		err = au_cpup_single(cpg, NULL);
+		cpg->flags = flags_orig;
+		if (!err)
+			return 0; /* success */
+
+		/* revert */
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, cpg->bdst, NULL);
+		au_set_dbstart(dentry, cpg->bsrc);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct au_cpup_simple_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct au_cp_generic *cpg;
+};
+
+static void au_call_cpup_simple(void *args)
+{
+	struct au_cpup_simple_args *a = args;
+
+	au_pin_hdir_acquire_nest(a->cpg->pin);
+	*a->errp = au_cpup_simple(a->cpg);
+	au_pin_hdir_release(a->cpg->pin);
+}
+
+static int au_do_sio_cpup_simple(struct au_cp_generic *cpg)
+{
+	int err, wkq_err;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *parent;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	dentry = cpg->dentry;
+	h_file = NULL;
+	if (au_ftest_cpup(cpg->flags, HOPEN)) {
+		AuDebugOn(cpg->bsrc < 0);
+		h_file = au_h_open_pre(dentry, cpg->bsrc, /*force_wr*/0);
+		err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	h_dir = au_h_iptr(parent->d_inode, cpg->bdst);
+	if (!au_test_h_perm_sio(h_dir, MAY_EXEC | MAY_WRITE)
+	    && !au_cpup_sio_test(cpg->pin, dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = au_cpup_simple(cpg);
+	else {
+		struct au_cpup_simple_args args = {
+			.errp		= &err,
+			.cpg		= cpg
+		};
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(au_call_cpup_simple, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+
+	dput(parent);
+	if (h_file)
+		au_h_open_post(dentry, cpg->bsrc, h_file);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_sio_cpup_simple(struct au_cp_generic *cpg)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bsrc, bend;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *h_dentry;
+
+	if (cpg->bsrc < 0) {
+		dentry = cpg->dentry;
+		bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+		for (bsrc = cpg->bdst + 1; bsrc <= bend; bsrc++) {
+			h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bsrc);
+			if (h_dentry) {
+				AuDebugOn(!h_dentry->d_inode);
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+		AuDebugOn(bsrc > bend);
+		cpg->bsrc = bsrc;
+	}
+	AuDebugOn(cpg->bsrc <= cpg->bdst);
+	return au_do_sio_cpup_simple(cpg);
+}
+
+int au_sio_cpdown_simple(struct au_cp_generic *cpg)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(cpg->bdst <= cpg->bsrc);
+	return au_do_sio_cpup_simple(cpg);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * copyup the deleted file for writing.
+ */
+static int au_do_cpup_wh(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct dentry *wh_dentry,
+			 struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int flags_orig;
+	aufs_bindex_t bsrc_orig;
+	struct dentry *h_d_dst, *h_d_start;
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+
+	dinfo = au_di(cpg->dentry);
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&dinfo->di_rwsem);
+
+	bsrc_orig = cpg->bsrc;
+	cpg->bsrc = dinfo->di_bstart;
+	hdp = dinfo->di_hdentry;
+	h_d_dst = hdp[0 + cpg->bdst].hd_dentry;
+	dinfo->di_bstart = cpg->bdst;
+	hdp[0 + cpg->bdst].hd_dentry = wh_dentry;
+	h_d_start = NULL;
+	if (file) {
+		h_d_start = hdp[0 + cpg->bsrc].hd_dentry;
+		hdp[0 + cpg->bsrc].hd_dentry = au_hf_top(file)->f_dentry;
+	}
+	flags_orig = cpg->flags;
+	cpg->flags = !AuCpup_DTIME;
+	err = au_cpup_single(cpg, /*h_parent*/NULL);
+	cpg->flags = flags_orig;
+	if (file) {
+		if (!err)
+			err = au_reopen_nondir(file);
+		hdp[0 + cpg->bsrc].hd_dentry = h_d_start;
+	}
+	hdp[0 + cpg->bdst].hd_dentry = h_d_dst;
+	dinfo->di_bstart = cpg->bsrc;
+	cpg->bsrc = bsrc_orig;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_cpup_wh(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bdst;
+	struct au_dtime dt;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *parent, *h_parent, *wh_dentry;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct path h_path;
+
+	dentry = cpg->dentry;
+	bdst = cpg->bdst;
+	br = au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bdst);
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bdst);
+	wh_dentry = au_whtmp_lkup(h_parent, br, &dentry->d_name);
+	err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_path.dentry = h_parent;
+	h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+	au_dtime_store(&dt, parent, &h_path);
+	err = au_do_cpup_wh(cpg, wh_dentry, file);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_wh;
+
+	dget(wh_dentry);
+	h_path.dentry = wh_dentry;
+	if (!S_ISDIR(wh_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = vfsub_unlink(h_parent->d_inode, &h_path, /*force*/0);
+	else
+		err = vfsub_rmdir(h_parent->d_inode, &h_path);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		AuIOErr("failed remove copied-up tmp file %.*s(%d)\n",
+			AuDLNPair(wh_dentry), err);
+		err = -EIO;
+	}
+	au_dtime_revert(&dt);
+	au_set_hi_wh(dentry->d_inode, bdst, wh_dentry);
+
+out_wh:
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+out:
+	dput(parent);
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct au_cpup_wh_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct au_cp_generic *cpg;
+	struct file *file;
+};
+
+static void au_call_cpup_wh(void *args)
+{
+	struct au_cpup_wh_args *a = args;
+
+	au_pin_hdir_acquire_nest(a->cpg->pin);
+	*a->errp = au_cpup_wh(a->cpg, a->file);
+	au_pin_hdir_release(a->cpg->pin);
+}
+
+int au_sio_cpup_wh(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err, wkq_err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bdst;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *parent, *h_orph, *h_parent, *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *dir, *h_dir, *h_tmpdir;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+	struct au_pin wh_pin, *pin_orig;
+
+	dentry = cpg->dentry;
+	bdst = cpg->bdst;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	dir = parent->d_inode;
+	h_orph = NULL;
+	h_parent = NULL;
+	h_dir = au_igrab(au_h_iptr(dir, bdst));
+	h_tmpdir = h_dir;
+	pin_orig = NULL;
+	if (!h_dir->i_nlink) {
+		wbr = au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bdst)->br_wbr;
+		h_orph = wbr->wbr_orph;
+
+		h_parent = dget(au_h_dptr(parent, bdst));
+		au_set_h_dptr(parent, bdst, dget(h_orph));
+		h_tmpdir = h_orph->d_inode;
+		au_set_h_iptr(dir, bdst, au_igrab(h_tmpdir), /*flags*/0);
+
+		if (file)
+			h_dentry = au_hf_top(file)->f_dentry;
+		else
+			h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, au_dbstart(dentry));
+		mutex_lock_nested(&h_tmpdir->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_PARENT3);
+		/* todo: au_h_open_pre()? */
+
+		pin_orig = cpg->pin;
+		au_pin_init(&wh_pin, dentry, bdst, AuLsc_DI_PARENT,
+			    AuLsc_I_PARENT3, cpg->pin->udba, AuPin_DI_LOCKED);
+		cpg->pin = &wh_pin;
+	}
+
+	if (!au_test_h_perm_sio(h_tmpdir, MAY_EXEC | MAY_WRITE)
+	    && !au_cpup_sio_test(cpg->pin, dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = au_cpup_wh(cpg, file);
+	else {
+		struct au_cpup_wh_args args = {
+			.errp	= &err,
+			.cpg	= cpg,
+			.file	= file
+		};
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(au_call_cpup_wh, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+
+	if (h_orph) {
+		mutex_unlock(&h_tmpdir->i_mutex);
+		/* todo: au_h_open_post()? */
+		au_set_h_iptr(dir, bdst, au_igrab(h_dir), /*flags*/0);
+		au_set_h_dptr(parent, bdst, h_parent);
+		AuDebugOn(!pin_orig);
+		cpg->pin = pin_orig;
+	}
+	iput(h_dir);
+	dput(parent);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * generic routine for both of copy-up and copy-down.
+ */
+/* cf. revalidate function in file.c */
+int au_cp_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst,
+	       int (*cp)(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst,
+			 struct au_pin *pin,
+			 struct dentry *h_parent, void *arg),
+	       void *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct dentry *d, *parent, *h_parent, *real_parent;
+
+	err = 0;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	if (IS_ROOT(parent))
+		goto out;
+
+	au_pin_init(&pin, dentry, bdst, AuLsc_DI_PARENT2, AuLsc_I_PARENT2,
+		    au_opt_udba(dentry->d_sb), AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+
+	/* do not use au_dpage */
+	real_parent = parent;
+	while (1) {
+		dput(parent);
+		parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+		h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bdst);
+		if (h_parent)
+			goto out; /* success */
+
+		/* find top dir which is necessary to cpup */
+		do {
+			d = parent;
+			dput(parent);
+			parent = dget_parent(d);
+			di_read_lock_parent3(parent, !AuLock_IR);
+			h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bdst);
+			di_read_unlock(parent, !AuLock_IR);
+		} while (!h_parent);
+
+		if (d != real_parent)
+			di_write_lock_child3(d);
+
+		/* somebody else might create while we were sleeping */
+		if (!au_h_dptr(d, bdst) || !au_h_dptr(d, bdst)->d_inode) {
+			if (au_h_dptr(d, bdst))
+				au_update_dbstart(d);
+
+			au_pin_set_dentry(&pin, d);
+			err = au_do_pin(&pin);
+			if (!err) {
+				err = cp(d, bdst, &pin, h_parent, arg);
+				au_unpin(&pin);
+			}
+		}
+
+		if (d != real_parent)
+			di_write_unlock(d);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			break;
+	}
+
+out:
+	dput(parent);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_cpup_dir(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst,
+		       struct au_pin *pin,
+		       struct dentry *h_parent __maybe_unused ,
+		       void *arg __maybe_unused)
+{
+	struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+		.dentry	= dentry,
+		.bdst	= bdst,
+		.bsrc	= -1,
+		.len	= 0,
+		.pin	= pin,
+		.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME
+	};
+	return au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+}
+
+int au_cpup_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst)
+{
+	return au_cp_dirs(dentry, bdst, au_cpup_dir, NULL);
+}
+
+int au_test_and_cpup_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct inode *dir;
+
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	dir = parent->d_inode;
+	err = 0;
+	if (au_h_iptr(dir, bdst))
+		goto out;
+
+	di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+	/* someone else might change our inode while we were sleeping */
+	if (!au_h_iptr(dir, bdst))
+		err = au_cpup_dirs(dentry, bdst);
+	di_downgrade_lock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+
+out:
+	dput(parent);
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/cpup.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/cpup.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/cpup.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/cpup.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,94 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * copy-up/down functions
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_CPUP_H__
+#define __AUFS_CPUP_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/path.h>
+
+struct inode;
+struct file;
+struct au_pin;
+
+void au_cpup_attr_flags(struct inode *dst, unsigned int iflags);
+void au_cpup_attr_timesizes(struct inode *inode);
+void au_cpup_attr_nlink(struct inode *inode, int force);
+void au_cpup_attr_changeable(struct inode *inode);
+void au_cpup_igen(struct inode *inode, struct inode *h_inode);
+void au_cpup_attr_all(struct inode *inode, int force);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_cp_generic {
+	struct dentry	*dentry;
+	aufs_bindex_t	bdst, bsrc;
+	loff_t		len;
+	struct au_pin	*pin;
+	unsigned int	flags;
+};
+
+/* cpup flags */
+#define AuCpup_DTIME		1		/* do dtime_store/revert */
+#define AuCpup_KEEPLINO		(1 << 1)	/* do not clear the lower xino,
+						   for link(2) */
+#define AuCpup_RENAME		(1 << 2)	/* rename after cpup */
+#define AuCpup_HOPEN		(1 << 3)	/* call h_open_pre/post() in
+						   cpup */
+#define AuCpup_OVERWRITE	(1 << 4)	/* allow overwriting the
+						   existing entry */
+#define AuCpup_RWDST		(1 << 5)	/* force write target even if
+						   the branch is marked as RO */
+
+#define au_ftest_cpup(flags, name)	((flags) & AuCpup_##name)
+#define au_fset_cpup(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuCpup_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_cpup(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuCpup_##name; } while (0)
+
+int au_copy_file(struct file *dst, struct file *src, loff_t len);
+int au_sio_cpup_simple(struct au_cp_generic *cpg);
+int au_sio_cpdown_simple(struct au_cp_generic *cpg);
+int au_sio_cpup_wh(struct au_cp_generic *cpg, struct file *file);
+
+int au_cp_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst,
+	       int (*cp)(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst,
+			 struct au_pin *pin,
+			 struct dentry *h_parent, void *arg),
+	       void *arg);
+int au_cpup_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst);
+int au_test_and_cpup_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* keep timestamps when copyup */
+struct au_dtime {
+	struct dentry *dt_dentry;
+	struct path dt_h_path;
+	struct timespec dt_atime, dt_mtime;
+};
+void au_dtime_store(struct au_dtime *dt, struct dentry *dentry,
+		    struct path *h_path);
+void au_dtime_revert(struct au_dtime *dt);
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_CPUP_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,432 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * debugfs interface
+ */
+
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+#ifndef CONFIG_SYSFS
+#error DEBUG_FS depends upon SYSFS
+#endif
+
+static struct dentry *dbgaufs;
+static const mode_t dbgaufs_mode = S_IRUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH;
+
+/* 20 is max digits length of ulong 64 */
+struct dbgaufs_arg {
+	int n;
+	char a[20 * 4];
+};
+
+/*
+ * common function for all XINO files
+ */
+static int dbgaufs_xi_release(struct inode *inode __maybe_unused,
+			      struct file *file)
+{
+	kfree(file->private_data);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int dbgaufs_xi_open(struct file *xf, struct file *file, int do_fcnt)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct kstat st;
+	struct dbgaufs_arg *p;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!p))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	p->n = 0;
+	file->private_data = p;
+	if (!xf)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = vfs_getattr(&xf->f_path, &st);
+	if (!err) {
+		if (do_fcnt)
+			p->n = snprintf
+				(p->a, sizeof(p->a), "%ld, %llux%lu %lld\n",
+				 (long)file_count(xf), st.blocks, st.blksize,
+				 (long long)st.size);
+		else
+			p->n = snprintf(p->a, sizeof(p->a), "%llux%lu %lld\n",
+					st.blocks, st.blksize,
+					(long long)st.size);
+		AuDebugOn(p->n >= sizeof(p->a));
+	} else {
+		p->n = snprintf(p->a, sizeof(p->a), "err %d\n", err);
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+
+}
+
+static ssize_t dbgaufs_xi_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
+			       size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	struct dbgaufs_arg *p;
+
+	p = file->private_data;
+	return simple_read_from_buffer(buf, count, ppos, p->a, p->n);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct dbgaufs_plink_arg {
+	int n;
+	char a[];
+};
+
+static int dbgaufs_plink_release(struct inode *inode __maybe_unused,
+				 struct file *file)
+{
+	free_page((unsigned long)file->private_data);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int dbgaufs_plink_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err, i, limit;
+	unsigned long n, sum;
+	struct dbgaufs_plink_arg *p;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_sphlhead *sphl;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	p = (void *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!p))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EFBIG;
+	sbinfo = inode->i_private;
+	sb = sbinfo->si_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK)) {
+		limit = PAGE_SIZE - sizeof(p->n);
+
+		/* the number of buckets */
+		n = snprintf(p->a + p->n, limit, "%d\n", AuPlink_NHASH);
+		p->n += n;
+		limit -= n;
+
+		sum = 0;
+		for (i = 0, sphl = sbinfo->si_plink;
+		     i < AuPlink_NHASH;
+		     i++, sphl++) {
+			n = au_sphl_count(sphl);
+			sum += n;
+
+			n = snprintf(p->a + p->n, limit, "%lu ", n);
+			p->n += n;
+			limit -= n;
+			if (unlikely(limit <= 0))
+				goto out_free;
+		}
+		p->a[p->n - 1] = '\n';
+
+		/* the sum of plinks */
+		n = snprintf(p->a + p->n, limit, "%lu\n", sum);
+		p->n += n;
+		limit -= n;
+		if (unlikely(limit <= 0))
+			goto out_free;
+	} else {
+#define str "1\n0\n0\n"
+		p->n = sizeof(str) - 1;
+		strcpy(p->a, str);
+#undef str
+	}
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	err = 0;
+	file->private_data = p;
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_free:
+	free_page((unsigned long)p);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t dbgaufs_plink_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
+				  size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	struct dbgaufs_plink_arg *p;
+
+	p = file->private_data;
+	return simple_read_from_buffer(buf, count, ppos, p->a, p->n);
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations dbgaufs_plink_fop = {
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+	.open		= dbgaufs_plink_open,
+	.release	= dbgaufs_plink_release,
+	.read		= dbgaufs_plink_read
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int dbgaufs_xib_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	sbinfo = inode->i_private;
+	sb = sbinfo->si_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	err = dbgaufs_xi_open(sbinfo->si_xib, file, /*do_fcnt*/0);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations dbgaufs_xib_fop = {
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+	.open		= dbgaufs_xib_open,
+	.release	= dbgaufs_xi_release,
+	.read		= dbgaufs_xi_read
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#define DbgaufsXi_PREFIX "xi"
+
+static int dbgaufs_xino_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	long l;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *xf;
+	struct qstr *name;
+
+	err = -ENOENT;
+	xf = NULL;
+	name = &file->f_dentry->d_name;
+	if (unlikely(name->len < sizeof(DbgaufsXi_PREFIX)
+		     || memcmp(name->name, DbgaufsXi_PREFIX,
+			       sizeof(DbgaufsXi_PREFIX) - 1)))
+		goto out;
+	err = kstrtol(name->name + sizeof(DbgaufsXi_PREFIX) - 1, 10, &l);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	sbinfo = inode->i_private;
+	sb = sbinfo->si_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	if (l <= au_sbend(sb)) {
+		xf = au_sbr(sb, (aufs_bindex_t)l)->br_xino.xi_file;
+		err = dbgaufs_xi_open(xf, file, /*do_fcnt*/1);
+	} else
+		err = -ENOENT;
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations dbgaufs_xino_fop = {
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+	.open		= dbgaufs_xino_open,
+	.release	= dbgaufs_xi_release,
+	.read		= dbgaufs_xi_read
+};
+
+void dbgaufs_brs_del(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_xino_file *xi;
+
+	if (!au_sbi(sb)->si_dbgaufs)
+		return;
+
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		xi = &br->br_xino;
+		debugfs_remove(xi->xi_dbgaufs);
+		xi->xi_dbgaufs = NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+void dbgaufs_brs_add(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_xino_file *xi;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+	char name[sizeof(DbgaufsXi_PREFIX) + 5]; /* "xi" bindex NULL */
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	parent = sbinfo->si_dbgaufs;
+	if (!parent)
+		return;
+
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		snprintf(name, sizeof(name), DbgaufsXi_PREFIX "%d", bindex);
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		xi = &br->br_xino;
+		AuDebugOn(xi->xi_dbgaufs);
+		xi->xi_dbgaufs = debugfs_create_file(name, dbgaufs_mode, parent,
+						     sbinfo, &dbgaufs_xino_fop);
+		/* ignore an error */
+		if (unlikely(!xi->xi_dbgaufs))
+			AuWarn1("failed %s under debugfs\n", name);
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT
+static int dbgaufs_xigen_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	sbinfo = inode->i_private;
+	sb = sbinfo->si_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	err = dbgaufs_xi_open(sbinfo->si_xigen, file, /*do_fcnt*/0);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations dbgaufs_xigen_fop = {
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+	.open		= dbgaufs_xigen_open,
+	.release	= dbgaufs_xi_release,
+	.read		= dbgaufs_xi_read
+};
+
+static int dbgaufs_xigen_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	/*
+	 * This function is a dynamic '__init' fucntion actually,
+	 * so the tiny check for si_rwsem is unnecessary.
+	 */
+	/* AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem); */
+
+	err = -EIO;
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_xigen = debugfs_create_file
+		("xigen", dbgaufs_mode, sbinfo->si_dbgaufs, sbinfo,
+		 &dbgaufs_xigen_fop);
+	if (sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_xigen)
+		err = 0;
+
+	return err;
+}
+#else
+static int dbgaufs_xigen_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT */
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void dbgaufs_si_fin(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	/*
+	 * This function is a dynamic '__init' fucntion actually,
+	 * so the tiny check for si_rwsem is unnecessary.
+	 */
+	/* AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem); */
+
+	debugfs_remove_recursive(sbinfo->si_dbgaufs);
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs = NULL;
+	kobject_put(&sbinfo->si_kobj);
+}
+
+int dbgaufs_si_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	int err;
+	char name[SysaufsSiNameLen];
+
+	/*
+	 * This function is a dynamic '__init' fucntion actually,
+	 * so the tiny check for si_rwsem is unnecessary.
+	 */
+	/* AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem); */
+
+	err = -ENOENT;
+	if (!dbgaufs) {
+		AuErr1("/debug/aufs is uninitialized\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -EIO;
+	sysaufs_name(sbinfo, name);
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs = debugfs_create_dir(name, dbgaufs);
+	if (unlikely(!sbinfo->si_dbgaufs))
+		goto out;
+	kobject_get(&sbinfo->si_kobj);
+
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_xib = debugfs_create_file
+		("xib", dbgaufs_mode, sbinfo->si_dbgaufs, sbinfo,
+		 &dbgaufs_xib_fop);
+	if (unlikely(!sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_xib))
+		goto out_dir;
+
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_plink = debugfs_create_file
+		("plink", dbgaufs_mode, sbinfo->si_dbgaufs, sbinfo,
+		 &dbgaufs_plink_fop);
+	if (unlikely(!sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_plink))
+		goto out_dir;
+
+	err = dbgaufs_xigen_init(sbinfo);
+	if (!err)
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+out_dir:
+	dbgaufs_si_fin(sbinfo);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void dbgaufs_fin(void)
+{
+	debugfs_remove(dbgaufs);
+}
+
+int __init dbgaufs_init(void)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = -EIO;
+	dbgaufs = debugfs_create_dir(AUFS_NAME, NULL);
+	if (dbgaufs)
+		err = 0;
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dbgaufs.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * debugfs interface
+ */
+
+#ifndef __DBGAUFS_H__
+#define __DBGAUFS_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+struct super_block;
+struct au_sbinfo;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
+/* dbgaufs.c */
+void dbgaufs_brs_del(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+void dbgaufs_brs_add(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+void dbgaufs_si_fin(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo);
+int dbgaufs_si_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo);
+void dbgaufs_fin(void);
+int __init dbgaufs_init(void);
+#else
+AuStubVoid(dbgaufs_brs_del, struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+AuStubVoid(dbgaufs_brs_add, struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+AuStubVoid(dbgaufs_si_fin, struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+AuStubInt0(dbgaufs_si_init, struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+AuStubVoid(dbgaufs_fin, void)
+AuStubInt0(__init dbgaufs_init, void)
+#endif /* CONFIG_DEBUG_FS */
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __DBGAUFS_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dcsub.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dcsub.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dcsub.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dcsub.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,242 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * sub-routines for dentry cache
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+static void au_dpage_free(struct au_dpage *dpage)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct dentry **p;
+
+	p = dpage->dentries;
+	for (i = 0; i < dpage->ndentry; i++)
+		dput(*p++);
+	free_page((unsigned long)dpage->dentries);
+}
+
+int au_dpages_init(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages, gfp_t gfp)
+{
+	int err;
+	void *p;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	dpages->dpages = kmalloc(sizeof(*dpages->dpages), gfp);
+	if (unlikely(!dpages->dpages))
+		goto out;
+
+	p = (void *)__get_free_page(gfp);
+	if (unlikely(!p))
+		goto out_dpages;
+
+	dpages->dpages[0].ndentry = 0;
+	dpages->dpages[0].dentries = p;
+	dpages->ndpage = 1;
+	return 0; /* success */
+
+out_dpages:
+	kfree(dpages->dpages);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_dpages_free(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct au_dpage *p;
+
+	p = dpages->dpages;
+	for (i = 0; i < dpages->ndpage; i++)
+		au_dpage_free(p++);
+	kfree(dpages->dpages);
+}
+
+static int au_dpages_append(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages,
+			    struct dentry *dentry, gfp_t gfp)
+{
+	int err, sz;
+	struct au_dpage *dpage;
+	void *p;
+
+	dpage = dpages->dpages + dpages->ndpage - 1;
+	sz = PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(dpage->ndentry >= sz)) {
+		AuLabel(new dpage);
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		sz = dpages->ndpage * sizeof(*dpages->dpages);
+		p = au_kzrealloc(dpages->dpages, sz,
+				 sz + sizeof(*dpages->dpages), gfp);
+		if (unlikely(!p))
+			goto out;
+
+		dpages->dpages = p;
+		dpage = dpages->dpages + dpages->ndpage;
+		p = (void *)__get_free_page(gfp);
+		if (unlikely(!p))
+			goto out;
+
+		dpage->ndentry = 0;
+		dpage->dentries = p;
+		dpages->ndpage++;
+	}
+
+	AuDebugOn(!d_count(dentry));
+	dpage->dentries[dpage->ndentry++] = dget_dlock(dentry);
+	return 0; /* success */
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_dcsub_pages(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages, struct dentry *root,
+		   au_dpages_test test, void *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *this_parent;
+	struct list_head *next;
+	struct super_block *sb = root->d_sb;
+
+	err = 0;
+	write_seqlock(&rename_lock);
+	this_parent = root;
+	spin_lock(&this_parent->d_lock);
+repeat:
+	next = this_parent->d_subdirs.next;
+resume:
+	if (this_parent->d_sb == sb
+	    && !IS_ROOT(this_parent)
+	    && au_di(this_parent)
+	    && d_count(this_parent)
+	    && (!test || test(this_parent, arg))) {
+		err = au_dpages_append(dpages, this_parent, GFP_ATOMIC);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	while (next != &this_parent->d_subdirs) {
+		struct list_head *tmp = next;
+		struct dentry *dentry = list_entry(tmp, struct dentry,
+						   d_u.d_child);
+
+		next = tmp->next;
+		spin_lock_nested(&dentry->d_lock, DENTRY_D_LOCK_NESTED);
+		if (d_count(dentry)) {
+			if (!list_empty(&dentry->d_subdirs)) {
+				spin_unlock(&this_parent->d_lock);
+				spin_release(&dentry->d_lock.dep_map, 1,
+					     _RET_IP_);
+				this_parent = dentry;
+				spin_acquire(&this_parent->d_lock.dep_map, 0, 1,
+					     _RET_IP_);
+				goto repeat;
+			}
+			if (dentry->d_sb == sb
+			    && au_di(dentry)
+			    && (!test || test(dentry, arg)))
+				err = au_dpages_append(dpages, dentry,
+						       GFP_ATOMIC);
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (this_parent != root) {
+		struct dentry *tmp;
+		struct dentry *child;
+
+		tmp = this_parent->d_parent;
+		rcu_read_lock();
+		spin_unlock(&this_parent->d_lock);
+		child = this_parent;
+		this_parent = tmp;
+		spin_lock(&this_parent->d_lock);
+		rcu_read_unlock();
+		next = child->d_u.d_child.next;
+		goto resume;
+	}
+
+out:
+	spin_unlock(&this_parent->d_lock);
+	write_sequnlock(&rename_lock);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_dcsub_pages_rev(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages, struct dentry *dentry,
+		       int do_include, au_dpages_test test, void *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	write_seqlock(&rename_lock);
+	spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
+	if (do_include
+	    && d_count(dentry)
+	    && (!test || test(dentry, arg)))
+		err = au_dpages_append(dpages, dentry, GFP_ATOMIC);
+	spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * vfsmount_lock is unnecessary since this is a traverse in a single
+	 * mount
+	 */
+	while (!IS_ROOT(dentry)) {
+		dentry = dentry->d_parent; /* rename_lock is locked */
+		spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
+		if (d_count(dentry)
+		    && (!test || test(dentry, arg)))
+			err = au_dpages_append(dpages, dentry, GFP_ATOMIC);
+		spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			break;
+	}
+
+out:
+	write_sequnlock(&rename_lock);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static inline int au_dcsub_dpages_aufs(struct dentry *dentry, void *arg)
+{
+	return au_di(dentry) && dentry->d_sb == arg;
+}
+
+int au_dcsub_pages_rev_aufs(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages,
+			    struct dentry *dentry, int do_include)
+{
+	return au_dcsub_pages_rev(dpages, dentry, do_include,
+				  au_dcsub_dpages_aufs, dentry->d_sb);
+}
+
+int au_test_subdir(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2)
+{
+	struct path path[2] = {
+		{
+			.dentry = d1
+		},
+		{
+			.dentry = d2
+		}
+	};
+
+	return path_is_under(path + 0, path + 1);
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dcsub.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dcsub.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dcsub.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dcsub.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * sub-routines for dentry cache
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_DCSUB_H__
+#define __AUFS_DCSUB_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/dcache.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+
+struct dentry;
+
+struct au_dpage {
+	int ndentry;
+	struct dentry **dentries;
+};
+
+struct au_dcsub_pages {
+	int ndpage;
+	struct au_dpage *dpages;
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* dcsub.c */
+int au_dpages_init(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages, gfp_t gfp);
+void au_dpages_free(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages);
+typedef int (*au_dpages_test)(struct dentry *dentry, void *arg);
+int au_dcsub_pages(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages, struct dentry *root,
+		   au_dpages_test test, void *arg);
+int au_dcsub_pages_rev(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages, struct dentry *dentry,
+		       int do_include, au_dpages_test test, void *arg);
+int au_dcsub_pages_rev_aufs(struct au_dcsub_pages *dpages,
+			    struct dentry *dentry, int do_include);
+int au_test_subdir(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline int au_d_hashed_positive(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode = d->d_inode;
+	err = 0;
+	if (unlikely(d_unhashed(d) || !inode || !inode->i_nlink))
+		err = -ENOENT;
+	return err;
+}
+
+static inline int au_d_alive(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	err = 0;
+	if (!IS_ROOT(d))
+		err = au_d_hashed_positive(d);
+	else {
+		inode = d->d_inode;
+		if (unlikely(d_unlinked(d) || !inode || !inode->i_nlink))
+			err = -ENOENT;
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static inline int au_alive_dir(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	int err;
+	err = au_d_alive(d);
+	if (unlikely(err || IS_DEADDIR(d->d_inode)))
+		err = -ENOENT;
+	return err;
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_DCSUB_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/debug.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/debug.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/debug.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/debug.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,517 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * debug print functions
+ */
+
+#include <linux/vt_kern.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* Returns 0, or -errno.  arg is in kp->arg. */
+static int param_atomic_t_set(const char *val, const struct kernel_param *kp)
+{
+	int err, n;
+
+	err = kstrtoint(val, 0, &n);
+	if (!err) {
+		if (n > 0)
+			au_debug_on();
+		else
+			au_debug_off();
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* Returns length written or -errno.  Buffer is 4k (ie. be short!) */
+static int param_atomic_t_get(char *buffer, const struct kernel_param *kp)
+{
+	atomic_t *a;
+
+	a = kp->arg;
+	return sprintf(buffer, "%d", atomic_read(a));
+}
+
+static struct kernel_param_ops param_ops_atomic_t = {
+	.set = param_atomic_t_set,
+	.get = param_atomic_t_get
+	/* void (*free)(void *arg) */
+};
+
+atomic_t aufs_debug = ATOMIC_INIT(0);
+MODULE_PARM_DESC(debug, "debug print");
+module_param_named(debug, aufs_debug, atomic_t, S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR | S_IWGRP);
+
+char *au_plevel = KERN_DEBUG;
+#define dpri(fmt, ...) do {					\
+	if ((au_plevel						\
+	     && strcmp(au_plevel, KERN_DEBUG))			\
+	    || au_debug_test())					\
+		printk("%s" fmt, au_plevel, ##__VA_ARGS__);	\
+} while (0)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_dpri_whlist(struct au_nhash *whlist)
+{
+	unsigned long ul, n;
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	struct au_vdir_wh *pos;
+
+	n = whlist->nh_num;
+	head = whlist->nh_head;
+	for (ul = 0; ul < n; ul++) {
+		hlist_for_each_entry(pos, head, wh_hash)
+			dpri("b%d, %.*s, %d\n",
+			     pos->wh_bindex,
+			     pos->wh_str.len, pos->wh_str.name,
+			     pos->wh_str.len);
+		head++;
+	}
+}
+
+void au_dpri_vdir(struct au_vdir *vdir)
+{
+	unsigned long ul;
+	union au_vdir_deblk_p p;
+	unsigned char *o;
+
+	if (!vdir || IS_ERR(vdir)) {
+		dpri("err %ld\n", PTR_ERR(vdir));
+		return;
+	}
+
+	dpri("deblk %u, nblk %lu, deblk %p, last{%lu, %p}, ver %lu\n",
+	     vdir->vd_deblk_sz, vdir->vd_nblk, vdir->vd_deblk,
+	     vdir->vd_last.ul, vdir->vd_last.p.deblk, vdir->vd_version);
+	for (ul = 0; ul < vdir->vd_nblk; ul++) {
+		p.deblk = vdir->vd_deblk[ul];
+		o = p.deblk;
+		dpri("[%lu]: %p\n", ul, o);
+	}
+}
+
+static int do_pri_inode(aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct inode *inode, int hn,
+			struct dentry *wh)
+{
+	char *n = NULL;
+	int l = 0;
+
+	if (!inode || IS_ERR(inode)) {
+		dpri("i%d: err %ld\n", bindex, PTR_ERR(inode));
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	/* the type of i_blocks depends upon CONFIG_LBDAF */
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(inode->i_blocks) != sizeof(unsigned long)
+		     && sizeof(inode->i_blocks) != sizeof(u64));
+	if (wh) {
+		n = (void *)wh->d_name.name;
+		l = wh->d_name.len;
+	}
+
+	dpri("i%d: %p, i%lu, %s, cnt %d, nl %u, 0%o, sz %llu, blk %llu,"
+	     " hn %d, ct %lld, np %lu, st 0x%lx, f 0x%x, v %llu, g %x%s%.*s\n",
+	     bindex, inode,
+	     inode->i_ino, inode->i_sb ? au_sbtype(inode->i_sb) : "??",
+	     atomic_read(&inode->i_count), inode->i_nlink, inode->i_mode,
+	     i_size_read(inode), (unsigned long long)inode->i_blocks,
+	     hn, (long long)timespec_to_ns(&inode->i_ctime) & 0x0ffff,
+	     inode->i_mapping ? inode->i_mapping->nrpages : 0,
+	     inode->i_state, inode->i_flags, inode->i_version,
+	     inode->i_generation,
+	     l ? ", wh " : "", l, n);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+void au_dpri_inode(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	int err, hn;
+
+	err = do_pri_inode(-1, inode, -1, NULL);
+	if (err || !au_test_aufs(inode->i_sb))
+		return;
+
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	if (!iinfo)
+		return;
+	dpri("i-1: bstart %d, bend %d, gen %d\n",
+	     iinfo->ii_bstart, iinfo->ii_bend, au_iigen(inode, NULL));
+	if (iinfo->ii_bstart < 0)
+		return;
+	hn = 0;
+	for (bindex = iinfo->ii_bstart; bindex <= iinfo->ii_bend; bindex++) {
+		hn = !!au_hn(iinfo->ii_hinode + bindex);
+		do_pri_inode(bindex, iinfo->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_inode, hn,
+			     iinfo->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_whdentry);
+	}
+}
+
+void au_dpri_dalias(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
+	hlist_for_each_entry(d, &inode->i_dentry, d_alias)
+		au_dpri_dentry(d);
+	spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
+}
+
+static int do_pri_dentry(aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct dentry *wh = NULL;
+	int hn;
+
+	if (!dentry || IS_ERR(dentry)) {
+		dpri("d%d: err %ld\n", bindex, PTR_ERR(dentry));
+		return -1;
+	}
+	/* do not call dget_parent() here */
+	/* note: access d_xxx without d_lock */
+	dpri("d%d: %.*s?/%.*s, %s, cnt %d, flags 0x%x\n",
+	     bindex,
+	     AuDLNPair(dentry->d_parent), AuDLNPair(dentry),
+	     dentry->d_sb ? au_sbtype(dentry->d_sb) : "??",
+	     d_count(dentry), dentry->d_flags);
+	hn = -1;
+	if (bindex >= 0 && dentry->d_inode && au_test_aufs(dentry->d_sb)) {
+		struct au_iinfo *iinfo = au_ii(dentry->d_inode);
+		if (iinfo) {
+			hn = !!au_hn(iinfo->ii_hinode + bindex);
+			wh = iinfo->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_whdentry;
+		}
+	}
+	do_pri_inode(bindex, dentry->d_inode, hn, wh);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+void au_dpri_dentry(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	int err;
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+
+	err = do_pri_dentry(-1, dentry);
+	if (err || !au_test_aufs(dentry->d_sb))
+		return;
+
+	dinfo = au_di(dentry);
+	if (!dinfo)
+		return;
+	dpri("d-1: bstart %d, bend %d, bwh %d, bdiropq %d, gen %d\n",
+	     dinfo->di_bstart, dinfo->di_bend,
+	     dinfo->di_bwh, dinfo->di_bdiropq, au_digen(dentry));
+	if (dinfo->di_bstart < 0)
+		return;
+	hdp = dinfo->di_hdentry;
+	for (bindex = dinfo->di_bstart; bindex <= dinfo->di_bend; bindex++)
+		do_pri_dentry(bindex, hdp[0 + bindex].hd_dentry);
+}
+
+static int do_pri_file(aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct file *file)
+{
+	char a[32];
+
+	if (!file || IS_ERR(file)) {
+		dpri("f%d: err %ld\n", bindex, PTR_ERR(file));
+		return -1;
+	}
+	a[0] = 0;
+	if (bindex < 0
+	    && file->f_dentry
+	    && au_test_aufs(file->f_dentry->d_sb)
+	    && au_fi(file))
+		snprintf(a, sizeof(a), ", gen %d, mmapped %d",
+			 au_figen(file), atomic_read(&au_fi(file)->fi_mmapped));
+	dpri("f%d: mode 0x%x, flags 0%o, cnt %ld, v %llu, pos %llu%s\n",
+	     bindex, file->f_mode, file->f_flags, (long)file_count(file),
+	     file->f_version, file->f_pos, a);
+	if (file->f_dentry)
+		do_pri_dentry(bindex, file->f_dentry);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+void au_dpri_file(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	struct au_fidir *fidir;
+	struct au_hfile *hfile;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	int err;
+
+	err = do_pri_file(-1, file);
+	if (err || !file->f_dentry || !au_test_aufs(file->f_dentry->d_sb))
+		return;
+
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	if (!finfo)
+		return;
+	if (finfo->fi_btop < 0)
+		return;
+	fidir = finfo->fi_hdir;
+	if (!fidir)
+		do_pri_file(finfo->fi_btop, finfo->fi_htop.hf_file);
+	else
+		for (bindex = finfo->fi_btop;
+		     bindex >= 0 && bindex <= fidir->fd_bbot;
+		     bindex++) {
+			hfile = fidir->fd_hfile + bindex;
+			do_pri_file(bindex, hfile ? hfile->hf_file : NULL);
+		}
+}
+
+static int do_pri_br(aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct vfsmount *mnt;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	if (!br || IS_ERR(br))
+		goto out;
+	mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+	if (!mnt || IS_ERR(mnt))
+		goto out;
+	sb = mnt->mnt_sb;
+	if (!sb || IS_ERR(sb))
+		goto out;
+
+	dpri("s%d: {perm 0x%x, id %d, cnt %d, wbr %p}, "
+	     "%s, dev 0x%02x%02x, flags 0x%lx, cnt %d, active %d, "
+	     "xino %d\n",
+	     bindex, br->br_perm, br->br_id, atomic_read(&br->br_count),
+	     br->br_wbr, au_sbtype(sb), MAJOR(sb->s_dev), MINOR(sb->s_dev),
+	     sb->s_flags, sb->s_count,
+	     atomic_read(&sb->s_active), !!br->br_xino.xi_file);
+	return 0;
+
+out:
+	dpri("s%d: err %ld\n", bindex, PTR_ERR(br));
+	return -1;
+}
+
+void au_dpri_sb(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	int err;
+	/* to reuduce stack size */
+	struct {
+		struct vfsmount mnt;
+		struct au_branch fake;
+	} *a;
+
+	/* this function can be called from magic sysrq */
+	a = kzalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_ATOMIC);
+	if (unlikely(!a)) {
+		dpri("no memory\n");
+		return;
+	}
+
+	a->mnt.mnt_sb = sb;
+	a->fake.br_perm = 0;
+	a->fake.br_path.mnt = &a->mnt;
+	a->fake.br_xino.xi_file = NULL;
+	atomic_set(&a->fake.br_count, 0);
+	smp_mb(); /* atomic_set */
+	err = do_pri_br(-1, &a->fake);
+	kfree(a);
+	dpri("dev 0x%x\n", sb->s_dev);
+	if (err || !au_test_aufs(sb))
+		return;
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	if (!sbinfo)
+		return;
+	dpri("nw %d, gen %u, kobj %d\n",
+	     atomic_read(&sbinfo->si_nowait.nw_len), sbinfo->si_generation,
+	     atomic_read(&sbinfo->si_kobj.kref.refcount));
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= sbinfo->si_bend; bindex++)
+		do_pri_br(bindex, sbinfo->si_branch[0 + bindex]);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_dbg_sleep_jiffy(int jiffy)
+{
+	while (jiffy)
+		jiffy = schedule_timeout_uninterruptible(jiffy);
+}
+
+void au_dbg_iattr(struct iattr *ia)
+{
+#define AuBit(name)					\
+	do {						\
+		if (ia->ia_valid & ATTR_ ## name)	\
+			dpri(#name "\n");		\
+	} while (0)
+	AuBit(MODE);
+	AuBit(UID);
+	AuBit(GID);
+	AuBit(SIZE);
+	AuBit(ATIME);
+	AuBit(MTIME);
+	AuBit(CTIME);
+	AuBit(ATIME_SET);
+	AuBit(MTIME_SET);
+	AuBit(FORCE);
+	AuBit(ATTR_FLAG);
+	AuBit(KILL_SUID);
+	AuBit(KILL_SGID);
+	AuBit(FILE);
+	AuBit(KILL_PRIV);
+	AuBit(OPEN);
+	AuBit(TIMES_SET);
+#undef	AuBit
+	dpri("ia_file %p\n", ia->ia_file);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void __au_dbg_verify_dinode(struct dentry *dentry, const char *func, int line)
+{
+	struct inode *h_inode, *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend, bi;
+
+	if (!inode /* || au_di(dentry)->di_lsc == AuLsc_DI_TMP */)
+		return;
+
+	bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+	bi = au_ibend(inode);
+	if (bi < bend)
+		bend = bi;
+	bindex = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	bi = au_ibstart(inode);
+	if (bi > bindex)
+		bindex = bi;
+
+	for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_dentry)
+			continue;
+		h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+		if (unlikely(h_inode != h_dentry->d_inode)) {
+			au_debug_on();
+			AuDbg("b%d, %s:%d\n", bindex, func, line);
+			AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+			AuDbgInode(inode);
+			au_debug_off();
+			BUG();
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+void au_dbg_verify_dir_parent(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	struct dentry *parent;
+
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	AuDebugOn(!S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+	AuDebugOn(IS_ROOT(dentry));
+	AuDebugOn(au_digen_test(parent, sigen));
+	dput(parent);
+}
+
+void au_dbg_verify_nondir_parent(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(inode && S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+	AuDebugOn(au_digen_test(parent, sigen));
+	dput(parent);
+}
+
+void au_dbg_verify_gen(struct dentry *parent, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	int err, i, j;
+	struct au_dcsub_pages dpages;
+	struct au_dpage *dpage;
+	struct dentry **dentries;
+
+	err = au_dpages_init(&dpages, GFP_NOFS);
+	AuDebugOn(err);
+	err = au_dcsub_pages_rev_aufs(&dpages, parent, /*do_include*/1);
+	AuDebugOn(err);
+	for (i = dpages.ndpage - 1; !err && i >= 0; i--) {
+		dpage = dpages.dpages + i;
+		dentries = dpage->dentries;
+		for (j = dpage->ndentry - 1; !err && j >= 0; j--)
+			AuDebugOn(au_digen_test(dentries[j], sigen));
+	}
+	au_dpages_free(&dpages);
+}
+
+void au_dbg_verify_kthread(void)
+{
+	if (au_wkq_test()) {
+		au_dbg_blocked();
+		/*
+		 * It may be recursive, but udba=notify between two aufs mounts,
+		 * where a single ro branch is shared, is not a problem.
+		 */
+		/* WARN_ON(1); */
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_debug_sbinfo_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo __maybe_unused)
+{
+#ifdef AuForceNoPlink
+	au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, PLINK);
+#endif
+#ifdef AuForceNoXino
+	au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO);
+#endif
+#ifdef AuForceNoRefrof
+	au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, REFROF);
+#endif
+#ifdef AuForceHnotify
+	au_opt_set_udba(sbinfo->si_mntflags, UDBA_HNOTIFY);
+#endif
+#ifdef AuForceRd0
+	sbinfo->si_rdblk = 0;
+	sbinfo->si_rdhash = 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+int __init au_debug_init(void)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct au_vdir_destr destr;
+
+	bindex = -1;
+	AuDebugOn(bindex >= 0);
+
+	destr.len = -1;
+	AuDebugOn(destr.len < NAME_MAX);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_4KSTACKS
+	pr_warn("CONFIG_4KSTACKS is defined.\n");
+#endif
+
+#ifdef AuForceNoBrs
+	sysaufs_brs = 0;
+#endif
+
+	return 0;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/debug.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/debug.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/debug.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/debug.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,248 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * debug print functions
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_DEBUG_H__
+#define __AUFS_DEBUG_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/atomic.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
+#include <linux/sysrq.h>
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+#define AuDebugOn(a)		BUG_ON(a)
+
+/* module parameter */
+extern atomic_t aufs_debug;
+static inline void au_debug_on(void)
+{
+	atomic_inc(&aufs_debug);
+}
+static inline void au_debug_off(void)
+{
+	atomic_dec_if_positive(&aufs_debug);
+}
+
+static inline int au_debug_test(void)
+{
+	return atomic_read(&aufs_debug) > 0;
+}
+#else
+#define AuDebugOn(a)		do {} while (0)
+AuStubVoid(au_debug_on, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_debug_off, void)
+AuStubInt0(au_debug_test, void)
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG */
+
+#define param_check_atomic_t(name, p) __param_check(name, p, atomic_t)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* debug print */
+
+#define AuDbg(fmt, ...) do { \
+	if (au_debug_test()) \
+		pr_debug("DEBUG: " fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__); \
+} while (0)
+#define AuLabel(l)		AuDbg(#l "\n")
+#define AuIOErr(fmt, ...)	pr_err("I/O Error, " fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
+#define AuWarn1(fmt, ...) do { \
+	static unsigned char _c; \
+	if (!_c++) \
+		pr_warn(fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuErr1(fmt, ...) do { \
+	static unsigned char _c; \
+	if (!_c++) \
+		pr_err(fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuIOErr1(fmt, ...) do { \
+	static unsigned char _c; \
+	if (!_c++) \
+		AuIOErr(fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuUnsupportMsg	"This operation is not supported." \
+			" Please report this application to aufs-users ML."
+#define AuUnsupport(fmt, ...) do { \
+	pr_err(AuUnsupportMsg "\n" fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__); \
+	dump_stack(); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuTraceErr(e) do { \
+	if (unlikely((e) < 0)) \
+		AuDbg("err %d\n", (int)(e)); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuTraceErrPtr(p) do { \
+	if (IS_ERR(p)) \
+		AuDbg("err %ld\n", PTR_ERR(p)); \
+} while (0)
+
+/* dirty macros for debug print, use with "%.*s" and caution */
+#define AuLNPair(qstr)		(qstr)->len, (qstr)->name
+#define AuDLNPair(d)		AuLNPair(&(d)->d_name)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_sbinfo;
+struct au_finfo;
+struct dentry;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+extern char *au_plevel;
+struct au_nhash;
+void au_dpri_whlist(struct au_nhash *whlist);
+struct au_vdir;
+void au_dpri_vdir(struct au_vdir *vdir);
+struct inode;
+void au_dpri_inode(struct inode *inode);
+void au_dpri_dalias(struct inode *inode);
+void au_dpri_dentry(struct dentry *dentry);
+struct file;
+void au_dpri_file(struct file *filp);
+struct super_block;
+void au_dpri_sb(struct super_block *sb);
+
+void au_dbg_sleep_jiffy(int jiffy);
+struct iattr;
+void au_dbg_iattr(struct iattr *ia);
+
+#define au_dbg_verify_dinode(d) __au_dbg_verify_dinode(d, __func__, __LINE__)
+void __au_dbg_verify_dinode(struct dentry *dentry, const char *func, int line);
+void au_dbg_verify_dir_parent(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen);
+void au_dbg_verify_nondir_parent(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen);
+void au_dbg_verify_gen(struct dentry *parent, unsigned int sigen);
+void au_dbg_verify_kthread(void);
+
+int __init au_debug_init(void);
+void au_debug_sbinfo_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo);
+#define AuDbgWhlist(w) do { \
+	AuDbg(#w "\n"); \
+	au_dpri_whlist(w); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgVdir(v) do { \
+	AuDbg(#v "\n"); \
+	au_dpri_vdir(v); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgInode(i) do { \
+	AuDbg(#i "\n"); \
+	au_dpri_inode(i); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgDAlias(i) do { \
+	AuDbg(#i "\n"); \
+	au_dpri_dalias(i); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgDentry(d) do { \
+	AuDbg(#d "\n"); \
+	au_dpri_dentry(d); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgFile(f) do { \
+	AuDbg(#f "\n"); \
+	au_dpri_file(f); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgSb(sb) do { \
+	AuDbg(#sb "\n"); \
+	au_dpri_sb(sb); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgSleep(sec) do { \
+	AuDbg("sleep %d sec\n", sec); \
+	ssleep(sec); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgSleepJiffy(jiffy) do { \
+	AuDbg("sleep %d jiffies\n", jiffy); \
+	au_dbg_sleep_jiffy(jiffy); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgIAttr(ia) do { \
+	AuDbg("ia_valid 0x%x\n", (ia)->ia_valid); \
+	au_dbg_iattr(ia); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgSym(addr) do {				\
+	char sym[KSYM_SYMBOL_LEN];			\
+	sprint_symbol(sym, (unsigned long)addr);	\
+	AuDbg("%s\n", sym);				\
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuInfoSym(addr) do {				\
+	char sym[KSYM_SYMBOL_LEN];			\
+	sprint_symbol(sym, (unsigned long)addr);	\
+	AuInfo("%s\n", sym);				\
+} while (0)
+#else
+AuStubVoid(au_dbg_verify_dinode, struct dentry *dentry)
+AuStubVoid(au_dbg_verify_dir_parent, struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen)
+AuStubVoid(au_dbg_verify_nondir_parent, struct dentry *dentry,
+	   unsigned int sigen)
+AuStubVoid(au_dbg_verify_gen, struct dentry *parent, unsigned int sigen)
+AuStubVoid(au_dbg_verify_kthread, void)
+AuStubInt0(__init au_debug_init, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_debug_sbinfo_init, struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+
+#define AuDbgWhlist(w)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgVdir(v)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgInode(i)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgDAlias(i)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgDentry(d)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgFile(f)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgSb(sb)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgSleep(sec)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgSleepJiffy(jiffy)	do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgIAttr(ia)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgSym(addr)		do {} while (0)
+#define AuInfoSym(addr)		do {} while (0)
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG */
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_MAGIC_SYSRQ
+int __init au_sysrq_init(void);
+void au_sysrq_fin(void);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_HW_CONSOLE
+#define au_dbg_blocked() do { \
+	WARN_ON(1); \
+	handle_sysrq('w'); \
+} while (0)
+#else
+AuStubVoid(au_dbg_blocked, void)
+#endif
+
+#else
+AuStubInt0(__init au_sysrq_init, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_sysrq_fin, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_dbg_blocked, void)
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_MAGIC_SYSRQ */
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_DEBUG_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dentry.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dentry.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dentry.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dentry.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1064 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * lookup and dentry operations
+ */
+
+#include <linux/namei.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+#define AuLkup_ALLOW_NEG	1
+#define au_ftest_lkup(flags, name)	((flags) & AuLkup_##name)
+#define au_fset_lkup(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuLkup_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_lkup(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuLkup_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_do_lookup_args {
+	unsigned int		flags;
+	mode_t			type;
+};
+
+/*
+ * returns positive/negative dentry, NULL or an error.
+ * NULL means whiteout-ed or not-found.
+ */
+static struct dentry*
+au_do_lookup(struct dentry *h_parent, struct dentry *dentry,
+	     aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct qstr *wh_name,
+	     struct au_do_lookup_args *args)
+{
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *h_inode, *inode;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	int wh_found, opq;
+	unsigned char wh_able;
+	const unsigned char allow_neg = !!au_ftest_lkup(args->flags, ALLOW_NEG);
+
+	wh_found = 0;
+	br = au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+	wh_able = !!au_br_whable(br->br_perm);
+	if (wh_able)
+		wh_found = au_wh_test(h_parent, wh_name, br, /*try_sio*/0);
+	h_dentry = ERR_PTR(wh_found);
+	if (!wh_found)
+		goto real_lookup;
+	if (unlikely(wh_found < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* We found a whiteout */
+	/* au_set_dbend(dentry, bindex); */
+	au_set_dbwh(dentry, bindex);
+	if (!allow_neg)
+		return NULL; /* success */
+
+real_lookup:
+	h_dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(&dentry->d_name, h_parent);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!h_inode) {
+		if (!allow_neg)
+			goto out_neg;
+	} else if (wh_found
+		   || (args->type && args->type != (h_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT)))
+		goto out_neg;
+
+	if (au_dbend(dentry) <= bindex)
+		au_set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+	if (au_dbstart(dentry) < 0 || bindex < au_dbstart(dentry))
+		au_set_dbstart(dentry, bindex);
+	au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bindex, h_dentry);
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!h_inode || !S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode) || !wh_able
+	    || (inode && !S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)))
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	mutex_lock_nested(&h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	opq = au_diropq_test(h_dentry, br);
+	mutex_unlock(&h_inode->i_mutex);
+	if (opq > 0)
+		au_set_dbdiropq(dentry, bindex);
+	else if (unlikely(opq < 0)) {
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+		h_dentry = ERR_PTR(opq);
+	}
+	goto out;
+
+out_neg:
+	dput(h_dentry);
+	h_dentry = NULL;
+out:
+	return h_dentry;
+}
+
+static int au_test_shwh(struct super_block *sb, const struct qstr *name)
+{
+	if (unlikely(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), SHWH)
+		     && !strncmp(name->name, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN)))
+		return -EPERM;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns the number of lower positive dentries,
+ * otherwise an error.
+ * can be called at unlinking with @type is zero.
+ */
+int au_lkup_dentry(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bstart, mode_t type)
+{
+	int npositive, err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, btail, bdiropq;
+	unsigned char isdir;
+	struct qstr whname;
+	struct au_do_lookup_args args = {
+		.flags		= 0,
+		.type		= type
+	};
+	const struct qstr *name = &dentry->d_name;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	err = au_test_shwh(dentry->d_sb, name);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_wh_name_alloc(&whname, name);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	isdir = !!(inode && S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode));
+	if (!type)
+		au_fset_lkup(args.flags, ALLOW_NEG);
+
+	npositive = 0;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	btail = au_dbtaildir(parent);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= btail; bindex++) {
+		struct dentry *h_parent, *h_dentry;
+		struct inode *h_inode, *h_dir;
+
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (h_dentry) {
+			if (h_dentry->d_inode)
+				npositive++;
+			if (type != S_IFDIR)
+				break;
+			continue;
+		}
+		h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bindex);
+		if (!h_parent)
+			continue;
+		h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+		if (!h_dir || !S_ISDIR(h_dir->i_mode))
+			continue;
+
+		mutex_lock_nested(&h_dir->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+		h_dentry = au_do_lookup(h_parent, dentry, bindex, &whname,
+					&args);
+		mutex_unlock(&h_dir->i_mutex);
+		err = PTR_ERR(h_dentry);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_dentry))
+			goto out_parent;
+		au_fclr_lkup(args.flags, ALLOW_NEG);
+
+		if (au_dbwh(dentry) >= 0)
+			break;
+		if (!h_dentry)
+			continue;
+		h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+		if (!h_inode)
+			continue;
+		npositive++;
+		if (!args.type)
+			args.type = h_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT;
+		if (args.type != S_IFDIR)
+			break;
+		else if (isdir) {
+			/* the type of lower may be different */
+			bdiropq = au_dbdiropq(dentry);
+			if (bdiropq >= 0 && bdiropq <= bindex)
+				break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (npositive) {
+		AuLabel(positive);
+		au_update_dbstart(dentry);
+	}
+	err = npositive;
+	if (unlikely(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(dentry->d_sb), UDBA_NONE)
+		     && au_dbstart(dentry) < 0)) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		AuIOErr("both of real entry and whiteout found, %.*s, err %d\n",
+			AuDLNPair(dentry), err);
+	}
+
+out_parent:
+	dput(parent);
+	kfree(whname.name);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct dentry *au_sio_lkup_one(struct qstr *name, struct dentry *parent,
+			       struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	int wkq_err;
+
+	if (!au_test_h_perm_sio(parent->d_inode, MAY_EXEC))
+		dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(name, parent);
+	else {
+		struct vfsub_lkup_one_args args = {
+			.errp	= &dentry,
+			.name	= name,
+			.parent	= parent
+		};
+
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(vfsub_call_lkup_one, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			dentry = ERR_PTR(wkq_err);
+	}
+
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+/*
+ * lookup @dentry on @bindex which should be negative.
+ */
+int au_lkup_neg(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex, int wh)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *parent, *h_parent, *h_dentry;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bindex);
+	br = au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+	if (wh)
+		h_dentry = au_whtmp_lkup(h_parent, br, &dentry->d_name);
+	else
+		h_dentry = au_sio_lkup_one(&dentry->d_name, h_parent, br);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_dentry))
+		goto out;
+	if (unlikely(h_dentry->d_inode)) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		AuIOErr("%.*s should be negative on b%d.\n",
+			AuDLNPair(h_dentry), bindex);
+		dput(h_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (bindex < au_dbstart(dentry))
+		au_set_dbstart(dentry, bindex);
+	if (au_dbend(dentry) < bindex)
+		au_set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+	au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bindex, h_dentry);
+
+out:
+	dput(parent);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* subset of struct inode */
+struct au_iattr {
+	unsigned long		i_ino;
+	/* unsigned int		i_nlink; */
+	kuid_t			i_uid;
+	kgid_t			i_gid;
+	u64			i_version;
+/*
+	loff_t			i_size;
+	blkcnt_t		i_blocks;
+*/
+	umode_t			i_mode;
+};
+
+static void au_iattr_save(struct au_iattr *ia, struct inode *h_inode)
+{
+	ia->i_ino = h_inode->i_ino;
+	/* ia->i_nlink = h_inode->i_nlink; */
+	ia->i_uid = h_inode->i_uid;
+	ia->i_gid = h_inode->i_gid;
+	ia->i_version = h_inode->i_version;
+/*
+	ia->i_size = h_inode->i_size;
+	ia->i_blocks = h_inode->i_blocks;
+*/
+	ia->i_mode = (h_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT);
+}
+
+static int au_iattr_test(struct au_iattr *ia, struct inode *h_inode)
+{
+	return ia->i_ino != h_inode->i_ino
+		/* || ia->i_nlink != h_inode->i_nlink */
+		|| !uid_eq(ia->i_uid, h_inode->i_uid)
+		|| !gid_eq(ia->i_gid, h_inode->i_gid)
+		|| ia->i_version != h_inode->i_version
+/*
+		|| ia->i_size != h_inode->i_size
+		|| ia->i_blocks != h_inode->i_blocks
+*/
+		|| ia->i_mode != (h_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT);
+}
+
+static int au_h_verify_dentry(struct dentry *h_dentry, struct dentry *h_parent,
+			      struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_iattr ia;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	struct dentry *h_d;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+
+	err = 0;
+	memset(&ia, -1, sizeof(ia));
+	h_sb = h_dentry->d_sb;
+	h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	if (h_inode)
+		au_iattr_save(&ia, h_inode);
+	else if (au_test_nfs(h_sb) || au_test_fuse(h_sb))
+		/* nfs d_revalidate may return 0 for negative dentry */
+		/* fuse d_revalidate always return 0 for negative dentry */
+		goto out;
+
+	/* main purpose is namei.c:cached_lookup() and d_revalidate */
+	h_d = vfsub_lkup_one(&h_dentry->d_name, h_parent);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_d);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_d))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (unlikely(h_d != h_dentry
+		     || h_d->d_inode != h_inode
+		     || (h_inode && au_iattr_test(&ia, h_inode))))
+		err = au_busy_or_stale();
+	dput(h_d);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_h_verify(struct dentry *h_dentry, unsigned int udba, struct inode *h_dir,
+		struct dentry *h_parent, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (udba == AuOpt_UDBA_REVAL
+	    && !au_test_fs_remote(h_dentry->d_sb)) {
+		IMustLock(h_dir);
+		err = (h_dentry->d_parent->d_inode != h_dir);
+	} else if (udba != AuOpt_UDBA_NONE)
+		err = au_h_verify_dentry(h_dentry, h_parent, br);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_do_refresh_hdentry(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *parent)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t new_bindex, bindex, bend, bwh, bdiropq;
+	struct au_hdentry tmp, *p, *q;
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	dinfo = au_di(dentry);
+	bend = dinfo->di_bend;
+	bwh = dinfo->di_bwh;
+	bdiropq = dinfo->di_bdiropq;
+	p = dinfo->di_hdentry + dinfo->di_bstart;
+	for (bindex = dinfo->di_bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++, p++) {
+		if (!p->hd_dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		new_bindex = au_br_index(sb, p->hd_id);
+		if (new_bindex == bindex)
+			continue;
+
+		if (dinfo->di_bwh == bindex)
+			bwh = new_bindex;
+		if (dinfo->di_bdiropq == bindex)
+			bdiropq = new_bindex;
+		if (new_bindex < 0) {
+			au_hdput(p);
+			p->hd_dentry = NULL;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* swap two lower dentries, and loop again */
+		q = dinfo->di_hdentry + new_bindex;
+		tmp = *q;
+		*q = *p;
+		*p = tmp;
+		if (tmp.hd_dentry) {
+			bindex--;
+			p--;
+		}
+	}
+
+	dinfo->di_bwh = -1;
+	if (bwh >= 0 && bwh <= au_sbend(sb) && au_sbr_whable(sb, bwh))
+		dinfo->di_bwh = bwh;
+
+	dinfo->di_bdiropq = -1;
+	if (bdiropq >= 0
+	    && bdiropq <= au_sbend(sb)
+	    && au_sbr_whable(sb, bdiropq))
+		dinfo->di_bdiropq = bdiropq;
+
+	err = -EIO;
+	dinfo->di_bstart = -1;
+	dinfo->di_bend = -1;
+	bend = au_dbend(parent);
+	p = dinfo->di_hdentry;
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++, p++)
+		if (p->hd_dentry) {
+			dinfo->di_bstart = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+
+	if (dinfo->di_bstart >= 0) {
+		p = dinfo->di_hdentry + bend;
+		for (bindex = bend; bindex >= 0; bindex--, p--)
+			if (p->hd_dentry) {
+				dinfo->di_bend = bindex;
+				err = 0;
+				break;
+			}
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_do_hide(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (inode) {
+		if (!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
+			if (inode->i_nlink && !d_unhashed(dentry))
+				drop_nlink(inode);
+		} else {
+			clear_nlink(inode);
+			/* stop next lookup */
+			inode->i_flags |= S_DEAD;
+		}
+		smp_mb(); /* necessary? */
+	}
+	d_drop(dentry);
+}
+
+static int au_hide_children(struct dentry *parent)
+{
+	int err, i, j, ndentry;
+	struct au_dcsub_pages dpages;
+	struct au_dpage *dpage;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+
+	err = au_dpages_init(&dpages, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_dcsub_pages(&dpages, parent, NULL, NULL);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_dpages;
+
+	/* in reverse order */
+	for (i = dpages.ndpage - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+		dpage = dpages.dpages + i;
+		ndentry = dpage->ndentry;
+		for (j = ndentry - 1; j >= 0; j--) {
+			dentry = dpage->dentries[j];
+			if (dentry != parent)
+				au_do_hide(dentry);
+		}
+	}
+
+out_dpages:
+	au_dpages_free(&dpages);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_hide(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (inode && S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
+		/* shrink_dcache_parent(dentry); */
+		err = au_hide_children(dentry);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			AuIOErr("%.*s, failed hiding children, ignored %d\n",
+				AuDLNPair(dentry), err);
+	}
+	au_do_hide(dentry);
+}
+
+/*
+ * By adding a dirty branch, a cached dentry may be affected in various ways.
+ *
+ * a dirty branch is added
+ * - on the top of layers
+ * - in the middle of layers
+ * - to the bottom of layers
+ *
+ * on the added branch there exists
+ * - a whiteout
+ * - a diropq
+ * - a same named entry
+ *   + exist
+ *     * negative --> positive
+ *     * positive --> positive
+ *	 - type is unchanged
+ *	 - type is changed
+ *   + doesn't exist
+ *     * negative --> negative
+ *     * positive --> negative (rejected by au_br_del() for non-dir case)
+ * - none
+ */
+static int au_refresh_by_dinfo(struct dentry *dentry, struct au_dinfo *dinfo,
+			       struct au_dinfo *tmp)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct {
+		struct dentry *dentry;
+		struct inode *inode;
+		mode_t mode;
+	} orig_h, tmp_h;
+	struct au_hdentry *hd;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	err = 0;
+	AuDebugOn(dinfo->di_bstart < 0);
+	orig_h.dentry = dinfo->di_hdentry[dinfo->di_bstart].hd_dentry;
+	orig_h.inode = orig_h.dentry->d_inode;
+	orig_h.mode = 0;
+	if (orig_h.inode)
+		orig_h.mode = orig_h.inode->i_mode & S_IFMT;
+	memset(&tmp_h, 0, sizeof(tmp_h));
+	if (tmp->di_bstart >= 0) {
+		tmp_h.dentry = tmp->di_hdentry[tmp->di_bstart].hd_dentry;
+		tmp_h.inode = tmp_h.dentry->d_inode;
+		if (tmp_h.inode)
+			tmp_h.mode = tmp_h.inode->i_mode & S_IFMT;
+	}
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!orig_h.inode) {
+		AuDbg("nagative originally\n");
+		if (inode) {
+			au_hide(dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+		AuDebugOn(inode);
+		AuDebugOn(dinfo->di_bstart != dinfo->di_bend);
+		AuDebugOn(dinfo->di_bdiropq != -1);
+
+		if (!tmp_h.inode) {
+			AuDbg("negative --> negative\n");
+			/* should have only one negative lower */
+			if (tmp->di_bstart >= 0
+			    && tmp->di_bstart < dinfo->di_bstart) {
+				AuDebugOn(tmp->di_bstart != tmp->di_bend);
+				AuDebugOn(dinfo->di_bstart != dinfo->di_bend);
+				au_set_h_dptr(dentry, dinfo->di_bstart, NULL);
+				au_di_cp(dinfo, tmp);
+				hd = tmp->di_hdentry + tmp->di_bstart;
+				au_set_h_dptr(dentry, tmp->di_bstart,
+					      dget(hd->hd_dentry));
+			}
+			au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+		} else {
+			AuDbg("negative --> positive\n");
+			/*
+			 * similar to the behaviour of creating with bypassing
+			 * aufs.
+			 * unhash it in order to force an error in the
+			 * succeeding create operation.
+			 * we should not set S_DEAD here.
+			 */
+			d_drop(dentry);
+			/* au_di_swap(tmp, dinfo); */
+			au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+		}
+	} else {
+		AuDbg("positive originally\n");
+		/* inode may be NULL */
+		AuDebugOn(inode && (inode->i_mode & S_IFMT) != orig_h.mode);
+		if (!tmp_h.inode) {
+			AuDbg("positive --> negative\n");
+			/* or bypassing aufs */
+			au_hide(dentry);
+			if (tmp->di_bwh >= 0 && tmp->di_bwh <= dinfo->di_bstart)
+				dinfo->di_bwh = tmp->di_bwh;
+			if (inode)
+				err = au_refresh_hinode_self(inode);
+			au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+		} else if (orig_h.mode == tmp_h.mode) {
+			AuDbg("positive --> positive, same type\n");
+			if (!S_ISDIR(orig_h.mode)
+			    && dinfo->di_bstart > tmp->di_bstart) {
+				/*
+				 * similar to the behaviour of removing and
+				 * creating.
+				 */
+				au_hide(dentry);
+				if (inode)
+					err = au_refresh_hinode_self(inode);
+				au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+			} else {
+				/* fill empty slots */
+				if (dinfo->di_bstart > tmp->di_bstart)
+					dinfo->di_bstart = tmp->di_bstart;
+				if (dinfo->di_bend < tmp->di_bend)
+					dinfo->di_bend = tmp->di_bend;
+				dinfo->di_bwh = tmp->di_bwh;
+				dinfo->di_bdiropq = tmp->di_bdiropq;
+				hd = tmp->di_hdentry;
+				bend = dinfo->di_bend;
+				for (bindex = tmp->di_bstart; bindex <= bend;
+				     bindex++) {
+					if (au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex))
+						continue;
+					h_dentry = hd[bindex].hd_dentry;
+					if (!h_dentry)
+						continue;
+					h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+					AuDebugOn(!h_inode);
+					AuDebugOn(orig_h.mode
+						  != (h_inode->i_mode
+						      & S_IFMT));
+					au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bindex,
+						      dget(h_dentry));
+				}
+				err = au_refresh_hinode(inode, dentry);
+				au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+			}
+		} else {
+			AuDbg("positive --> positive, different type\n");
+			/* similar to the behaviour of removing and creating */
+			au_hide(dentry);
+			if (inode)
+				err = au_refresh_hinode_self(inode);
+			au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_refresh_dentry(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *parent)
+{
+	int err, ebrange;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo, *tmp;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+	AuDebugOn(IS_ROOT(dentry));
+	AuDebugOn(!parent->d_inode);
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	sigen = au_sigen(sb);
+	err = au_digen_test(parent, sigen);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	dinfo = au_di(dentry);
+	err = au_di_realloc(dinfo, au_sbend(sb) + 1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	ebrange = au_dbrange_test(dentry);
+	if (!ebrange)
+		ebrange = au_do_refresh_hdentry(dentry, parent);
+
+	if (d_unhashed(dentry) || ebrange) {
+		AuDebugOn(au_dbstart(dentry) < 0 && au_dbend(dentry) >= 0);
+		if (inode)
+			err = au_refresh_hinode_self(inode);
+		au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+		if (!err)
+			goto out_dgen; /* success */
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* temporary dinfo */
+	AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	tmp = au_di_alloc(sb, AuLsc_DI_TMP);
+	if (unlikely(!tmp))
+		goto out;
+	au_di_swap(tmp, dinfo);
+	/* returns the number of positive dentries */
+	/*
+	 * if current working dir is removed, it returns an error.
+	 * but the dentry is legal.
+	 */
+	err = au_lkup_dentry(dentry, /*bstart*/0, /*type*/0);
+	AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+	au_di_swap(tmp, dinfo);
+	if (err == -ENOENT)
+		err = 0;
+	if (err >= 0) {
+		/* compare/refresh by dinfo */
+		AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+		err = au_refresh_by_dinfo(dentry, dinfo, tmp);
+		au_dbg_verify_dinode(dentry);
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+	}
+	au_rw_write_unlock(&tmp->di_rwsem);
+	au_di_free(tmp);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+out_dgen:
+	au_update_digen(dentry);
+out:
+	if (unlikely(err && !(dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_NFSFS_RENAMED))) {
+		AuIOErr("failed refreshing %.*s, %d\n",
+			AuDLNPair(dentry), err);
+		AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+	}
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_do_h_d_reval(struct dentry *h_dentry, unsigned int flags,
+			   struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	int err, valid;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!(h_dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_OP_REVALIDATE))
+		goto out;
+
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", bindex);
+	/*
+	 * gave up supporting LOOKUP_CREATE/OPEN for lower fs,
+	 * due to whiteout and branch permission.
+	 */
+	flags &= ~(/*LOOKUP_PARENT |*/ LOOKUP_OPEN | LOOKUP_CREATE
+		   | LOOKUP_FOLLOW | LOOKUP_EXCL);
+	/* it may return tri-state */
+	valid = h_dentry->d_op->d_revalidate(h_dentry, flags);
+
+	if (unlikely(valid < 0))
+		err = valid;
+	else if (!valid)
+		err = -EINVAL;
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* todo: remove this */
+static int h_d_revalidate(struct dentry *dentry, struct inode *inode,
+			  unsigned int flags, int do_udba)
+{
+	int err;
+	umode_t mode, h_mode;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, btail, bstart, ibs, ibe;
+	unsigned char plus, unhashed, is_root, h_plus;
+	struct inode *h_inode, *h_cached_inode;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct qstr *name, *h_name;
+
+	err = 0;
+	plus = 0;
+	mode = 0;
+	ibs = -1;
+	ibe = -1;
+	unhashed = !!d_unhashed(dentry);
+	is_root = !!IS_ROOT(dentry);
+	name = &dentry->d_name;
+
+	/*
+	 * Theoretically, REVAL test should be unnecessary in case of
+	 * {FS,I}NOTIFY.
+	 * But {fs,i}notify doesn't fire some necessary events,
+	 *	IN_ATTRIB for atime/nlink/pageio
+	 *	IN_DELETE for NFS dentry
+	 * Let's do REVAL test too.
+	 */
+	if (do_udba && inode) {
+		mode = (inode->i_mode & S_IFMT);
+		plus = (inode->i_nlink > 0);
+		ibs = au_ibstart(inode);
+		ibe = au_ibend(inode);
+	}
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	btail = bstart;
+	if (inode && S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
+		btail = au_dbtaildir(dentry);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= btail; bindex++) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		AuDbg("b%d, %.*s\n", bindex, AuDLNPair(h_dentry));
+		spin_lock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+		h_name = &h_dentry->d_name;
+		if (unlikely(do_udba
+			     && !is_root
+			     && (unhashed != !!d_unhashed(h_dentry)
+				 || name->len != h_name->len
+				 || memcmp(name->name, h_name->name, name->len))
+			    )) {
+			AuDbg("unhash 0x%x 0x%x, %.*s %.*s\n",
+				  unhashed, d_unhashed(h_dentry),
+				  AuDLNPair(dentry), AuDLNPair(h_dentry));
+			spin_unlock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+			goto err;
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+
+		err = au_do_h_d_reval(h_dentry, flags, dentry, bindex);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			/* do not goto err, to keep the errno */
+			break;
+
+		/* todo: plink too? */
+		if (!do_udba)
+			continue;
+
+		/* UDBA tests */
+		h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+		if (unlikely(!!inode != !!h_inode))
+			goto err;
+
+		h_plus = plus;
+		h_mode = mode;
+		h_cached_inode = h_inode;
+		if (h_inode) {
+			h_mode = (h_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT);
+			h_plus = (h_inode->i_nlink > 0);
+		}
+		if (inode && ibs <= bindex && bindex <= ibe)
+			h_cached_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+
+		if (unlikely(plus != h_plus
+			     || mode != h_mode
+			     || h_cached_inode != h_inode))
+			goto err;
+		continue;
+
+	err:
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* todo: consolidate with do_refresh() and au_reval_for_attr() */
+static int simple_reval_dpath(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+
+	if (!au_digen_test(dentry, sigen))
+		return 0;
+
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	di_read_lock_parent(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	AuDebugOn(au_digen_test(parent, sigen));
+	au_dbg_verify_gen(parent, sigen);
+	err = au_refresh_dentry(dentry, parent);
+	di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	dput(parent);
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_reval_dpath(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d, *parent;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	if (!au_ftest_si(au_sbi(dentry->d_sb), FAILED_REFRESH_DIR))
+		return simple_reval_dpath(dentry, sigen);
+
+	/* slow loop, keep it simple and stupid */
+	/* cf: au_cpup_dirs() */
+	err = 0;
+	parent = NULL;
+	while (au_digen_test(dentry, sigen)) {
+		d = dentry;
+		while (1) {
+			dput(parent);
+			parent = dget_parent(d);
+			if (!au_digen_test(parent, sigen))
+				break;
+			d = parent;
+		}
+
+		inode = d->d_inode;
+		if (d != dentry)
+			di_write_lock_child2(d);
+
+		/* someone might update our dentry while we were sleeping */
+		if (au_digen_test(d, sigen)) {
+			/*
+			 * todo: consolidate with simple_reval_dpath(),
+			 * do_refresh() and au_reval_for_attr().
+			 */
+			di_read_lock_parent(parent, AuLock_IR);
+			err = au_refresh_dentry(d, parent);
+			di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+		}
+
+		if (d != dentry)
+			di_write_unlock(d);
+		dput(parent);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			break;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * if valid returns 1, otherwise 0.
+ */
+static int aufs_d_revalidate(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	int valid, err;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+	unsigned char do_udba;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	/* todo: support rcu-walk? */
+	if (flags & LOOKUP_RCU)
+		return -ECHILD;
+
+	valid = 0;
+	if (unlikely(!au_di(dentry)))
+		goto out;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (inode && is_bad_inode(inode))
+		goto out;
+
+	valid = 1;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	/*
+	 * todo: very ugly
+	 * i_mutex of parent dir may be held,
+	 * but we should not return 'invalid' due to busy.
+	 */
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_DW | AuLock_NOPLM);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		valid = err;
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (unlikely(au_dbrange_test(dentry))) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		goto out_dgrade;
+	}
+
+	sigen = au_sigen(sb);
+	if (au_digen_test(dentry, sigen)) {
+		AuDebugOn(IS_ROOT(dentry));
+		err = au_reval_dpath(dentry, sigen);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			AuTraceErr(err);
+			goto out_dgrade;
+		}
+	}
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (inode && (IS_DEADDIR(inode) || !inode->i_nlink))
+		goto out_inval;
+
+	do_udba = !au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), UDBA_NONE);
+	if (do_udba && inode) {
+		aufs_bindex_t bstart = au_ibstart(inode);
+		struct inode *h_inode;
+
+		if (bstart >= 0) {
+			h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bstart);
+			if (h_inode && au_test_higen(inode, h_inode))
+				goto out_inval;
+		}
+	}
+
+	err = h_d_revalidate(dentry, inode, flags, do_udba);
+	if (unlikely(!err && do_udba && au_dbstart(dentry) < 0)) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		AuDbg("both of real entry and whiteout found, %.*s, err %d\n",
+		      AuDLNPair(dentry), err);
+	}
+	goto out_inval;
+
+out_dgrade:
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+out_inval:
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	valid = !err;
+out:
+	if (!valid) {
+		AuDbg("%.*s invalid, %d\n", AuDLNPair(dentry), valid);
+		d_drop(dentry);
+	}
+	return valid;
+}
+
+static void aufs_d_release(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	if (au_di(dentry)) {
+		au_di_fin(dentry);
+		au_hn_di_reinit(dentry);
+	}
+}
+
+const struct dentry_operations aufs_dop = {
+	.d_revalidate		= aufs_d_revalidate,
+	.d_weak_revalidate	= aufs_d_revalidate,
+	.d_release		= aufs_d_release
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dentry.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dentry.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dentry.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dentry.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,233 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * lookup and dentry operations
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_DENTRY_H__
+#define __AUFS_DENTRY_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/dcache.h>
+#include "rwsem.h"
+
+struct au_hdentry {
+	struct dentry		*hd_dentry;
+	aufs_bindex_t		hd_id;
+};
+
+struct au_dinfo {
+	atomic_t		di_generation;
+
+	struct au_rwsem		di_rwsem;
+	aufs_bindex_t		di_bstart, di_bend, di_bwh, di_bdiropq;
+	struct au_hdentry	*di_hdentry;
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* dentry.c */
+extern const struct dentry_operations aufs_dop;
+struct au_branch;
+struct dentry *au_sio_lkup_one(struct qstr *name, struct dentry *parent,
+			       struct au_branch *br);
+int au_h_verify(struct dentry *h_dentry, unsigned int udba, struct inode *h_dir,
+		struct dentry *h_parent, struct au_branch *br);
+
+int au_lkup_dentry(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bstart, mode_t type);
+int au_lkup_neg(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex, int wh);
+int au_refresh_dentry(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *parent);
+int au_reval_dpath(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen);
+
+/* dinfo.c */
+void au_di_init_once(void *_di);
+struct au_dinfo *au_di_alloc(struct super_block *sb, unsigned int lsc);
+void au_di_free(struct au_dinfo *dinfo);
+void au_di_swap(struct au_dinfo *a, struct au_dinfo *b);
+void au_di_cp(struct au_dinfo *dst, struct au_dinfo *src);
+int au_di_init(struct dentry *dentry);
+void au_di_fin(struct dentry *dentry);
+int au_di_realloc(struct au_dinfo *dinfo, int nbr);
+
+void di_read_lock(struct dentry *d, int flags, unsigned int lsc);
+void di_read_unlock(struct dentry *d, int flags);
+void di_downgrade_lock(struct dentry *d, int flags);
+void di_write_lock(struct dentry *d, unsigned int lsc);
+void di_write_unlock(struct dentry *d);
+void di_write_lock2_child(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2, int isdir);
+void di_write_lock2_parent(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2, int isdir);
+void di_write_unlock2(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2);
+
+struct dentry *au_h_dptr(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+struct dentry *au_h_d_alias(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+aufs_bindex_t au_dbtail(struct dentry *dentry);
+aufs_bindex_t au_dbtaildir(struct dentry *dentry);
+
+void au_set_h_dptr(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		   struct dentry *h_dentry);
+int au_digen_test(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen);
+int au_dbrange_test(struct dentry *dentry);
+void au_update_digen(struct dentry *dentry);
+void au_update_dbrange(struct dentry *dentry, int do_put_zero);
+void au_update_dbstart(struct dentry *dentry);
+void au_update_dbend(struct dentry *dentry);
+int au_find_dbindex(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *h_dentry);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline struct au_dinfo *au_di(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	return dentry->d_fsdata;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* lock subclass for dinfo */
+enum {
+	AuLsc_DI_CHILD,		/* child first */
+	AuLsc_DI_CHILD2,	/* rename(2), link(2), and cpup at hnotify */
+	AuLsc_DI_CHILD3,	/* copyup dirs */
+	AuLsc_DI_PARENT,
+	AuLsc_DI_PARENT2,
+	AuLsc_DI_PARENT3,
+	AuLsc_DI_TMP		/* temp for replacing dinfo */
+};
+
+/*
+ * di_read_lock_child, di_write_lock_child,
+ * di_read_lock_child2, di_write_lock_child2,
+ * di_read_lock_child3, di_write_lock_child3,
+ * di_read_lock_parent, di_write_lock_parent,
+ * di_read_lock_parent2, di_write_lock_parent2,
+ * di_read_lock_parent3, di_write_lock_parent3,
+ */
+#define AuReadLockFunc(name, lsc) \
+static inline void di_read_lock_##name(struct dentry *d, int flags) \
+{ di_read_lock(d, flags, AuLsc_DI_##lsc); }
+
+#define AuWriteLockFunc(name, lsc) \
+static inline void di_write_lock_##name(struct dentry *d) \
+{ di_write_lock(d, AuLsc_DI_##lsc); }
+
+#define AuRWLockFuncs(name, lsc) \
+	AuReadLockFunc(name, lsc) \
+	AuWriteLockFunc(name, lsc)
+
+AuRWLockFuncs(child, CHILD);
+AuRWLockFuncs(child2, CHILD2);
+AuRWLockFuncs(child3, CHILD3);
+AuRWLockFuncs(parent, PARENT);
+AuRWLockFuncs(parent2, PARENT2);
+AuRWLockFuncs(parent3, PARENT3);
+
+#undef AuReadLockFunc
+#undef AuWriteLockFunc
+#undef AuRWLockFuncs
+
+#define DiMustNoWaiters(d)	AuRwMustNoWaiters(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem)
+#define DiMustAnyLock(d)	AuRwMustAnyLock(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem)
+#define DiMustWriteLock(d)	AuRwMustWriteLock(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* todo: memory barrier? */
+static inline unsigned int au_digen(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	return atomic_read(&au_di(d)->di_generation);
+}
+
+static inline void au_h_dentry_init(struct au_hdentry *hdentry)
+{
+	hdentry->hd_dentry = NULL;
+}
+
+static inline void au_hdput(struct au_hdentry *hd)
+{
+	if (hd)
+		dput(hd->hd_dentry);
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_dbstart(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	DiMustAnyLock(dentry);
+	return au_di(dentry)->di_bstart;
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_dbend(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	DiMustAnyLock(dentry);
+	return au_di(dentry)->di_bend;
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_dbwh(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	DiMustAnyLock(dentry);
+	return au_di(dentry)->di_bwh;
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_dbdiropq(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	DiMustAnyLock(dentry);
+	return au_di(dentry)->di_bdiropq;
+}
+
+/* todo: hard/soft set? */
+static inline void au_set_dbstart(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+	au_di(dentry)->di_bstart = bindex;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_dbend(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+	au_di(dentry)->di_bend = bindex;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_dbwh(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+	/* dbwh can be outside of bstart - bend range */
+	au_di(dentry)->di_bwh = bindex;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_dbdiropq(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+	au_di(dentry)->di_bdiropq = bindex;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+static inline void au_digen_dec(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	atomic_dec(&au_di(d)->di_generation);
+}
+
+static inline void au_hn_di_reinit(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	dentry->d_fsdata = NULL;
+}
+#else
+AuStubVoid(au_hn_di_reinit, struct dentry *dentry __maybe_unused)
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY */
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_DENTRY_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dinfo.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dinfo.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dinfo.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dinfo.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,542 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * dentry private data
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+void au_di_init_once(void *_dinfo)
+{
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo = _dinfo;
+	static struct lock_class_key aufs_di;
+
+	au_rw_init(&dinfo->di_rwsem);
+	au_rw_class(&dinfo->di_rwsem, &aufs_di);
+}
+
+struct au_dinfo *au_di_alloc(struct super_block *sb, unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+	int nbr, i;
+
+	dinfo = au_cache_alloc_dinfo();
+	if (unlikely(!dinfo))
+		goto out;
+
+	nbr = au_sbend(sb) + 1;
+	if (nbr <= 0)
+		nbr = 1;
+	dinfo->di_hdentry = kcalloc(nbr, sizeof(*dinfo->di_hdentry), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (dinfo->di_hdentry) {
+		au_rw_write_lock_nested(&dinfo->di_rwsem, lsc);
+		dinfo->di_bstart = -1;
+		dinfo->di_bend = -1;
+		dinfo->di_bwh = -1;
+		dinfo->di_bdiropq = -1;
+		for (i = 0; i < nbr; i++)
+			dinfo->di_hdentry[i].hd_id = -1;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	au_cache_free_dinfo(dinfo);
+	dinfo = NULL;
+
+out:
+	return dinfo;
+}
+
+void au_di_free(struct au_dinfo *dinfo)
+{
+	struct au_hdentry *p;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+
+	/* dentry may not be revalidated */
+	bindex = dinfo->di_bstart;
+	if (bindex >= 0) {
+		bend = dinfo->di_bend;
+		p = dinfo->di_hdentry + bindex;
+		while (bindex++ <= bend)
+			au_hdput(p++);
+	}
+	kfree(dinfo->di_hdentry);
+	au_cache_free_dinfo(dinfo);
+}
+
+void au_di_swap(struct au_dinfo *a, struct au_dinfo *b)
+{
+	struct au_hdentry *p;
+	aufs_bindex_t bi;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&a->di_rwsem);
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&b->di_rwsem);
+
+#define DiSwap(v, name)				\
+	do {					\
+		v = a->di_##name;		\
+		a->di_##name = b->di_##name;	\
+		b->di_##name = v;		\
+	} while (0)
+
+	DiSwap(p, hdentry);
+	DiSwap(bi, bstart);
+	DiSwap(bi, bend);
+	DiSwap(bi, bwh);
+	DiSwap(bi, bdiropq);
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+
+#undef DiSwap
+}
+
+void au_di_cp(struct au_dinfo *dst, struct au_dinfo *src)
+{
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&dst->di_rwsem);
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&src->di_rwsem);
+
+	dst->di_bstart = src->di_bstart;
+	dst->di_bend = src->di_bend;
+	dst->di_bwh = src->di_bwh;
+	dst->di_bdiropq = src->di_bdiropq;
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+}
+
+int au_di_init(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	dinfo = au_di_alloc(sb, AuLsc_DI_CHILD);
+	if (dinfo) {
+		atomic_set(&dinfo->di_generation, au_sigen(sb));
+		/* smp_mb(); */ /* atomic_set */
+		dentry->d_fsdata = dinfo;
+	} else
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_di_fin(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+
+	dinfo = au_di(dentry);
+	AuRwDestroy(&dinfo->di_rwsem);
+	au_di_free(dinfo);
+}
+
+int au_di_realloc(struct au_dinfo *dinfo, int nbr)
+{
+	int err, sz;
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&dinfo->di_rwsem);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	sz = sizeof(*hdp) * (dinfo->di_bend + 1);
+	if (!sz)
+		sz = sizeof(*hdp);
+	hdp = au_kzrealloc(dinfo->di_hdentry, sz, sizeof(*hdp) * nbr, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (hdp) {
+		dinfo->di_hdentry = hdp;
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void do_ii_write_lock(struct inode *inode, unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	switch (lsc) {
+	case AuLsc_DI_CHILD:
+		ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_CHILD2:
+		ii_write_lock_child2(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_CHILD3:
+		ii_write_lock_child3(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_PARENT:
+		ii_write_lock_parent(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_PARENT2:
+		ii_write_lock_parent2(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_PARENT3:
+		ii_write_lock_parent3(inode);
+		break;
+	default:
+		BUG();
+	}
+}
+
+static void do_ii_read_lock(struct inode *inode, unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	switch (lsc) {
+	case AuLsc_DI_CHILD:
+		ii_read_lock_child(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_CHILD2:
+		ii_read_lock_child2(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_CHILD3:
+		ii_read_lock_child3(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_PARENT:
+		ii_read_lock_parent(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_PARENT2:
+		ii_read_lock_parent2(inode);
+		break;
+	case AuLsc_DI_PARENT3:
+		ii_read_lock_parent3(inode);
+		break;
+	default:
+		BUG();
+	}
+}
+
+void di_read_lock(struct dentry *d, int flags, unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	au_rw_read_lock_nested(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem, lsc);
+	if (d->d_inode) {
+		if (au_ftest_lock(flags, IW))
+			do_ii_write_lock(d->d_inode, lsc);
+		else if (au_ftest_lock(flags, IR))
+			do_ii_read_lock(d->d_inode, lsc);
+	}
+}
+
+void di_read_unlock(struct dentry *d, int flags)
+{
+	if (d->d_inode) {
+		if (au_ftest_lock(flags, IW)) {
+			au_dbg_verify_dinode(d);
+			ii_write_unlock(d->d_inode);
+		} else if (au_ftest_lock(flags, IR)) {
+			au_dbg_verify_dinode(d);
+			ii_read_unlock(d->d_inode);
+		}
+	}
+	au_rw_read_unlock(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem);
+}
+
+void di_downgrade_lock(struct dentry *d, int flags)
+{
+	if (d->d_inode && au_ftest_lock(flags, IR))
+		ii_downgrade_lock(d->d_inode);
+	au_rw_dgrade_lock(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem);
+}
+
+void di_write_lock(struct dentry *d, unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	au_rw_write_lock_nested(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem, lsc);
+	if (d->d_inode)
+		do_ii_write_lock(d->d_inode, lsc);
+}
+
+void di_write_unlock(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	au_dbg_verify_dinode(d);
+	if (d->d_inode)
+		ii_write_unlock(d->d_inode);
+	au_rw_write_unlock(&au_di(d)->di_rwsem);
+}
+
+void di_write_lock2_child(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2, int isdir)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(d1 == d2
+		  || d1->d_inode == d2->d_inode
+		  || d1->d_sb != d2->d_sb);
+
+	if (isdir && au_test_subdir(d1, d2)) {
+		di_write_lock_child(d1);
+		di_write_lock_child2(d2);
+	} else {
+		/* there should be no races */
+		di_write_lock_child(d2);
+		di_write_lock_child2(d1);
+	}
+}
+
+void di_write_lock2_parent(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2, int isdir)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(d1 == d2
+		  || d1->d_inode == d2->d_inode
+		  || d1->d_sb != d2->d_sb);
+
+	if (isdir && au_test_subdir(d1, d2)) {
+		di_write_lock_parent(d1);
+		di_write_lock_parent2(d2);
+	} else {
+		/* there should be no races */
+		di_write_lock_parent(d2);
+		di_write_lock_parent2(d1);
+	}
+}
+
+void di_write_unlock2(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2)
+{
+	di_write_unlock(d1);
+	if (d1->d_inode == d2->d_inode)
+		au_rw_write_unlock(&au_di(d2)->di_rwsem);
+	else
+		di_write_unlock(d2);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct dentry *au_h_dptr(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	DiMustAnyLock(dentry);
+
+	if (au_dbstart(dentry) < 0 || bindex < au_dbstart(dentry))
+		return NULL;
+	AuDebugOn(bindex < 0);
+	d = au_di(dentry)->di_hdentry[0 + bindex].hd_dentry;
+	AuDebugOn(d && d_count(d) <= 0);
+	return d;
+}
+
+/*
+ * extended version of au_h_dptr().
+ * returns a hashed and positive h_dentry in bindex, NULL, or error.
+ */
+struct dentry *au_h_d_alias(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(!inode);
+
+	h_dentry = NULL;
+	if (au_dbstart(dentry) <= bindex
+	    && bindex <= au_dbend(dentry))
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	if (h_dentry && !au_d_hashed_positive(h_dentry)) {
+		dget(h_dentry);
+		goto out; /* success */
+	}
+
+	AuDebugOn(bindex < au_ibstart(inode));
+	AuDebugOn(au_ibend(inode) < bindex);
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+	h_dentry = d_find_alias(h_inode);
+	if (h_dentry) {
+		if (!IS_ERR(h_dentry)) {
+			if (!au_d_hashed_positive(h_dentry))
+				goto out; /* success */
+			dput(h_dentry);
+		} else
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(dentry->d_sb), PLINK)) {
+		h_dentry = au_plink_lkup(inode, bindex);
+		AuDebugOn(!h_dentry);
+		if (!IS_ERR(h_dentry)) {
+			if (!au_d_hashed_positive(h_dentry))
+				goto out; /* success */
+			dput(h_dentry);
+			h_dentry = NULL;
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuDbgDentry(h_dentry);
+	return h_dentry;
+}
+
+aufs_bindex_t au_dbtail(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bwh;
+
+	bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+	if (0 <= bend) {
+		bwh = au_dbwh(dentry);
+		if (!bwh)
+			return bwh;
+		if (0 < bwh && bwh < bend)
+			return bwh - 1;
+	}
+	return bend;
+}
+
+aufs_bindex_t au_dbtaildir(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bopq;
+
+	bend = au_dbtail(dentry);
+	if (0 <= bend) {
+		bopq = au_dbdiropq(dentry);
+		if (0 <= bopq && bopq < bend)
+			bend = bopq;
+	}
+	return bend;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_set_h_dptr(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		   struct dentry *h_dentry)
+{
+	struct au_hdentry *hd = au_di(dentry)->di_hdentry + bindex;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+
+	au_hdput(hd);
+	hd->hd_dentry = h_dentry;
+	if (h_dentry) {
+		br = au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+		hd->hd_id = br->br_id;
+	}
+}
+
+int au_dbrange_test(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart, bend;
+
+	err = 0;
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+	if (bstart >= 0)
+		AuDebugOn(bend < 0 && bstart > bend);
+	else {
+		err = -EIO;
+		AuDebugOn(bend >= 0);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_digen_test(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (unlikely(au_digen(dentry) != sigen
+		     || au_iigen_test(dentry->d_inode, sigen)))
+		err = -EIO;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_update_digen(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	atomic_set(&au_di(dentry)->di_generation, au_sigen(dentry->d_sb));
+	/* smp_mb(); */ /* atomic_set */
+}
+
+void au_update_dbrange(struct dentry *dentry, int do_put_zero)
+{
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+	struct dentry *h_d;
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+
+	DiMustWriteLock(dentry);
+
+	dinfo = au_di(dentry);
+	if (!dinfo || dinfo->di_bstart < 0)
+		return;
+
+	hdp = dinfo->di_hdentry;
+	if (do_put_zero) {
+		aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+
+		bend = dinfo->di_bend;
+		for (bindex = dinfo->di_bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			h_d = hdp[0 + bindex].hd_dentry;
+			if (h_d && !h_d->d_inode)
+				au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+		}
+	}
+
+	dinfo->di_bstart = -1;
+	while (++dinfo->di_bstart <= dinfo->di_bend)
+		if (hdp[0 + dinfo->di_bstart].hd_dentry)
+			break;
+	if (dinfo->di_bstart > dinfo->di_bend) {
+		dinfo->di_bstart = -1;
+		dinfo->di_bend = -1;
+		return;
+	}
+
+	dinfo->di_bend++;
+	while (0 <= --dinfo->di_bend)
+		if (hdp[0 + dinfo->di_bend].hd_dentry)
+			break;
+	AuDebugOn(dinfo->di_bstart > dinfo->di_bend || dinfo->di_bend < 0);
+}
+
+void au_update_dbstart(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_dbstart(dentry); bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_dentry)
+			continue;
+		if (h_dentry->d_inode) {
+			au_set_dbstart(dentry, bindex);
+			return;
+		}
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+	}
+}
+
+void au_update_dbend(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bstart;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_dbend(dentry); bindex >= bstart; bindex--) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_dentry)
+			continue;
+		if (h_dentry->d_inode) {
+			au_set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+			return;
+		}
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+	}
+}
+
+int au_find_dbindex(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *h_dentry)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+
+	bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_dbstart(dentry); bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex) == h_dentry)
+			return bindex;
+	return -1;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dir.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dir.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dir.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dir.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,644 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * directory operations
+ */
+
+#include <linux/fs_stack.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+void au_add_nlink(struct inode *dir, struct inode *h_dir)
+{
+	unsigned int nlink;
+
+	AuDebugOn(!S_ISDIR(dir->i_mode) || !S_ISDIR(h_dir->i_mode));
+
+	nlink = dir->i_nlink;
+	nlink += h_dir->i_nlink - 2;
+	if (h_dir->i_nlink < 2)
+		nlink += 2;
+	smp_mb();
+	/* 0 can happen in revaliding */
+	set_nlink(dir, nlink);
+}
+
+void au_sub_nlink(struct inode *dir, struct inode *h_dir)
+{
+	unsigned int nlink;
+
+	AuDebugOn(!S_ISDIR(dir->i_mode) || !S_ISDIR(h_dir->i_mode));
+
+	nlink = dir->i_nlink;
+	nlink -= h_dir->i_nlink - 2;
+	if (h_dir->i_nlink < 2)
+		nlink -= 2;
+	smp_mb();
+	/* nlink == 0 means the branch-fs is broken */
+	set_nlink(dir, nlink);
+}
+
+loff_t au_dir_size(struct file *file, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	loff_t sz;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	sz = 0;
+	if (file) {
+		AuDebugOn(!file_inode(file));
+		AuDebugOn(!S_ISDIR(file_inode(file)->i_mode));
+
+		bend = au_fbend_dir(file);
+		for (bindex = au_fbstart(file);
+		     bindex <= bend && sz < KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE;
+		     bindex++) {
+			h_file = au_hf_dir(file, bindex);
+			if (h_file && file_inode(h_file))
+				sz += vfsub_f_size_read(h_file);
+		}
+	} else {
+		AuDebugOn(!dentry);
+		AuDebugOn(!dentry->d_inode);
+		AuDebugOn(!S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+
+		bend = au_dbtaildir(dentry);
+		for (bindex = au_dbstart(dentry);
+		     bindex <= bend && sz < KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE;
+		     bindex++) {
+			h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+			if (h_dentry && h_dentry->d_inode)
+				sz += i_size_read(h_dentry->d_inode);
+		}
+	}
+	if (sz < KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE)
+		sz = roundup_pow_of_two(sz);
+	if (sz > KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE)
+		sz = KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE;
+	else if (sz < NAME_MAX) {
+		BUILD_BUG_ON(AUFS_RDBLK_DEF < NAME_MAX);
+		sz = AUFS_RDBLK_DEF;
+	}
+	return sz;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int reopen_dir(struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int flags;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, btail, bstart;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *h_dentry;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	/* open all lower dirs */
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_fbstart(file); bindex < bstart; bindex++)
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, NULL);
+	au_set_fbstart(file, bstart);
+
+	btail = au_dbtaildir(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_fbend_dir(file); btail < bindex; bindex--)
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, NULL);
+	au_set_fbend_dir(file, btail);
+
+	flags = vfsub_file_flags(file);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= btail; bindex++) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_dentry)
+			continue;
+		h_file = au_hf_dir(file, bindex);
+		if (h_file)
+			continue;
+
+		h_file = au_h_open(dentry, bindex, flags, file, /*force_wr*/0);
+		err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+			goto out; /* close all? */
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, h_file);
+	}
+	au_update_figen(file);
+	/* todo: necessary? */
+	/* file->f_ra = h_file->f_ra; */
+	err = 0;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int do_open_dir(struct file *file, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, btail;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *h_dentry;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	FiMustWriteLock(file);
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	err = au_alive_dir(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	file->f_version = dentry->d_inode->i_version;
+	bindex = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	au_set_fbstart(file, bindex);
+	btail = au_dbtaildir(dentry);
+	au_set_fbend_dir(file, btail);
+	for (; !err && bindex <= btail; bindex++) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		h_file = au_h_open(dentry, bindex, flags, file, /*force_wr*/0);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_file)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+			break;
+		}
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, h_file);
+	}
+	au_update_figen(file);
+	/* todo: necessary? */
+	/* file->f_ra = h_file->f_ra; */
+	if (!err)
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	/* close all */
+	for (bindex = au_fbstart(file); bindex <= btail; bindex++)
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, NULL);
+	au_set_fbstart(file, -1);
+	au_set_fbend_dir(file, -1);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_open_dir(struct inode *inode __maybe_unused,
+			 struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_fidir *fidir;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	fidir = au_fidir_alloc(sb);
+	if (fidir) {
+		err = au_do_open(file, do_open_dir, fidir);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			kfree(fidir);
+	}
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_release_dir(struct inode *inode __maybe_unused,
+			    struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_vdir *vdir_cache;
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	struct au_fidir *fidir;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	fidir = finfo->fi_hdir;
+	if (fidir) {
+		vdir_cache = fidir->fd_vdir_cache; /* lock-free */
+		if (vdir_cache)
+			au_vdir_free(vdir_cache);
+
+		bindex = finfo->fi_btop;
+		if (bindex >= 0) {
+			/*
+			 * calls fput() instead of filp_close(),
+			 * since no dnotify or lock for the lower file.
+			 */
+			bend = fidir->fd_bbot;
+			for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+				au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, NULL);
+		}
+		kfree(fidir);
+		finfo->fi_hdir = NULL;
+	}
+	au_finfo_fin(file);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_do_flush_dir(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	err = 0;
+	bend = au_fbend_dir(file);
+	for (bindex = au_fbstart(file); !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_file = au_hf_dir(file, bindex);
+		if (h_file)
+			err = vfsub_flush(h_file, id);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_flush_dir(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
+{
+	return au_do_flush(file, id, au_do_flush_dir);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_do_fsync_dir_no_file(struct dentry *dentry, int datasync)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(inode);
+	bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_dbstart(dentry); !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		struct path h_path;
+
+		if (au_test_ro(sb, bindex, inode))
+			continue;
+		h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_path.dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, bindex);
+		err = vfsub_fsync(NULL, &h_path, datasync);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_do_fsync_dir(struct file *file, int datasync)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, reopen_dir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = file_inode(file);
+	bend = au_fbend_dir(file);
+	for (bindex = au_fbstart(file); !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_file = au_hf_dir(file, bindex);
+		if (!h_file || au_test_ro(sb, bindex, inode))
+			continue;
+
+		err = vfsub_fsync(h_file, &h_file->f_path, datasync);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * @file may be NULL
+ */
+static int aufs_fsync_dir(struct file *file, loff_t start, loff_t end,
+			  int datasync)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct mutex *mtx;
+
+	err = 0;
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	mtx = &dentry->d_inode->i_mutex;
+	mutex_lock(mtx);
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	if (file)
+		err = au_do_fsync_dir(file, datasync);
+	else {
+		di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+		err = au_do_fsync_dir_no_file(dentry, datasync);
+	}
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(dentry->d_inode);
+	di_write_unlock(dentry);
+	if (file)
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	mutex_unlock(mtx);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int aufs_iterate(struct file *file, struct dir_context *ctx)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s, ctx{%pf, %llu}\n",
+	      AuDLNPair(file->f_dentry), ctx->actor, ctx->pos);
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(inode);
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, reopen_dir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_alive_dir(dentry);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_vdir_init(file);
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, au_ibstart(inode));
+	if (!au_test_nfsd()) {
+		err = au_vdir_fill_de(file, ctx);
+		fsstack_copy_attr_atime(inode, h_inode);
+	} else {
+		/*
+		 * nfsd filldir may call lookup_one_len(), vfs_getattr(),
+		 * encode_fh() and others.
+		 */
+		atomic_inc(&h_inode->i_count);
+		di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+		si_read_unlock(sb);
+		err = au_vdir_fill_de(file, ctx);
+		fsstack_copy_attr_atime(inode, h_inode);
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+		iput(h_inode);
+
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		return err;
+	}
+
+out_unlock:
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#define AuTestEmpty_WHONLY	1
+#define AuTestEmpty_CALLED	(1 << 1)
+#define AuTestEmpty_SHWH	(1 << 2)
+#define au_ftest_testempty(flags, name)	((flags) & AuTestEmpty_##name)
+#define au_fset_testempty(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuTestEmpty_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_testempty(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuTestEmpty_##name; } while (0)
+
+#ifndef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+#undef AuTestEmpty_SHWH
+#define AuTestEmpty_SHWH	0
+#endif
+
+struct test_empty_arg {
+	struct dir_context ctx;
+	struct au_nhash *whlist;
+	unsigned int flags;
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+};
+
+static int test_empty_cb(struct dir_context *ctx, const char *__name,
+			 int namelen, loff_t offset __maybe_unused, u64 ino,
+			 unsigned int d_type)
+{
+	struct test_empty_arg *arg = container_of(ctx, struct test_empty_arg,
+						  ctx);
+	char *name = (void *)__name;
+
+	arg->err = 0;
+	au_fset_testempty(arg->flags, CALLED);
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	if (name[0] == '.'
+	    && (namelen == 1 || (name[1] == '.' && namelen == 2)))
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	if (namelen <= AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN
+	    || memcmp(name, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN)) {
+		if (au_ftest_testempty(arg->flags, WHONLY)
+		    && !au_nhash_test_known_wh(arg->whlist, name, namelen))
+			arg->err = -ENOTEMPTY;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	name += AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+	namelen -= AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+	if (!au_nhash_test_known_wh(arg->whlist, name, namelen))
+		arg->err = au_nhash_append_wh
+			(arg->whlist, name, namelen, ino, d_type, arg->bindex,
+			 au_ftest_testempty(arg->flags, SHWH));
+
+out:
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	AuTraceErr(arg->err);
+	return arg->err;
+}
+
+static int do_test_empty(struct dentry *dentry, struct test_empty_arg *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	h_file = au_h_open(dentry, arg->bindex,
+			   O_RDONLY | O_NONBLOCK | O_DIRECTORY | O_LARGEFILE,
+			   /*file*/NULL, /*force_wr*/0);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(dentry->d_sb), UDBA_NONE)
+	    && !file_inode(h_file)->i_nlink)
+		goto out_put;
+
+	do {
+		arg->err = 0;
+		au_fclr_testempty(arg->flags, CALLED);
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+		err = vfsub_iterate_dir(h_file, &arg->ctx);
+		if (err >= 0)
+			err = arg->err;
+	} while (!err && au_ftest_testempty(arg->flags, CALLED));
+
+out_put:
+	fput(h_file);
+	au_sbr_put(dentry->d_sb, arg->bindex);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct do_test_empty_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct test_empty_arg *arg;
+};
+
+static void call_do_test_empty(void *args)
+{
+	struct do_test_empty_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = do_test_empty(a->dentry, a->arg);
+}
+
+static int sio_test_empty(struct dentry *dentry, struct test_empty_arg *arg)
+{
+	int err, wkq_err;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, arg->bindex);
+	h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	/* todo: i_mode changes anytime? */
+	mutex_lock_nested(&h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	err = au_test_h_perm_sio(h_inode, MAY_EXEC | MAY_READ);
+	mutex_unlock(&h_inode->i_mutex);
+	if (!err)
+		err = do_test_empty(dentry, arg);
+	else {
+		struct do_test_empty_args args = {
+			.errp	= &err,
+			.dentry	= dentry,
+			.arg	= arg
+		};
+		unsigned int flags = arg->flags;
+
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(call_do_test_empty, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+		arg->flags = flags;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_test_empty_lower(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int rdhash;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bstart, btail;
+	struct au_nhash whlist;
+	struct test_empty_arg arg = {
+		.ctx = {
+			.actor = au_diractor(test_empty_cb)
+		}
+	};
+
+	SiMustAnyLock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	rdhash = au_sbi(dentry->d_sb)->si_rdhash;
+	if (!rdhash)
+		rdhash = au_rdhash_est(au_dir_size(/*file*/NULL, dentry));
+	err = au_nhash_alloc(&whlist, rdhash, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	arg.flags = 0;
+	arg.whlist = &whlist;
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(dentry->d_sb), SHWH))
+		au_fset_testempty(arg.flags, SHWH);
+	arg.bindex = bstart;
+	err = do_test_empty(dentry, &arg);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_whlist;
+
+	au_fset_testempty(arg.flags, WHONLY);
+	btail = au_dbtaildir(dentry);
+	for (bindex = bstart + 1; !err && bindex <= btail; bindex++) {
+		struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (h_dentry && h_dentry->d_inode) {
+			arg.bindex = bindex;
+			err = do_test_empty(dentry, &arg);
+		}
+	}
+
+out_whlist:
+	au_nhash_wh_free(&whlist);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_test_empty(struct dentry *dentry, struct au_nhash *whlist)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct test_empty_arg arg = {
+		.ctx = {
+			.actor = au_diractor(test_empty_cb)
+		}
+	};
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, btail;
+
+	err = 0;
+	arg.whlist = whlist;
+	arg.flags = AuTestEmpty_WHONLY;
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(dentry->d_sb), SHWH))
+		au_fset_testempty(arg.flags, SHWH);
+	btail = au_dbtaildir(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_dbstart(dentry); !err && bindex <= btail; bindex++) {
+		struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (h_dentry && h_dentry->d_inode) {
+			arg.bindex = bindex;
+			err = sio_test_empty(dentry, &arg);
+		}
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+const struct file_operations aufs_dir_fop = {
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+	.llseek		= default_llseek,
+	.read		= generic_read_dir,
+	.iterate	= aufs_iterate,
+	.unlocked_ioctl	= aufs_ioctl_dir,
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+	.compat_ioctl	= aufs_compat_ioctl_dir,
+#endif
+	.open		= aufs_open_dir,
+	.release	= aufs_release_dir,
+	.flush		= aufs_flush_dir,
+	.fsync		= aufs_fsync_dir
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dir.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dir.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dir.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dir.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,136 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * directory operations
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_DIR_H__
+#define __AUFS_DIR_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* need to be faster and smaller */
+
+struct au_nhash {
+	unsigned int		nh_num;
+	struct hlist_head	*nh_head;
+};
+
+struct au_vdir_destr {
+	unsigned char	len;
+	unsigned char	name[0];
+} __packed;
+
+struct au_vdir_dehstr {
+	struct hlist_node	hash;
+	struct au_vdir_destr	*str;
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+struct au_vdir_de {
+	ino_t			de_ino;
+	unsigned char		de_type;
+	/* caution: packed */
+	struct au_vdir_destr	de_str;
+} __packed;
+
+struct au_vdir_wh {
+	struct hlist_node	wh_hash;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+	ino_t			wh_ino;
+	aufs_bindex_t		wh_bindex;
+	unsigned char		wh_type;
+#else
+	aufs_bindex_t		wh_bindex;
+#endif
+	/* caution: packed */
+	struct au_vdir_destr	wh_str;
+} __packed;
+
+union au_vdir_deblk_p {
+	unsigned char		*deblk;
+	struct au_vdir_de	*de;
+};
+
+struct au_vdir {
+	unsigned char	**vd_deblk;
+	unsigned long	vd_nblk;
+	struct {
+		unsigned long		ul;
+		union au_vdir_deblk_p	p;
+	} vd_last;
+
+	unsigned long	vd_version;
+	unsigned int	vd_deblk_sz;
+	unsigned long	vd_jiffy;
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* dir.c */
+extern const struct file_operations aufs_dir_fop;
+void au_add_nlink(struct inode *dir, struct inode *h_dir);
+void au_sub_nlink(struct inode *dir, struct inode *h_dir);
+loff_t au_dir_size(struct file *file, struct dentry *dentry);
+int au_test_empty_lower(struct dentry *dentry);
+int au_test_empty(struct dentry *dentry, struct au_nhash *whlist);
+
+/* vdir.c */
+unsigned int au_rdhash_est(loff_t sz);
+int au_nhash_alloc(struct au_nhash *nhash, unsigned int num_hash, gfp_t gfp);
+void au_nhash_wh_free(struct au_nhash *whlist);
+int au_nhash_test_longer_wh(struct au_nhash *whlist, aufs_bindex_t btgt,
+			    int limit);
+int au_nhash_test_known_wh(struct au_nhash *whlist, char *name, int nlen);
+int au_nhash_append_wh(struct au_nhash *whlist, char *name, int nlen, ino_t ino,
+		       unsigned int d_type, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		       unsigned char shwh);
+void au_vdir_free(struct au_vdir *vdir);
+int au_vdir_init(struct file *file);
+int au_vdir_fill_de(struct file *file, struct dir_context *ctx);
+
+/* ioctl.c */
+long aufs_ioctl_dir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_RDU
+/* rdu.c */
+long au_rdu_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg);
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+long au_rdu_compat_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+			 unsigned long arg);
+#endif
+#else
+static inline long au_rdu_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+				unsigned long arg)
+{
+	return -EINVAL;
+}
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+static inline long au_rdu_compat_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+				       unsigned long arg)
+{
+	return -EINVAL;
+}
+#endif
+#endif
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_DIR_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dynop.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dynop.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dynop.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dynop.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,379 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2010-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * dynamically customizable operations for regular files
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+#define DyPrSym(key)	AuDbgSym(key->dk_op.dy_hop)
+
+/*
+ * How large will these lists be?
+ * Usually just a few elements, 20-30 at most for each, I guess.
+ */
+static struct au_splhead dynop[AuDyLast];
+
+static struct au_dykey *dy_gfind_get(struct au_splhead *spl, const void *h_op)
+{
+	struct au_dykey *key, *tmp;
+	struct list_head *head;
+
+	key = NULL;
+	head = &spl->head;
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	list_for_each_entry_rcu(tmp, head, dk_list)
+		if (tmp->dk_op.dy_hop == h_op) {
+			key = tmp;
+			kref_get(&key->dk_kref);
+			break;
+		}
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+
+	return key;
+}
+
+static struct au_dykey *dy_bradd(struct au_branch *br, struct au_dykey *key)
+{
+	struct au_dykey **k, *found;
+	const void *h_op = key->dk_op.dy_hop;
+	int i;
+
+	found = NULL;
+	k = br->br_dykey;
+	for (i = 0; i < AuBrDynOp; i++)
+		if (k[i]) {
+			if (k[i]->dk_op.dy_hop == h_op) {
+				found = k[i];
+				break;
+			}
+		} else
+			break;
+	if (!found) {
+		spin_lock(&br->br_dykey_lock);
+		for (; i < AuBrDynOp; i++)
+			if (k[i]) {
+				if (k[i]->dk_op.dy_hop == h_op) {
+					found = k[i];
+					break;
+				}
+			} else {
+				k[i] = key;
+				break;
+			}
+		spin_unlock(&br->br_dykey_lock);
+		BUG_ON(i == AuBrDynOp); /* expand the array */
+	}
+
+	return found;
+}
+
+/* kref_get() if @key is already added */
+static struct au_dykey *dy_gadd(struct au_splhead *spl, struct au_dykey *key)
+{
+	struct au_dykey *tmp, *found;
+	struct list_head *head;
+	const void *h_op = key->dk_op.dy_hop;
+
+	found = NULL;
+	head = &spl->head;
+	spin_lock(&spl->spin);
+	list_for_each_entry(tmp, head, dk_list)
+		if (tmp->dk_op.dy_hop == h_op) {
+			kref_get(&tmp->dk_kref);
+			found = tmp;
+			break;
+		}
+	if (!found)
+		list_add_rcu(&key->dk_list, head);
+	spin_unlock(&spl->spin);
+
+	if (!found)
+		DyPrSym(key);
+	return found;
+}
+
+static void dy_free_rcu(struct rcu_head *rcu)
+{
+	struct au_dykey *key;
+
+	key = container_of(rcu, struct au_dykey, dk_rcu);
+	DyPrSym(key);
+	kfree(key);
+}
+
+static void dy_free(struct kref *kref)
+{
+	struct au_dykey *key;
+	struct au_splhead *spl;
+
+	key = container_of(kref, struct au_dykey, dk_kref);
+	spl = dynop + key->dk_op.dy_type;
+	au_spl_del_rcu(&key->dk_list, spl);
+	call_rcu(&key->dk_rcu, dy_free_rcu);
+}
+
+void au_dy_put(struct au_dykey *key)
+{
+	kref_put(&key->dk_kref, dy_free);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#define DyDbgSize(cnt, op)	AuDebugOn(cnt != sizeof(op)/sizeof(void *))
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+#define DyDbgDeclare(cnt)	unsigned int cnt = 0
+#define DyDbgInc(cnt)		do { cnt++; } while (0)
+#else
+#define DyDbgDeclare(cnt)	do {} while (0)
+#define DyDbgInc(cnt)		do {} while (0)
+#endif
+
+#define DySet(func, dst, src, h_op, h_sb) do {				\
+	DyDbgInc(cnt);							\
+	if (h_op->func) {						\
+		if (src.func)						\
+			dst.func = src.func;				\
+		else							\
+			AuDbg("%s %s\n", au_sbtype(h_sb), #func);	\
+	}								\
+} while (0)
+
+#define DySetForce(func, dst, src) do {		\
+	AuDebugOn(!src.func);			\
+	DyDbgInc(cnt);				\
+	dst.func = src.func;			\
+} while (0)
+
+#define DySetAop(func) \
+	DySet(func, dyaop->da_op, aufs_aop, h_aop, h_sb)
+#define DySetAopForce(func) \
+	DySetForce(func, dyaop->da_op, aufs_aop)
+
+static void dy_aop(struct au_dykey *key, const void *h_op,
+		   struct super_block *h_sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+	struct au_dyaop *dyaop = (void *)key;
+	const struct address_space_operations *h_aop = h_op;
+	DyDbgDeclare(cnt);
+
+	AuDbg("%s\n", au_sbtype(h_sb));
+
+	DySetAop(writepage);
+	DySetAopForce(readpage);	/* force */
+	DySetAop(writepages);
+	DySetAop(set_page_dirty);
+	DySetAop(readpages);
+	DySetAop(write_begin);
+	DySetAop(write_end);
+	DySetAop(bmap);
+	DySetAop(invalidatepage);
+	DySetAop(releasepage);
+	DySetAop(freepage);
+	/* these two will be changed according to an aufs mount option */
+	DySetAop(direct_IO);
+	DySetAop(get_xip_mem);
+	DySetAop(migratepage);
+	DySetAop(launder_page);
+	DySetAop(is_partially_uptodate);
+	DySetAop(is_dirty_writeback);
+	DySetAop(error_remove_page);
+	DySetAop(swap_activate);
+	DySetAop(swap_deactivate);
+
+	DyDbgSize(cnt, *h_aop);
+	dyaop->da_get_xip_mem = h_aop->get_xip_mem;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void dy_bug(struct kref *kref)
+{
+	BUG();
+}
+
+static struct au_dykey *dy_get(struct au_dynop *op, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct au_dykey *key, *old;
+	struct au_splhead *spl;
+	struct op {
+		unsigned int sz;
+		void (*set)(struct au_dykey *key, const void *h_op,
+			    struct super_block *h_sb __maybe_unused);
+	};
+	static const struct op a[] = {
+		[AuDy_AOP] = {
+			.sz	= sizeof(struct au_dyaop),
+			.set	= dy_aop
+		}
+	};
+	const struct op *p;
+
+	spl = dynop + op->dy_type;
+	key = dy_gfind_get(spl, op->dy_hop);
+	if (key)
+		goto out_add; /* success */
+
+	p = a + op->dy_type;
+	key = kzalloc(p->sz, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!key)) {
+		key = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	key->dk_op.dy_hop = op->dy_hop;
+	kref_init(&key->dk_kref);
+	p->set(key, op->dy_hop, au_br_sb(br));
+	old = dy_gadd(spl, key);
+	if (old) {
+		kfree(key);
+		key = old;
+	}
+
+out_add:
+	old = dy_bradd(br, key);
+	if (old)
+		/* its ref-count should never be zero here */
+		kref_put(&key->dk_kref, dy_bug);
+out:
+	return key;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+/*
+ * Aufs prohibits O_DIRECT by defaut even if the branch supports it.
+ * This behaviour is neccessary to return an error from open(O_DIRECT) instead
+ * of the succeeding I/O. The dio mount option enables O_DIRECT and makes
+ * open(O_DIRECT) always succeed, but the succeeding I/O may return an error.
+ * See the aufs manual in detail.
+ *
+ * To keep this behaviour, aufs has to set NULL to ->get_xip_mem too, and the
+ * performance of fadvise() and madvise() may be affected.
+ */
+static void dy_adx(struct au_dyaop *dyaop, int do_dx)
+{
+	if (!do_dx) {
+		dyaop->da_op.direct_IO = NULL;
+		dyaop->da_op.get_xip_mem = NULL;
+	} else {
+		dyaop->da_op.direct_IO = aufs_aop.direct_IO;
+		dyaop->da_op.get_xip_mem = aufs_aop.get_xip_mem;
+		if (!dyaop->da_get_xip_mem)
+			dyaop->da_op.get_xip_mem = NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+static struct au_dyaop *dy_aget(struct au_branch *br,
+				const struct address_space_operations *h_aop,
+				int do_dx)
+{
+	struct au_dyaop *dyaop;
+	struct au_dynop op;
+
+	op.dy_type = AuDy_AOP;
+	op.dy_haop = h_aop;
+	dyaop = (void *)dy_get(&op, br);
+	if (IS_ERR(dyaop))
+		goto out;
+	dy_adx(dyaop, do_dx);
+
+out:
+	return dyaop;
+}
+
+int au_dy_iaop(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		struct inode *h_inode)
+{
+	int err, do_dx;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_dyaop *dyaop;
+
+	AuDebugOn(!S_ISREG(h_inode->i_mode));
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	do_dx = !!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), DIO);
+	dyaop = dy_aget(br, h_inode->i_mapping->a_ops, do_dx);
+	err = PTR_ERR(dyaop);
+	if (IS_ERR(dyaop))
+		/* unnecessary to call dy_fput() */
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	inode->i_mapping->a_ops = &dyaop->da_op;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Is it safe to replace a_ops during the inode/file is in operation?
+ * Yes, I hope so.
+ */
+int au_dy_irefresh(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (S_ISREG(inode->i_mode)) {
+		bstart = au_ibstart(inode);
+		h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bstart);
+		err = au_dy_iaop(inode, bstart, h_inode);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_dy_arefresh(int do_dx)
+{
+	struct au_splhead *spl;
+	struct list_head *head;
+	struct au_dykey *key;
+
+	spl = dynop + AuDy_AOP;
+	head = &spl->head;
+	spin_lock(&spl->spin);
+	list_for_each_entry(key, head, dk_list)
+		dy_adx((void *)key, do_dx);
+	spin_unlock(&spl->spin);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void __init au_dy_init(void)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	/* make sure that 'struct au_dykey *' can be any type */
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(offsetof(struct au_dyaop, da_key));
+
+	for (i = 0; i < AuDyLast; i++)
+		au_spl_init(dynop + i);
+}
+
+void au_dy_fin(void)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < AuDyLast; i++)
+		WARN_ON(!list_empty(&dynop[i].head));
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dynop.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dynop.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/dynop.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/dynop.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2010-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * dynamically customizable operations (for regular files only)
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_DYNOP_H__
+#define __AUFS_DYNOP_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include "inode.h"
+
+enum {AuDy_AOP, AuDyLast};
+
+struct au_dynop {
+	int						dy_type;
+	union {
+		const void				*dy_hop;
+		const struct address_space_operations	*dy_haop;
+	};
+};
+
+struct au_dykey {
+	union {
+		struct list_head	dk_list;
+		struct rcu_head		dk_rcu;
+	};
+	struct au_dynop		dk_op;
+
+	/*
+	 * during I am in the branch local array, kref is gotten. when the
+	 * branch is removed, kref is put.
+	 */
+	struct kref		dk_kref;
+};
+
+/* stop unioning since their sizes are very different from each other */
+struct au_dyaop {
+	struct au_dykey			da_key;
+	struct address_space_operations	da_op; /* not const */
+	int (*da_get_xip_mem)(struct address_space *, pgoff_t, int,
+			      void **, unsigned long *);
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* dynop.c */
+struct au_branch;
+void au_dy_put(struct au_dykey *key);
+int au_dy_iaop(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		struct inode *h_inode);
+int au_dy_irefresh(struct inode *inode);
+void au_dy_arefresh(int do_dio);
+
+void __init au_dy_init(void);
+void au_dy_fin(void);
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_DYNOP_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/export.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/export.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/export.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/export.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,831 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * export via nfs
+ */
+
+#include <linux/exportfs.h>
+#include <linux/fs_struct.h>
+#include <linux/namei.h>
+#include <linux/nsproxy.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
+#include <linux/writeback.h>
+#include "../fs/mount.h"
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+union conv {
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_INO_T_64
+	__u32 a[2];
+#else
+	__u32 a[1];
+#endif
+	ino_t ino;
+};
+
+static ino_t decode_ino(__u32 *a)
+{
+	union conv u;
+
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(u.ino) != sizeof(u.a));
+	u.a[0] = a[0];
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_INO_T_64
+	u.a[1] = a[1];
+#endif
+	return u.ino;
+}
+
+static void encode_ino(__u32 *a, ino_t ino)
+{
+	union conv u;
+
+	u.ino = ino;
+	a[0] = u.a[0];
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_INO_T_64
+	a[1] = u.a[1];
+#endif
+}
+
+/* NFS file handle */
+enum {
+	Fh_br_id,
+	Fh_sigen,
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_INO_T_64
+	/* support 64bit inode number */
+	Fh_ino1,
+	Fh_ino2,
+	Fh_dir_ino1,
+	Fh_dir_ino2,
+#else
+	Fh_ino1,
+	Fh_dir_ino1,
+#endif
+	Fh_igen,
+	Fh_h_type,
+	Fh_tail,
+
+	Fh_ino = Fh_ino1,
+	Fh_dir_ino = Fh_dir_ino1
+};
+
+static int au_test_anon(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	/* note: read d_flags without d_lock */
+	return !!(dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_DISCONNECTED);
+}
+
+int au_test_nfsd(void)
+{
+	int ret;
+	struct task_struct *tsk = current;
+	char comm[sizeof(tsk->comm)];
+
+	ret = 0;
+	if (tsk->flags & PF_KTHREAD) {
+		get_task_comm(comm, tsk);
+		ret = !strcmp(comm, "nfsd");
+	}
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+/* inode generation external table */
+
+void au_xigen_inc(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	loff_t pos;
+	ssize_t sz;
+	__u32 igen;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	AuDebugOn(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO));
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	pos = inode->i_ino;
+	pos *= sizeof(igen);
+	igen = inode->i_generation + 1;
+	sz = xino_fwrite(sbinfo->si_xwrite, sbinfo->si_xigen, &igen,
+			 sizeof(igen), &pos);
+	if (sz == sizeof(igen))
+		return; /* success */
+
+	if (unlikely(sz >= 0))
+		AuIOErr("xigen error (%zd)\n", sz);
+}
+
+int au_xigen_new(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err;
+	loff_t pos;
+	ssize_t sz;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct file *file;
+
+	err = 0;
+	/* todo: dirty, at mount time */
+	if (inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO)
+		goto out;
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+	if (unlikely(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EFBIG;
+	pos = inode->i_ino;
+	if (unlikely(au_loff_max / sizeof(inode->i_generation) - 1 < pos)) {
+		AuIOErr1("too large i%lld\n", pos);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	pos *= sizeof(inode->i_generation);
+
+	err = 0;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	file = sbinfo->si_xigen;
+	BUG_ON(!file);
+
+	if (vfsub_f_size_read(file)
+	    < pos + sizeof(inode->i_generation)) {
+		inode->i_generation = atomic_inc_return(&sbinfo->si_xigen_next);
+		sz = xino_fwrite(sbinfo->si_xwrite, file, &inode->i_generation,
+				 sizeof(inode->i_generation), &pos);
+	} else
+		sz = xino_fread(sbinfo->si_xread, file, &inode->i_generation,
+				sizeof(inode->i_generation), &pos);
+	if (sz == sizeof(inode->i_generation))
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	err = sz;
+	if (unlikely(sz >= 0)) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		AuIOErr("xigen error (%zd)\n", sz);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_xigen_set(struct super_block *sb, struct file *base)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct file *file;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	file = au_xino_create2(base, sbinfo->si_xigen);
+	err = PTR_ERR(file);
+	if (IS_ERR(file))
+		goto out;
+	err = 0;
+	if (sbinfo->si_xigen)
+		fput(sbinfo->si_xigen);
+	sbinfo->si_xigen = file;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_xigen_clr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	if (sbinfo->si_xigen) {
+		fput(sbinfo->si_xigen);
+		sbinfo->si_xigen = NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct dentry *decode_by_ino(struct super_block *sb, ino_t ino,
+				    ino_t dir_ino)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry, *d;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+
+	dentry = NULL;
+	inode = ilookup(sb, ino);
+	if (!inode)
+		goto out;
+
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-ESTALE);
+	sigen = au_sigen(sb);
+	if (unlikely(is_bad_inode(inode)
+		     || IS_DEADDIR(inode)
+		     || sigen != au_iigen(inode, NULL)))
+		goto out_iput;
+
+	dentry = NULL;
+	if (!dir_ino || S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
+		dentry = d_find_alias(inode);
+	else {
+		spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
+		hlist_for_each_entry(d, &inode->i_dentry, d_alias) {
+			spin_lock(&d->d_lock);
+			if (!au_test_anon(d)
+			    && d->d_parent->d_inode->i_ino == dir_ino) {
+				dentry = dget_dlock(d);
+				spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+				break;
+			}
+			spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
+	}
+	if (unlikely(dentry && au_digen_test(dentry, sigen))) {
+		/* need to refresh */
+		dput(dentry);
+		dentry = NULL;
+	}
+
+out_iput:
+	iput(inode);
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(dentry);
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* todo: dirty? */
+/* if exportfs_decode_fh() passed vfsmount*, we could be happy */
+
+struct au_compare_mnt_args {
+	/* input */
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	/* output */
+	struct vfsmount *mnt;
+};
+
+static int au_compare_mnt(struct vfsmount *mnt, void *arg)
+{
+	struct au_compare_mnt_args *a = arg;
+
+	if (mnt->mnt_sb != a->sb)
+		return 0;
+	a->mnt = mntget(mnt);
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static struct vfsmount *au_mnt_get(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path root;
+	struct au_compare_mnt_args args = {
+		.sb = sb
+	};
+
+	get_fs_root(current->fs, &root);
+	br_read_lock(&vfsmount_lock);
+	err = iterate_mounts(au_compare_mnt, &args, root.mnt);
+	br_read_unlock(&vfsmount_lock);
+	path_put(&root);
+	AuDebugOn(!err);
+	AuDebugOn(!args.mnt);
+	return args.mnt;
+}
+
+struct au_nfsd_si_lock {
+	unsigned int sigen;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, br_id;
+	unsigned char force_lock;
+};
+
+static int si_nfsd_read_lock(struct super_block *sb,
+			     struct au_nfsd_si_lock *nsi_lock)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+
+	/* branch id may be wrapped around */
+	err = 0;
+	bindex = au_br_index(sb, nsi_lock->br_id);
+	if (bindex >= 0 && nsi_lock->sigen + AUFS_BRANCH_MAX > au_sigen(sb))
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	err = -ESTALE;
+	bindex = -1;
+	if (!nsi_lock->force_lock)
+		si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+out:
+	nsi_lock->bindex = bindex;
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct find_name_by_ino {
+	struct dir_context ctx;
+	int called, found;
+	ino_t ino;
+	char *name;
+	int namelen;
+};
+
+static int
+find_name_by_ino(struct dir_context *ctx, const char *name, int namelen,
+		 loff_t offset, u64 ino, unsigned int d_type)
+{
+	struct find_name_by_ino *a = container_of(ctx, struct find_name_by_ino,
+						  ctx);
+
+	a->called++;
+	if (a->ino != ino)
+		return 0;
+
+	memcpy(a->name, name, namelen);
+	a->namelen = namelen;
+	a->found = 1;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static struct dentry *au_lkup_by_ino(struct path *path, ino_t ino,
+				     struct au_nfsd_si_lock *nsi_lock)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry, *parent;
+	struct file *file;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct find_name_by_ino arg = {
+		.ctx = {
+			.actor = au_diractor(find_name_by_ino)
+		}
+	};
+	int err;
+
+	parent = path->dentry;
+	if (nsi_lock)
+		si_read_unlock(parent->d_sb);
+	file = vfsub_dentry_open(path, au_dir_roflags);
+	dentry = (void *)file;
+	if (IS_ERR(file))
+		goto out;
+
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+	arg.name = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!arg.name))
+		goto out_file;
+	arg.ino = ino;
+	arg.found = 0;
+	do {
+		arg.called = 0;
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+		err = vfsub_iterate_dir(file, &arg.ctx);
+	} while (!err && !arg.found && arg.called);
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_name;
+	/* instead of ENOENT */
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-ESTALE);
+	if (!arg.found)
+		goto out_name;
+
+	/* do not call vfsub_lkup_one() */
+	dir = parent->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock(&dir->i_mutex);
+	dentry = vfsub_lookup_one_len(arg.name, parent, arg.namelen);
+	mutex_unlock(&dir->i_mutex);
+	AuTraceErrPtr(dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
+		goto out_name;
+	AuDebugOn(au_test_anon(dentry));
+	if (unlikely(!dentry->d_inode)) {
+		dput(dentry);
+		dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
+	}
+
+out_name:
+	free_page((unsigned long)arg.name);
+out_file:
+	fput(file);
+out:
+	if (unlikely(nsi_lock
+		     && si_nfsd_read_lock(parent->d_sb, nsi_lock) < 0))
+		if (!IS_ERR(dentry)) {
+			dput(dentry);
+			dentry = ERR_PTR(-ESTALE);
+		}
+	AuTraceErrPtr(dentry);
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+static struct dentry *decode_by_dir_ino(struct super_block *sb, ino_t ino,
+					ino_t dir_ino,
+					struct au_nfsd_si_lock *nsi_lock)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct path path;
+
+	if (dir_ino != AUFS_ROOT_INO) {
+		path.dentry = decode_by_ino(sb, dir_ino, 0);
+		dentry = path.dentry;
+		if (!path.dentry || IS_ERR(path.dentry))
+			goto out;
+		AuDebugOn(au_test_anon(path.dentry));
+	} else
+		path.dentry = dget(sb->s_root);
+
+	path.mnt = au_mnt_get(sb);
+	dentry = au_lkup_by_ino(&path, ino, nsi_lock);
+	path_put(&path);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(dentry);
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int h_acceptable(void *expv, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static char *au_build_path(struct dentry *h_parent, struct path *h_rootpath,
+			   char *buf, int len, struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	char *p;
+	int n;
+	struct path path;
+
+	p = d_path(h_rootpath, buf, len);
+	if (IS_ERR(p))
+		goto out;
+	n = strlen(p);
+
+	path.mnt = h_rootpath->mnt;
+	path.dentry = h_parent;
+	p = d_path(&path, buf, len);
+	if (IS_ERR(p))
+		goto out;
+	if (n != 1)
+		p += n;
+
+	path.mnt = au_mnt_get(sb);
+	path.dentry = sb->s_root;
+	p = d_path(&path, buf, len - strlen(p));
+	mntput(path.mnt);
+	if (IS_ERR(p))
+		goto out;
+	if (n != 1)
+		p[strlen(p)] = '/';
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(p);
+	return p;
+}
+
+static
+struct dentry *decode_by_path(struct super_block *sb, ino_t ino, __u32 *fh,
+			      int fh_len, struct au_nfsd_si_lock *nsi_lock)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry, *h_parent, *root;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+	char *pathname, *p;
+	struct vfsmount *h_mnt;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	int err;
+	struct path path;
+
+	br = au_sbr(sb, nsi_lock->bindex);
+	h_mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+	h_sb = h_mnt->mnt_sb;
+	/* todo: call lower fh_to_dentry()? fh_to_parent()? */
+	h_parent = exportfs_decode_fh(h_mnt, (void *)(fh + Fh_tail),
+				      fh_len - Fh_tail, fh[Fh_h_type],
+				      h_acceptable, /*context*/NULL);
+	dentry = h_parent;
+	if (unlikely(!h_parent || IS_ERR(h_parent))) {
+		AuWarn1("%s decode_fh failed, %ld\n",
+			au_sbtype(h_sb), PTR_ERR(h_parent));
+		goto out;
+	}
+	dentry = NULL;
+	if (unlikely(au_test_anon(h_parent))) {
+		AuWarn1("%s decode_fh returned a disconnected dentry\n",
+			au_sbtype(h_sb));
+		goto out_h_parent;
+	}
+
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+	pathname = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!pathname))
+		goto out_h_parent;
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	path.mnt = h_mnt;
+	di_read_lock_parent(root, !AuLock_IR);
+	path.dentry = au_h_dptr(root, nsi_lock->bindex);
+	di_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+	p = au_build_path(h_parent, &path, pathname, PAGE_SIZE, sb);
+	dentry = (void *)p;
+	if (IS_ERR(p))
+		goto out_pathname;
+
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	err = vfsub_kern_path(p, LOOKUP_FOLLOW | LOOKUP_DIRECTORY, &path);
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_relock;
+
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
+	AuDebugOn(au_test_anon(path.dentry));
+	if (unlikely(!path.dentry->d_inode))
+		goto out_path;
+
+	if (ino != path.dentry->d_inode->i_ino)
+		dentry = au_lkup_by_ino(&path, ino, /*nsi_lock*/NULL);
+	else
+		dentry = dget(path.dentry);
+
+out_path:
+	path_put(&path);
+out_relock:
+	if (unlikely(si_nfsd_read_lock(sb, nsi_lock) < 0))
+		if (!IS_ERR(dentry)) {
+			dput(dentry);
+			dentry = ERR_PTR(-ESTALE);
+		}
+out_pathname:
+	free_page((unsigned long)pathname);
+out_h_parent:
+	dput(h_parent);
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(dentry);
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct dentry *
+aufs_fh_to_dentry(struct super_block *sb, struct fid *fid, int fh_len,
+		  int fh_type)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	__u32 *fh = fid->raw;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	ino_t ino, dir_ino;
+	struct au_nfsd_si_lock nsi_lock = {
+		.force_lock	= 0
+	};
+
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-ESTALE);
+	/* it should never happen, but the file handle is unreliable */
+	if (unlikely(fh_len < Fh_tail))
+		goto out;
+	nsi_lock.sigen = fh[Fh_sigen];
+	nsi_lock.br_id = fh[Fh_br_id];
+
+	/* branch id may be wrapped around */
+	br = NULL;
+	if (unlikely(si_nfsd_read_lock(sb, &nsi_lock)))
+		goto out;
+	nsi_lock.force_lock = 1;
+
+	/* is this inode still cached? */
+	ino = decode_ino(fh + Fh_ino);
+	/* it should never happen */
+	if (unlikely(ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO))
+		goto out;
+
+	dir_ino = decode_ino(fh + Fh_dir_ino);
+	dentry = decode_by_ino(sb, ino, dir_ino);
+	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	if (dentry)
+		goto accept;
+
+	/* is the parent dir cached? */
+	br = au_sbr(sb, nsi_lock.bindex);
+	atomic_inc(&br->br_count);
+	dentry = decode_by_dir_ino(sb, ino, dir_ino, &nsi_lock);
+	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	if (dentry)
+		goto accept;
+
+	/* lookup path */
+	dentry = decode_by_path(sb, ino, fh, fh_len, &nsi_lock);
+	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	if (unlikely(!dentry))
+		/* todo?: make it ESTALE */
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+accept:
+	if (!au_digen_test(dentry, au_sigen(sb))
+	    && dentry->d_inode->i_generation == fh[Fh_igen])
+		goto out_unlock; /* success */
+
+	dput(dentry);
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-ESTALE);
+out_unlock:
+	if (br)
+		atomic_dec(&br->br_count);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(dentry);
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* reserved for future use */
+/* support subtreecheck option */
+static struct dentry *aufs_fh_to_parent(struct super_block *sb, struct fid *fid,
+					int fh_len, int fh_type)
+{
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	__u32 *fh = fid->raw;
+	ino_t dir_ino;
+
+	dir_ino = decode_ino(fh + Fh_dir_ino);
+	parent = decode_by_ino(sb, dir_ino, 0);
+	if (IS_ERR(parent))
+		goto out;
+	if (!parent)
+		parent = decode_by_path(sb, au_br_index(sb, fh[Fh_br_id]),
+					dir_ino, fh, fh_len);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(parent);
+	return parent;
+}
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int aufs_encode_fh(struct inode *inode, __u32 *fh, int *max_len,
+			  struct inode *dir)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct super_block *sb, *h_sb;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *parent, *h_parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	err = -ENOSPC;
+	if (unlikely(*max_len <= Fh_tail)) {
+		AuWarn1("NFSv2 client (max_len %d)?\n", *max_len);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = FILEID_ROOT;
+	if (inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO) {
+		AuDebugOn(inode->i_ino != AUFS_ROOT_INO);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	h_parent = NULL;
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	err = si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+	if (unlikely(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO)))
+		AuWarn1("NFS-exporting requires xino\n");
+#endif
+	err = -EIO;
+	parent = NULL;
+	ii_read_lock_child(inode);
+	bindex = au_ibstart(inode);
+	if (!dir) {
+		dentry = d_find_alias(inode);
+		if (unlikely(!dentry))
+			goto out_unlock;
+		AuDebugOn(au_test_anon(dentry));
+		parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+		dput(dentry);
+		if (unlikely(!parent))
+			goto out_unlock;
+		dir = parent->d_inode;
+	}
+
+	ii_read_lock_parent(dir);
+	h_dir = au_h_iptr(dir, bindex);
+	ii_read_unlock(dir);
+	if (unlikely(!h_dir))
+		goto out_parent;
+	h_parent = d_find_alias(h_dir);
+	if (unlikely(!h_parent))
+		goto out_hparent;
+
+	err = -EPERM;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	h_sb = au_br_sb(br);
+	if (unlikely(!h_sb->s_export_op)) {
+		AuErr1("%s branch is not exportable\n", au_sbtype(h_sb));
+		goto out_hparent;
+	}
+
+	fh[Fh_br_id] = br->br_id;
+	fh[Fh_sigen] = au_sigen(sb);
+	encode_ino(fh + Fh_ino, inode->i_ino);
+	encode_ino(fh + Fh_dir_ino, dir->i_ino);
+	fh[Fh_igen] = inode->i_generation;
+
+	*max_len -= Fh_tail;
+	fh[Fh_h_type] = exportfs_encode_fh(h_parent, (void *)(fh + Fh_tail),
+					   max_len,
+					   /*connectable or subtreecheck*/0);
+	err = fh[Fh_h_type];
+	*max_len += Fh_tail;
+	/* todo: macros? */
+	if (err != FILEID_INVALID)
+		err = 99;
+	else
+		AuWarn1("%s encode_fh failed\n", au_sbtype(h_sb));
+
+out_hparent:
+	dput(h_parent);
+out_parent:
+	dput(parent);
+out_unlock:
+	ii_read_unlock(inode);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+out:
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		err = FILEID_INVALID;
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int aufs_commit_metadata(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	int (*f)(struct inode *inode);
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+	bindex = au_ibstart(inode);
+	AuDebugOn(bindex < 0);
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+
+	f = h_inode->i_sb->s_export_op->commit_metadata;
+	if (f)
+		err = f(h_inode);
+	else {
+		struct writeback_control wbc = {
+			.sync_mode	= WB_SYNC_ALL,
+			.nr_to_write	= 0 /* metadata only */
+		};
+
+		err = sync_inode(h_inode, &wbc);
+	}
+
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+	ii_write_unlock(inode);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct export_operations aufs_export_op = {
+	.fh_to_dentry		= aufs_fh_to_dentry,
+	/* .fh_to_parent	= aufs_fh_to_parent, */
+	.encode_fh		= aufs_encode_fh,
+	.commit_metadata	= aufs_commit_metadata
+};
+
+void au_export_init(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	__u32 u;
+
+	sb->s_export_op = &aufs_export_op;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	sbinfo->si_xigen = NULL;
+	get_random_bytes(&u, sizeof(u));
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(u) != sizeof(int));
+	atomic_set(&sbinfo->si_xigen_next, u);
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/file.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/file.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/file.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/file.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,724 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * handling file/dir, and address_space operation
+ */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+#include <linux/migrate.h>
+#endif
+#include <linux/pagemap.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* drop flags for writing */
+unsigned int au_file_roflags(unsigned int flags)
+{
+	flags &= ~(O_WRONLY | O_RDWR | O_APPEND | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC);
+	flags |= O_RDONLY | O_NOATIME;
+	return flags;
+}
+
+/* common functions to regular file and dir */
+struct file *au_h_open(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex, int flags,
+		       struct file *file, int force_wr)
+{
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct path h_path;
+	int err, exec_flag;
+
+	/* a race condition can happen between open and unlink/rmdir */
+	h_file = ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	if (au_test_nfsd() && !h_dentry)
+		goto out;
+	h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	if (au_test_nfsd() && !h_inode)
+		goto out;
+	spin_lock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+	err = (!d_unhashed(dentry) && d_unlinked(h_dentry))
+		|| !h_inode
+		/* || !dentry->d_inode->i_nlink */
+		;
+	spin_unlock(&h_dentry->d_lock);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	h_file = ERR_PTR(-EACCES);
+	exec_flag = flags & __FMODE_EXEC;
+	if (exec_flag && (au_br_mnt(br)->mnt_flags & MNT_NOEXEC))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* drop flags for writing */
+	if (au_test_ro(sb, bindex, dentry->d_inode)) {
+		if (force_wr && !(flags & O_WRONLY))
+			force_wr = 0;
+		flags = au_file_roflags(flags);
+		if (force_wr) {
+			h_file = ERR_PTR(-EROFS);
+			flags = au_file_roflags(flags);
+			if (unlikely(vfsub_native_ro(h_inode)
+				     || IS_APPEND(h_inode)))
+				goto out;
+			flags &= ~O_ACCMODE;
+			flags |= O_WRONLY;
+		}
+	}
+	flags &= ~O_CREAT;
+	atomic_inc(&br->br_count);
+	h_path.dentry = h_dentry;
+	h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+	if (!au_special_file(h_inode->i_mode))
+		h_file = vfsub_dentry_open(&h_path, flags);
+	else {
+		/* this block depends upon the configuration */
+		di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+		si_read_unlock(sb);
+		h_file = vfsub_dentry_open(&h_path, flags);
+		si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+		fi_write_lock(file);
+		di_read_lock_child(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	}
+	if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+		goto out_br;
+
+	if (exec_flag) {
+		err = deny_write_access(h_file);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			fput(h_file);
+			h_file = ERR_PTR(err);
+			goto out_br;
+		}
+	}
+	fsnotify_open(h_file);
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_br:
+	atomic_dec(&br->br_count);
+out:
+	return h_file;
+}
+
+int au_do_open(struct file *file, int (*open)(struct file *file, int flags),
+	       struct au_fidir *fidir)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+
+	err = au_finfo_init(file, fidir);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	di_read_lock_child(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	err = open(file, vfsub_file_flags(file));
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		au_fi(file)->fi_hdir = NULL;
+		au_finfo_fin(file);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_reopen_nondir(struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct file *h_file, *h_file_tmp;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	AuDebugOn(au_special_file(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	h_file_tmp = NULL;
+	if (au_fbstart(file) == bstart) {
+		h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+		if (file->f_mode == h_file->f_mode)
+			return 0; /* success */
+		h_file_tmp = h_file;
+		get_file(h_file_tmp);
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bstart, NULL);
+	}
+	AuDebugOn(au_fi(file)->fi_hdir);
+	/*
+	 * it can happen
+	 * file exists on both of rw and ro
+	 * open --> dbstart and fbstart are both 0
+	 * prepend a branch as rw, "rw" become ro
+	 * remove rw/file
+	 * delete the top branch, "rw" becomes rw again
+	 *	--> dbstart is 1, fbstart is still 0
+	 * write --> fbstart is 0 but dbstart is 1
+	 */
+	/* AuDebugOn(au_fbstart(file) < bstart); */
+
+	h_file = au_h_open(dentry, bstart, vfsub_file_flags(file) & ~O_TRUNC,
+			   file, /*force_wr*/0);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_file)) {
+		if (h_file_tmp) {
+			atomic_inc(&au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bstart)->br_count);
+			au_set_h_fptr(file, bstart, h_file_tmp);
+			h_file_tmp = NULL;
+		}
+		goto out; /* todo: close all? */
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	au_set_fbstart(file, bstart);
+	au_set_h_fptr(file, bstart, h_file);
+	au_update_figen(file);
+	/* todo: necessary? */
+	/* file->f_ra = h_file->f_ra; */
+
+out:
+	if (h_file_tmp)
+		fput(h_file_tmp);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_reopen_wh(struct file *file, aufs_bindex_t btgt,
+			struct dentry *hi_wh)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+
+	dinfo = au_di(file->f_dentry);
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&dinfo->di_rwsem);
+
+	bstart = dinfo->di_bstart;
+	dinfo->di_bstart = btgt;
+	hdp = dinfo->di_hdentry;
+	h_dentry = hdp[0 + btgt].hd_dentry;
+	hdp[0 + btgt].hd_dentry = hi_wh;
+	err = au_reopen_nondir(file);
+	hdp[0 + btgt].hd_dentry = h_dentry;
+	dinfo->di_bstart = bstart;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_ready_to_write_wh(struct file *file, loff_t len,
+				aufs_bindex_t bcpup, struct au_pin *pin)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry, *hi_wh;
+	struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+		.dentry	= file->f_dentry,
+		.bdst	= bcpup,
+		.bsrc	= -1,
+		.len	= len,
+		.pin	= pin
+	};
+
+	au_update_dbstart(cpg.dentry);
+	inode = cpg.dentry->d_inode;
+	h_inode = NULL;
+	if (au_dbstart(cpg.dentry) <= bcpup
+	    && au_dbend(cpg.dentry) >= bcpup) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(cpg.dentry, bcpup);
+		if (h_dentry)
+			h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	}
+	hi_wh = au_hi_wh(inode, bcpup);
+	if (!hi_wh && !h_inode)
+		err = au_sio_cpup_wh(&cpg, file);
+	else
+		/* already copied-up after unlink */
+		err = au_reopen_wh(file, bcpup, hi_wh);
+
+	if (!err
+	    && inode->i_nlink > 1
+	    && au_opt_test(au_mntflags(cpg.dentry->d_sb), PLINK))
+		au_plink_append(inode, bcpup, au_h_dptr(cpg.dentry, bcpup));
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * prepare the @file for writing.
+ */
+int au_ready_to_write(struct file *file, loff_t len, struct au_pin *pin)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t dbstart;
+	struct dentry *parent, *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+		.dentry	= file->f_dentry,
+		.bdst	= -1,
+		.bsrc	= -1,
+		.len	= len,
+		.pin	= pin,
+		.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME
+	};
+
+	sb = cpg.dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = cpg.dentry->d_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(au_special_file(inode->i_mode));
+	cpg.bsrc = au_fbstart(file);
+	err = au_test_ro(sb, cpg.bsrc, inode);
+	if (!err && (au_hf_top(file)->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE)) {
+		err = au_pin(pin, cpg.dentry, cpg.bsrc, AuOpt_UDBA_NONE,
+			     /*flags*/0);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* need to cpup or reopen */
+	parent = dget_parent(cpg.dentry);
+	di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+	err = AuWbrCopyup(au_sbi(sb), cpg.dentry);
+	cpg.bdst = err;
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out_dgrade;
+	err = 0;
+
+	if (!d_unhashed(cpg.dentry) && !au_h_dptr(parent, cpg.bdst)) {
+		err = au_cpup_dirs(cpg.dentry, cpg.bdst);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_dgrade;
+	}
+
+	err = au_pin(pin, cpg.dentry, cpg.bdst, AuOpt_UDBA_NONE,
+		     AuPin_DI_LOCKED | AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_dgrade;
+
+	h_dentry = au_hf_top(file)->f_dentry;
+	dbstart = au_dbstart(cpg.dentry);
+	if (dbstart <= cpg.bdst) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(cpg.dentry, cpg.bdst);
+		AuDebugOn(!h_dentry);
+		cpg.bsrc = cpg.bdst;
+	}
+
+	if (dbstart <= cpg.bdst		/* just reopen */
+	    || !d_unhashed(cpg.dentry)	/* copyup and reopen */
+		) {
+		h_file = au_h_open_pre(cpg.dentry, cpg.bsrc, /*force_wr*/0);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+			err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+		else {
+			di_downgrade_lock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+			if (dbstart > cpg.bdst)
+				err = au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+			if (!err)
+				err = au_reopen_nondir(file);
+			au_h_open_post(cpg.dentry, cpg.bsrc, h_file);
+		}
+	} else {			/* copyup as wh and reopen */
+		/*
+		 * since writable hfsplus branch is not supported,
+		 * h_open_pre/post() are unnecessary.
+		 */
+		err = au_ready_to_write_wh(file, len, cpg.bdst, pin);
+		di_downgrade_lock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	}
+
+	if (!err) {
+		au_pin_set_parent_lflag(pin, /*lflag*/0);
+		goto out_dput; /* success */
+	}
+	au_unpin(pin);
+	goto out_unlock;
+
+out_dgrade:
+	di_downgrade_lock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+out_unlock:
+	di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+out_dput:
+	dput(parent);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_do_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id,
+		int (*flush)(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id))
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	inode = file_inode(file);
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	fi_read_lock(file);
+	ii_read_lock_child(inode);
+
+	err = flush(file, id);
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+
+	ii_read_unlock(inode);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_file_refresh_by_inode(struct file *file, int *need_reopen)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	struct dentry *parent, *hi_wh;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+		.dentry	= file->f_dentry,
+		.bdst	= -1,
+		.bsrc	= -1,
+		.len	= -1,
+		.pin	= &pin,
+		.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME
+	};
+
+	FiMustWriteLock(file);
+
+	err = 0;
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	sb = cpg.dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = cpg.dentry->d_inode;
+	cpg.bdst = au_ibstart(inode);
+	if (cpg.bdst == finfo->fi_btop || IS_ROOT(cpg.dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	parent = dget_parent(cpg.dentry);
+	if (au_test_ro(sb, cpg.bdst, inode)) {
+		di_read_lock_parent(parent, !AuLock_IR);
+		err = AuWbrCopyup(au_sbi(sb), cpg.dentry);
+		cpg.bdst = err;
+		di_read_unlock(parent, !AuLock_IR);
+		if (unlikely(err < 0))
+			goto out_parent;
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	di_read_lock_parent(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	hi_wh = au_hi_wh(inode, cpg.bdst);
+	if (!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)
+	    && au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK)
+	    && au_plink_test(inode)
+	    && !d_unhashed(cpg.dentry)
+	    && cpg.bdst < au_dbstart(cpg.dentry)) {
+		err = au_test_and_cpup_dirs(cpg.dentry, cpg.bdst);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_unlock;
+
+		/* always superio. */
+		err = au_pin(&pin, cpg.dentry, cpg.bdst, AuOpt_UDBA_NONE,
+			     AuPin_DI_LOCKED | AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+		if (!err) {
+			err = au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+			au_unpin(&pin);
+		}
+	} else if (hi_wh) {
+		/* already copied-up after unlink */
+		err = au_reopen_wh(file, cpg.bdst, hi_wh);
+		*need_reopen = 0;
+	}
+
+out_unlock:
+	di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+out_parent:
+	dput(parent);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_do_refresh_dir(struct file *file)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend, new_bindex, brid;
+	struct au_hfile *p, tmp, *q;
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_fidir *fidir;
+
+	FiMustWriteLock(file);
+
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	fidir = finfo->fi_hdir;
+	AuDebugOn(!fidir);
+	p = fidir->fd_hfile + finfo->fi_btop;
+	brid = p->hf_br->br_id;
+	bend = fidir->fd_bbot;
+	for (bindex = finfo->fi_btop; bindex <= bend; bindex++, p++) {
+		if (!p->hf_file)
+			continue;
+
+		new_bindex = au_br_index(sb, p->hf_br->br_id);
+		if (new_bindex == bindex)
+			continue;
+		if (new_bindex < 0) {
+			au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, NULL);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* swap two lower inode, and loop again */
+		q = fidir->fd_hfile + new_bindex;
+		tmp = *q;
+		*q = *p;
+		*p = tmp;
+		if (tmp.hf_file) {
+			bindex--;
+			p--;
+		}
+	}
+
+	p = fidir->fd_hfile;
+	if (!au_test_mmapped(file) && !d_unlinked(file->f_dentry)) {
+		bend = au_sbend(sb);
+		for (finfo->fi_btop = 0; finfo->fi_btop <= bend;
+		     finfo->fi_btop++, p++)
+			if (p->hf_file) {
+				if (file_inode(p->hf_file))
+					break;
+				else
+					au_hfput(p, file);
+			}
+	} else {
+		bend = au_br_index(sb, brid);
+		for (finfo->fi_btop = 0; finfo->fi_btop < bend;
+		     finfo->fi_btop++, p++)
+			if (p->hf_file)
+				au_hfput(p, file);
+		bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	}
+
+	p = fidir->fd_hfile + bend;
+	for (fidir->fd_bbot = bend; fidir->fd_bbot >= finfo->fi_btop;
+	     fidir->fd_bbot--, p--)
+		if (p->hf_file) {
+			if (file_inode(p->hf_file))
+				break;
+			else
+				au_hfput(p, file);
+		}
+	AuDebugOn(fidir->fd_bbot < finfo->fi_btop);
+}
+
+/*
+ * after branch manipulating, refresh the file.
+ */
+static int refresh_file(struct file *file, int (*reopen)(struct file *file))
+{
+	int err, need_reopen;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	struct au_hfile *hfile;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	if (!finfo->fi_hdir) {
+		hfile = &finfo->fi_htop;
+		AuDebugOn(!hfile->hf_file);
+		bindex = au_br_index(dentry->d_sb, hfile->hf_br->br_id);
+		AuDebugOn(bindex < 0);
+		if (bindex != finfo->fi_btop)
+			au_set_fbstart(file, bindex);
+	} else {
+		err = au_fidir_realloc(finfo, au_sbend(dentry->d_sb) + 1);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+		au_do_refresh_dir(file);
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	need_reopen = 1;
+	if (!au_test_mmapped(file))
+		err = au_file_refresh_by_inode(file, &need_reopen);
+	if (!err && need_reopen && !d_unlinked(dentry))
+		err = reopen(file);
+	if (!err) {
+		au_update_figen(file);
+		goto out; /* success */
+	}
+
+	/* error, close all lower files */
+	if (finfo->fi_hdir) {
+		bend = au_fbend_dir(file);
+		for (bindex = au_fbstart(file); bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+			au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, NULL);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* common function to regular file and dir */
+int au_reval_and_lock_fdi(struct file *file, int (*reopen)(struct file *file),
+			  int wlock)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int sigen, figen;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	unsigned char pseudo_link;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	err = 0;
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(au_special_file(inode->i_mode));
+	sigen = au_sigen(dentry->d_sb);
+	fi_write_lock(file);
+	figen = au_figen(file);
+	di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	pseudo_link = (bstart != au_ibstart(inode));
+	if (sigen == figen && !pseudo_link && au_fbstart(file) == bstart) {
+		if (!wlock) {
+			di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+			fi_downgrade_lock(file);
+		}
+		goto out; /* success */
+	}
+
+	AuDbg("sigen %d, figen %d\n", sigen, figen);
+	if (au_digen_test(dentry, sigen)) {
+		err = au_reval_dpath(dentry, sigen);
+		AuDebugOn(!err && au_digen_test(dentry, sigen));
+	}
+
+	if (!err)
+		err = refresh_file(file, reopen);
+	if (!err) {
+		if (!wlock) {
+			di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+			fi_downgrade_lock(file);
+		}
+	} else {
+		di_write_unlock(dentry);
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* cf. aufs_nopage() */
+/* for madvise(2) */
+static int aufs_readpage(struct file *file __maybe_unused, struct page *page)
+{
+	unlock_page(page);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* it will never be called, but necessary to support O_DIRECT */
+static ssize_t aufs_direct_IO(int rw, struct kiocb *iocb,
+			      const struct iovec *iov, loff_t offset,
+			      unsigned long nr_segs)
+{ BUG(); return 0; }
+
+/*
+ * it will never be called, but madvise and fadvise behaves differently
+ * when get_xip_mem is defined
+ */
+static int aufs_get_xip_mem(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t pgoff,
+			    int create, void **kmem, unsigned long *pfn)
+{ BUG(); return 0; }
+
+/* they will never be called. */
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+static int aufs_write_begin(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
+			    loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
+			    struct page **pagep, void **fsdata)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static int aufs_write_end(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
+			  loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
+			  struct page *page, void *fsdata)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static int aufs_writepage(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+
+static int aufs_set_page_dirty(struct page *page)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static void aufs_invalidatepage(struct page *page, unsigned int offset,
+				unsigned int length)
+{ AuUnsupport(); }
+static int aufs_releasepage(struct page *page, gfp_t gfp)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static int aufs_migratepage(struct address_space *mapping, struct page *newpage,
+			    struct page *page, enum migrate_mode mode)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static int aufs_launder_page(struct page *page)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static int aufs_is_partially_uptodate(struct page *page,
+				      read_descriptor_t *desc,
+				      unsigned long from)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static void aufs_is_dirty_writeback(struct page *page, bool *dirty,
+				    bool *writeback)
+{ AuUnsupport(); }
+static int aufs_error_remove_page(struct address_space *mapping,
+				  struct page *page)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static int aufs_swap_activate(struct swap_info_struct *sis, struct file *file,
+			      sector_t *span)
+{ AuUnsupport(); return 0; }
+static void aufs_swap_deactivate(struct file *file)
+{ AuUnsupport(); }
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG */
+
+const struct address_space_operations aufs_aop = {
+	.readpage		= aufs_readpage,
+	.direct_IO		= aufs_direct_IO,
+	.get_xip_mem		= aufs_get_xip_mem,
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+	.writepage		= aufs_writepage,
+	/* no writepages, because of writepage */
+	.set_page_dirty		= aufs_set_page_dirty,
+	/* no readpages, because of readpage */
+	.write_begin		= aufs_write_begin,
+	.write_end		= aufs_write_end,
+	/* no bmap, no block device */
+	.invalidatepage		= aufs_invalidatepage,
+	.releasepage		= aufs_releasepage,
+	.migratepage		= aufs_migratepage,
+	.launder_page		= aufs_launder_page,
+	.is_partially_uptodate	= aufs_is_partially_uptodate,
+	.is_dirty_writeback	= aufs_is_dirty_writeback,
+	.error_remove_page	= aufs_error_remove_page,
+	.swap_activate		= aufs_swap_activate,
+	.swap_deactivate	= aufs_swap_deactivate
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG */
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/file.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/file.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/file.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/file.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,309 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * file operations
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_FILE_H__
+#define __AUFS_FILE_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/poll.h>
+#include "rwsem.h"
+
+struct au_branch;
+struct au_hfile {
+	struct file		*hf_file;
+	struct au_branch	*hf_br;
+};
+
+struct au_vdir;
+struct au_fidir {
+	aufs_bindex_t		fd_bbot;
+	aufs_bindex_t		fd_nent;
+	struct au_vdir		*fd_vdir_cache;
+	struct au_hfile		fd_hfile[];
+};
+
+static inline int au_fidir_sz(int nent)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(nent < 0);
+	return sizeof(struct au_fidir) + sizeof(struct au_hfile) * nent;
+}
+
+struct au_finfo {
+	atomic_t		fi_generation;
+
+	struct au_rwsem		fi_rwsem;
+	aufs_bindex_t		fi_btop;
+
+	/* do not union them */
+	struct {				/* for non-dir */
+		struct au_hfile			fi_htop;
+		atomic_t			fi_mmapped;
+	};
+	struct au_fidir		*fi_hdir;	/* for dir only */
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* file.c */
+extern const struct address_space_operations aufs_aop;
+unsigned int au_file_roflags(unsigned int flags);
+struct file *au_h_open(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex, int flags,
+		       struct file *file, int force_wr);
+int au_do_open(struct file *file, int (*open)(struct file *file, int flags),
+	       struct au_fidir *fidir);
+int au_reopen_nondir(struct file *file);
+struct au_pin;
+int au_ready_to_write(struct file *file, loff_t len, struct au_pin *pin);
+int au_reval_and_lock_fdi(struct file *file, int (*reopen)(struct file *file),
+			  int wlock);
+int au_do_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id,
+		int (*flush)(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id));
+
+/* poll.c */
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_POLL
+unsigned int aufs_poll(struct file *file, poll_table *wait);
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_BR_HFSPLUS
+/* hfsplus.c */
+struct file *au_h_open_pre(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			   int force_wr);
+void au_h_open_post(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		    struct file *h_file);
+#else
+static inline
+struct file *au_h_open_pre(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			   int force_wr)
+{
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+AuStubVoid(au_h_open_post, struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	   struct file *h_file);
+#endif
+
+/* f_op.c */
+extern const struct file_operations aufs_file_fop;
+int au_do_open_nondir(struct file *file, int flags);
+int aufs_release_nondir(struct inode *inode __maybe_unused, struct file *file);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SP_IATTR
+/* f_op_sp.c */
+struct au_finfo *au_fi_sp(struct file *file);
+int au_special_file(umode_t mode);
+void au_init_special_fop(struct inode *inode, umode_t mode, dev_t rdev);
+#else
+static inline struct au_finfo *au_fi_sp(struct file *file)
+{
+	return NULL;
+}
+AuStubInt0(au_special_file, umode_t mode)
+static inline void au_init_special_fop(struct inode *inode, umode_t mode,
+				       dev_t rdev)
+{
+	init_special_inode(inode, mode, rdev);
+}
+#endif
+
+/* finfo.c */
+void au_hfput(struct au_hfile *hf, struct file *file);
+void au_set_h_fptr(struct file *file, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		   struct file *h_file);
+
+void au_update_figen(struct file *file);
+struct au_fidir *au_fidir_alloc(struct super_block *sb);
+int au_fidir_realloc(struct au_finfo *finfo, int nbr);
+
+void au_fi_init_once(void *_fi);
+void au_finfo_fin(struct file *file);
+int au_finfo_init(struct file *file, struct au_fidir *fidir);
+
+/* ioctl.c */
+long aufs_ioctl_nondir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg);
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+long aufs_compat_ioctl_dir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+			   unsigned long arg);
+long aufs_compat_ioctl_nondir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+			      unsigned long arg);
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline struct au_finfo *au_fi(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+
+	finfo = au_fi_sp(file);
+	if (!finfo)
+		finfo = file->private_data;
+	return finfo;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * fi_read_lock, fi_write_lock,
+ * fi_read_unlock, fi_write_unlock, fi_downgrade_lock
+ */
+AuSimpleRwsemFuncs(fi, struct file *f, &au_fi(f)->fi_rwsem);
+
+#define FiMustNoWaiters(f)	AuRwMustNoWaiters(&au_fi(f)->fi_rwsem)
+#define FiMustAnyLock(f)	AuRwMustAnyLock(&au_fi(f)->fi_rwsem)
+#define FiMustWriteLock(f)	AuRwMustWriteLock(&au_fi(f)->fi_rwsem)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* todo: hard/soft set? */
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_fbstart(struct file *file)
+{
+	FiMustAnyLock(file);
+	return au_fi(file)->fi_btop;
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_fbend_dir(struct file *file)
+{
+	FiMustAnyLock(file);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_fi(file)->fi_hdir);
+	return au_fi(file)->fi_hdir->fd_bbot;
+}
+
+static inline struct au_vdir *au_fvdir_cache(struct file *file)
+{
+	FiMustAnyLock(file);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_fi(file)->fi_hdir);
+	return au_fi(file)->fi_hdir->fd_vdir_cache;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_fbstart(struct file *file, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	FiMustWriteLock(file);
+	au_fi(file)->fi_btop = bindex;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_fbend_dir(struct file *file, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	FiMustWriteLock(file);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_fi(file)->fi_hdir);
+	au_fi(file)->fi_hdir->fd_bbot = bindex;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_fvdir_cache(struct file *file,
+				      struct au_vdir *vdir_cache)
+{
+	FiMustWriteLock(file);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_fi(file)->fi_hdir);
+	au_fi(file)->fi_hdir->fd_vdir_cache = vdir_cache;
+}
+
+static inline struct file *au_hf_top(struct file *file)
+{
+	FiMustAnyLock(file);
+	AuDebugOn(au_fi(file)->fi_hdir);
+	return au_fi(file)->fi_htop.hf_file;
+}
+
+static inline struct file *au_hf_dir(struct file *file, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	FiMustAnyLock(file);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_fi(file)->fi_hdir);
+	return au_fi(file)->fi_hdir->fd_hfile[0 + bindex].hf_file;
+}
+
+/* todo: memory barrier? */
+static inline unsigned int au_figen(struct file *f)
+{
+	return atomic_read(&au_fi(f)->fi_generation);
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_mmapped(struct file *f)
+{
+	if (atomic_inc_return(&au_fi(f)->fi_mmapped))
+		return;
+	pr_warn("fi_mmapped wrapped around\n");
+	while (!atomic_inc_return(&au_fi(f)->fi_mmapped))
+		;
+}
+
+static inline void au_unset_mmapped(struct file *f)
+{
+	atomic_dec(&au_fi(f)->fi_mmapped);
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_mmapped(struct file *f)
+{
+	return atomic_read(&au_fi(f)->fi_mmapped);
+}
+
+/* customize vma->vm_file */
+
+static inline void au_do_vm_file_reset(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+				       struct file *file)
+{
+	struct file *f;
+
+	f = vma->vm_file;
+	get_file(file);
+	vma->vm_file = file;
+	fput(f);
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
+#define AuDbgVmRegion(file, vma) do {} while (0)
+
+static inline void au_vm_file_reset(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+				    struct file *file)
+{
+	au_do_vm_file_reset(vma, file);
+}
+#else
+#define AuDbgVmRegion(file, vma) \
+	AuDebugOn((vma)->vm_region && (vma)->vm_region->vm_file != (file))
+
+static inline void au_vm_file_reset(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+				    struct file *file)
+{
+	struct file *f;
+
+	au_do_vm_file_reset(vma, file);
+	f = vma->vm_region->vm_file;
+	get_file(file);
+	vma->vm_region->vm_file = file;
+	fput(f);
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_MMU */
+
+/* handle vma->vm_prfile */
+static inline void au_vm_prfile_set(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+				    struct file *file)
+{
+	get_file(file);
+	vma->vm_prfile = file;
+#ifndef CONFIG_MMU
+	get_file(file);
+	vma->vm_region->vm_prfile = file;
+#endif
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_FILE_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/finfo.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/finfo.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/finfo.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/finfo.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,156 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * file private data
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+void au_hfput(struct au_hfile *hf, struct file *file)
+{
+	/* todo: direct access f_flags */
+	if (vfsub_file_flags(file) & __FMODE_EXEC)
+		allow_write_access(hf->hf_file);
+	fput(hf->hf_file);
+	hf->hf_file = NULL;
+	atomic_dec(&hf->hf_br->br_count);
+	hf->hf_br = NULL;
+}
+
+void au_set_h_fptr(struct file *file, aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct file *val)
+{
+	struct au_finfo *finfo = au_fi(file);
+	struct au_hfile *hf;
+	struct au_fidir *fidir;
+
+	fidir = finfo->fi_hdir;
+	if (!fidir) {
+		AuDebugOn(finfo->fi_btop != bindex);
+		hf = &finfo->fi_htop;
+	} else
+		hf = fidir->fd_hfile + bindex;
+
+	if (hf && hf->hf_file)
+		au_hfput(hf, file);
+	if (val) {
+		FiMustWriteLock(file);
+		hf->hf_file = val;
+		hf->hf_br = au_sbr(file->f_dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+	}
+}
+
+void au_update_figen(struct file *file)
+{
+	atomic_set(&au_fi(file)->fi_generation, au_digen(file->f_dentry));
+	/* smp_mb(); */ /* atomic_set */
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_fidir *au_fidir_alloc(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_fidir *fidir;
+	int nbr;
+
+	nbr = au_sbend(sb) + 1;
+	if (nbr < 2)
+		nbr = 2; /* initial allocate for 2 branches */
+	fidir = kzalloc(au_fidir_sz(nbr), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (fidir) {
+		fidir->fd_bbot = -1;
+		fidir->fd_nent = nbr;
+		fidir->fd_vdir_cache = NULL;
+	}
+
+	return fidir;
+}
+
+int au_fidir_realloc(struct au_finfo *finfo, int nbr)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_fidir *fidir, *p;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&finfo->fi_rwsem);
+	fidir = finfo->fi_hdir;
+	AuDebugOn(!fidir);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	p = au_kzrealloc(fidir, au_fidir_sz(fidir->fd_nent), au_fidir_sz(nbr),
+			 GFP_NOFS);
+	if (p) {
+		p->fd_nent = nbr;
+		finfo->fi_hdir = p;
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_finfo_fin(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+
+	au_nfiles_dec(file->f_dentry->d_sb);
+
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	AuDebugOn(finfo->fi_hdir);
+	AuRwDestroy(&finfo->fi_rwsem);
+	au_cache_free_finfo(finfo);
+}
+
+void au_fi_init_once(void *_finfo)
+{
+	struct au_finfo *finfo = _finfo;
+	static struct lock_class_key aufs_fi;
+
+	au_rw_init(&finfo->fi_rwsem);
+	au_rw_class(&finfo->fi_rwsem, &aufs_fi);
+}
+
+int au_finfo_init(struct file *file, struct au_fidir *fidir)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	finfo = au_cache_alloc_finfo();
+	if (unlikely(!finfo))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	au_nfiles_inc(dentry->d_sb);
+	/* verbose coding for lock class name */
+	if (!fidir)
+		au_rw_class(&finfo->fi_rwsem, au_lc_key + AuLcNonDir_FIINFO);
+	else
+		au_rw_class(&finfo->fi_rwsem, au_lc_key + AuLcDir_FIINFO);
+	au_rw_write_lock(&finfo->fi_rwsem);
+	finfo->fi_btop = -1;
+	finfo->fi_hdir = fidir;
+	atomic_set(&finfo->fi_generation, au_digen(dentry));
+	/* smp_mb(); */ /* atomic_set */
+
+	file->private_data = finfo;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/f_op.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/f_op.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/f_op.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/f_op.c	2014-01-01 22:02:58.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,725 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * file and vm operations
+ */
+
+#include <linux/aio.h>
+#include <linux/fs_stack.h>
+#include <linux/mman.h>
+#include <linux/security.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+int au_do_open_nondir(struct file *file, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+
+	FiMustWriteLock(file);
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	err = au_d_alive(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	memset(&finfo->fi_htop, 0, sizeof(finfo->fi_htop));
+	atomic_set(&finfo->fi_mmapped, 0);
+	bindex = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	h_file = au_h_open(dentry, bindex, flags, file, /*force_wr*/0);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+		err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+	else {
+		au_set_fbstart(file, bindex);
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, h_file);
+		au_update_figen(file);
+		if (!(file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE)) {
+			lg_local_lock(&files_lglock);
+			__file_sb_list_add(file, dentry->d_sb);
+			lg_local_unlock(&files_lglock);
+		}
+		/* todo: necessary? */
+		/* file->f_ra = h_file->f_ra; */
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_open_nondir(struct inode *inode __maybe_unused,
+			    struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s, f_flags 0x%x, f_mode 0x%x\n",
+	      AuDLNPair(file->f_dentry), vfsub_file_flags(file),
+	      file->f_mode);
+
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	err = au_do_open(file, au_do_open_nondir, /*fidir*/NULL);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int aufs_release_nondir(struct inode *inode __maybe_unused, struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+
+	finfo = au_fi(file);
+	bindex = finfo->fi_btop;
+	if (bindex >= 0)
+		au_set_h_fptr(file, bindex, NULL);
+
+	au_finfo_fin(file);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_do_flush_nondir(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	err = 0;
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	if (h_file)
+		err = vfsub_flush(h_file, id);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_flush_nondir(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
+{
+	return au_do_flush(file, id, au_do_flush_nondir);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+/*
+ * read and write functions acquire [fdi]_rwsem once, but release before
+ * mmap_sem. This is because to stop a race condition between mmap(2).
+ * Releasing these aufs-rwsem should be safe, no branch-mamagement (by keeping
+ * si_rwsem), no harmful copy-up should happen. Actually copy-up may happen in
+ * read functions after [fdi]_rwsem are released, but it should be harmless.
+ */
+
+static ssize_t aufs_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf, size_t count,
+			 loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	get_file(h_file);
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+
+	/* filedata may be obsoleted by concurrent copyup, but no problem */
+	err = vfsub_read_u(h_file, buf, count, ppos);
+	/* todo: necessary? */
+	/* file->f_ra = h_file->f_ra; */
+	/* update without lock, I don't think it a problem */
+	fsstack_copy_attr_atime(dentry->d_inode, file_inode(h_file));
+	fput(h_file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * todo: very ugly
+ * it locks both of i_mutex and si_rwsem for read in safe.
+ * if the plink maintenance mode continues forever (that is the problem),
+ * may loop forever.
+ */
+static void au_mtx_and_read_lock(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
+
+	while (1) {
+		mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
+		err = si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+		if (!err)
+			break;
+		mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+		si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_NOPLMW);
+		si_read_unlock(sb);
+	}
+}
+
+static ssize_t aufs_write(struct file *file, const char __user *ubuf,
+			  size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	char __user *buf = (char __user *)ubuf;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	au_mtx_and_read_lock(inode);
+
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_ready_to_write(file, -1, &pin);
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	get_file(h_file);
+	au_unpin(&pin);
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+
+	err = vfsub_write_u(h_file, buf, count, ppos);
+	ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+	inode->i_mode = file_inode(h_file)->i_mode;
+	ii_write_unlock(inode);
+	fput(h_file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t au_do_aio(struct file *h_file, int rw, struct kiocb *kio,
+			 const struct iovec *iov, unsigned long nv, loff_t pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	struct file *file;
+	ssize_t (*func)(struct kiocb *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long,
+			loff_t);
+
+	err = security_file_permission(h_file, rw);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -ENOSYS;
+	func = NULL;
+	if (rw == MAY_READ)
+		func = h_file->f_op->aio_read;
+	else if (rw == MAY_WRITE)
+		func = h_file->f_op->aio_write;
+	if (func) {
+		file = kio->ki_filp;
+		kio->ki_filp = h_file;
+		lockdep_off();
+		err = func(kio, iov, nv, pos);
+		lockdep_on();
+		kio->ki_filp = file;
+	} else
+		/* currently there is no such fs */
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t aufs_aio_read(struct kiocb *kio, const struct iovec *iov,
+			     unsigned long nv, loff_t pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	struct file *file, *h_file;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	file = kio->ki_filp;
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	get_file(h_file);
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+
+	err = au_do_aio(h_file, MAY_READ, kio, iov, nv, pos);
+	/* todo: necessary? */
+	/* file->f_ra = h_file->f_ra; */
+	/* update without lock, I don't think it a problem */
+	fsstack_copy_attr_atime(dentry->d_inode, file_inode(h_file));
+	fput(h_file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t aufs_aio_write(struct kiocb *kio, const struct iovec *iov,
+			      unsigned long nv, loff_t pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct file *file, *h_file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	file = kio->ki_filp;
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	au_mtx_and_read_lock(inode);
+
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_ready_to_write(file, -1, &pin);
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	get_file(h_file);
+	au_unpin(&pin);
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+
+	err = au_do_aio(h_file, MAY_WRITE, kio, iov, nv, pos);
+	ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+	inode->i_mode = file_inode(h_file)->i_mode;
+	ii_write_unlock(inode);
+	fput(h_file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t aufs_splice_read(struct file *file, loff_t *ppos,
+				struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, size_t len,
+				unsigned int flags)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	get_file(h_file);
+	if (0 && au_test_loopback_kthread()) {
+		au_warn_loopback(h_file->f_dentry->d_sb);
+		if (file->f_mapping != h_file->f_mapping) {
+			file->f_mapping = h_file->f_mapping;
+			smp_mb(); /* unnecessary? */
+		}
+	}
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+
+	err = vfsub_splice_to(h_file, ppos, pipe, len, flags);
+	/* todo: necessasry? */
+	/* file->f_ra = h_file->f_ra; */
+	/* update without lock, I don't think it a problem */
+	fsstack_copy_attr_atime(dentry->d_inode, file_inode(h_file));
+	fput(h_file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t
+aufs_splice_write(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, struct file *file, loff_t *ppos,
+		  size_t len, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	au_mtx_and_read_lock(inode);
+
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_ready_to_write(file, -1, &pin);
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	get_file(h_file);
+	au_unpin(&pin);
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+
+	err = vfsub_splice_from(pipe, h_file, ppos, len, flags);
+	ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+	inode->i_mode = file_inode(h_file)->i_mode;
+	ii_write_unlock(inode);
+	fput(h_file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * The locking order around current->mmap_sem.
+ * - in most and regular cases
+ *   file I/O syscall -- aufs_read() or something
+ *	-- si_rwsem for read -- mmap_sem
+ *	(Note that [fdi]i_rwsem are released before mmap_sem).
+ * - in mmap case
+ *   mmap(2) -- mmap_sem -- aufs_mmap() -- si_rwsem for read -- [fdi]i_rwsem
+ * This AB-BA order is definitly bad, but is not a problem since "si_rwsem for
+ * read" allows muliple processes to acquire it and [fdi]i_rwsem are not held in
+ * file I/O. Aufs needs to stop lockdep in aufs_mmap() though.
+ * It means that when aufs acquires si_rwsem for write, the process should never
+ * acquire mmap_sem.
+ *
+ * Actually aufs_iterate() holds [fdi]i_rwsem before mmap_sem, but this is not a
+ * problem either since any directory is not able to be mmap-ed.
+ * The similar scenario is applied to aufs_readlink() too.
+ */
+
+/* cf. linux/include/linux/mman.h: calc_vm_prot_bits() */
+#define AuConv_VM_PROT(f, b)	_calc_vm_trans(f, VM_##b, PROT_##b)
+
+static unsigned long au_arch_prot_conv(unsigned long flags)
+{
+	/* currently ppc64 only */
+#ifdef CONFIG_PPC64
+	/* cf. linux/arch/powerpc/include/asm/mman.h */
+	AuDebugOn(arch_calc_vm_prot_bits(-1) != VM_SAO);
+	return AuConv_VM_PROT(flags, SAO);
+#else
+	AuDebugOn(arch_calc_vm_prot_bits(-1));
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static unsigned long au_prot_conv(unsigned long flags)
+{
+	return AuConv_VM_PROT(flags, READ)
+		| AuConv_VM_PROT(flags, WRITE)
+		| AuConv_VM_PROT(flags, EXEC)
+		| au_arch_prot_conv(flags);
+}
+
+/* cf. linux/include/linux/mman.h: calc_vm_flag_bits() */
+#define AuConv_VM_MAP(f, b)	_calc_vm_trans(f, VM_##b, MAP_##b)
+
+static unsigned long au_flag_conv(unsigned long flags)
+{
+	return AuConv_VM_MAP(flags, GROWSDOWN)
+		| AuConv_VM_MAP(flags, DENYWRITE)
+		| AuConv_VM_MAP(flags, LOCKED);
+}
+
+static int aufs_mmap(struct file *file, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	const unsigned char wlock
+		= (file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE) && (vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED);
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+
+	AuDbgVmRegion(file, vma);
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	lockdep_off();
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (wlock) {
+		err = au_ready_to_write(file, -1, &pin);
+		di_write_unlock(dentry);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			fi_write_unlock(file);
+			goto out;
+		}
+		au_unpin(&pin);
+	} else
+		di_write_unlock(dentry);
+
+	bstart = au_fbstart(file);
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bstart);
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	get_file(h_file);
+	au_set_mmapped(file);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+	lockdep_on();
+
+	au_vm_file_reset(vma, h_file);
+	err = security_mmap_file(h_file, au_prot_conv(vma->vm_flags),
+				 au_flag_conv(vma->vm_flags));
+	if (!err)
+		err = h_file->f_op->mmap(h_file, vma);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_reset;
+
+	au_vm_prfile_set(vma, file);
+	/* update without lock, I don't think it a problem */
+	fsstack_copy_attr_atime(file_inode(file), file_inode(h_file));
+	goto out_fput; /* success */
+
+out_reset:
+	au_unset_mmapped(file);
+	au_vm_file_reset(vma, file);
+out_fput:
+	fput(h_file);
+	lockdep_off();
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	lockdep_on();
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int aufs_fsync_nondir(struct file *file, loff_t start, loff_t end,
+			     int datasync)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	err = si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0; /* -EBADF; */ /* posix? */
+	if (unlikely(!(file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE)))
+		goto out_si;
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_si;
+
+	err = au_ready_to_write(file, -1, &pin);
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	au_unpin(&pin);
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	err = vfsub_fsync(h_file, &h_file->f_path, datasync);
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+
+out_unlock:
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+out_si:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+out:
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* no one supports this operation, currently */
+#if 0
+static int aufs_aio_fsync_nondir(struct kiocb *kio, int datasync)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct file *file, *h_file;
+
+	file = kio->ki_filp;
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	au_mtx_and_read_lock(inode);
+
+	err = 0; /* -EBADF; */ /* posix? */
+	if (unlikely(!(file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE)))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_ready_to_write(file, -1, &pin);
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	au_unpin(&pin);
+
+	err = -ENOSYS;
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	if (h_file->f_op && h_file->f_op->aio_fsync) {
+		struct mutex *h_mtx;
+
+		h_mtx = &file_inode(h_file)->i_mutex;
+		if (!is_sync_kiocb(kio)) {
+			get_file(h_file);
+			fput(file);
+		}
+		kio->ki_filp = h_file;
+		err = h_file->f_op->aio_fsync(kio, datasync);
+		mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+		if (!err)
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&h_file->f_path, /*did*/NULL);
+		/*ignore*/
+		au_cpup_attr_timesizes(inode);
+		mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+	}
+
+out_unlock:
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(inode->sb);
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	return err;
+}
+#endif
+
+static int aufs_fasync(int fd, struct file *file, int flag)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	if (h_file->f_op && h_file->f_op->fasync)
+		err = h_file->f_op->fasync(fd, h_file, flag);
+
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* no one supports this operation, currently */
+#if 0
+static ssize_t aufs_sendpage(struct file *file, struct page *page, int offset,
+			     size_t len, loff_t *pos , int more)
+{
+}
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+const struct file_operations aufs_file_fop = {
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+
+	.llseek		= default_llseek,
+
+	.read		= aufs_read,
+	.write		= aufs_write,
+	.aio_read	= aufs_aio_read,
+	.aio_write	= aufs_aio_write,
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_POLL
+	.poll		= aufs_poll,
+#endif
+	.unlocked_ioctl	= aufs_ioctl_nondir,
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+	.compat_ioctl	= aufs_compat_ioctl_nondir,
+#endif
+	.mmap		= aufs_mmap,
+	.open		= aufs_open_nondir,
+	.flush		= aufs_flush_nondir,
+	.release	= aufs_release_nondir,
+	.fsync		= aufs_fsync_nondir,
+	/* .aio_fsync	= aufs_aio_fsync_nondir, */
+	.fasync		= aufs_fasync,
+	/* .sendpage	= aufs_sendpage, */
+	.splice_write	= aufs_splice_write,
+	.splice_read	= aufs_splice_read,
+#if 0
+	.aio_splice_write = aufs_aio_splice_write,
+	.aio_splice_read  = aufs_aio_splice_read
+#endif
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/f_op_sp.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/f_op_sp.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/f_op_sp.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/f_op_sp.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,382 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * file operations for special files.
+ * while they exist in aufs virtually,
+ * their file I/O is handled out of aufs.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/aio.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/*
+ * I don't think the size of this list grows much.
+ * so here is a very simple list implemented in order to find finfo matching a
+ * given file.
+ */
+static struct au_sphlhead au_finfo_sp = {
+	.spin	= __SPIN_LOCK_INITIALIZER(au_finfo_sp.spin),
+	.head	= HLIST_HEAD_INIT
+};
+
+struct au_finfo_sp {
+	struct hlist_node	hlist;
+	struct file		*file;
+	struct au_finfo		*finfo;
+};
+
+struct au_finfo *au_fi_sp(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_finfo *finfo;
+	struct au_finfo_sp *sp;
+
+	finfo = NULL;
+	spin_lock(&au_finfo_sp.spin);
+	hlist_for_each_entry(sp, &au_finfo_sp.head, hlist) {
+		if (sp->file != file)
+			continue;
+		finfo = sp->finfo;
+		break;
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&au_finfo_sp.spin);
+
+	return finfo;
+}
+
+static int au_fi_sp_add(struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_finfo_sp *sp;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	sp = kmalloc(sizeof(*sp), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (sp) {
+		err = 0;
+		sp->file = file;
+		sp->finfo = file->private_data;
+		spin_lock(&au_finfo_sp.spin);
+		hlist_add_head(&sp->hlist, &au_finfo_sp.head);
+		spin_unlock(&au_finfo_sp.spin);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_fi_sp_del(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_finfo_sp *sp, *do_free;
+
+	do_free = NULL;
+	spin_lock(&au_finfo_sp.spin);
+	hlist_for_each_entry(sp, &au_finfo_sp.head, hlist) {
+		if (sp->file != file)
+			continue;
+		hlist_del(&sp->hlist);
+		do_free = sp;
+		break;
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&au_finfo_sp.spin);
+	kfree(do_free);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static ssize_t aufs_aio_read_sp(struct kiocb *kio, const struct iovec *iov,
+				unsigned long nv, loff_t pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	unsigned char wbr;
+	struct file *file, *h_file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	file = kio->ki_filp;
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	fi_read_lock(file);
+	bstart = au_fbstart(file);
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+	wbr = !!au_br_writable(au_sbr(sb, bstart)->br_perm);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	/* do not change the file in kio */
+	AuDebugOn(!h_file->f_op || !h_file->f_op->aio_read);
+	err = h_file->f_op->aio_read(kio, iov, nv, pos);
+	if (err > 0 && wbr)
+		file_accessed(h_file);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t aufs_aio_write_sp(struct kiocb *kio, const struct iovec *iov,
+				 unsigned long nv, loff_t pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	unsigned char wbr;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *file, *h_file;
+
+	file = kio->ki_filp;
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	fi_read_lock(file);
+	bstart = au_fbstart(file);
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+	wbr = !!au_br_writable(au_sbr(sb, bstart)->br_perm);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	/* do not change the file in kio */
+	AuDebugOn(!h_file->f_op || !h_file->f_op->aio_write);
+	err = h_file->f_op->aio_write(kio, iov, nv, pos);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int aufs_release_sp(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	fi_read_lock(file);
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+	/* close this fifo in aufs */
+	err = h_file->f_op->release(inode, file); /* ignore */
+	aufs_release_nondir(inode, file); /* ignore */
+	au_fi_sp_del(file);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* currently, support only FIFO */
+enum {
+	AuSp_FIFO, AuSp_FIFO_R, AuSp_FIFO_W, AuSp_FIFO_RW,
+	/* AuSp_SOCK, AuSp_CHR, AuSp_BLK, */
+	AuSp_Last
+};
+static int aufs_open_sp(struct inode *inode, struct file *file);
+static struct au_sp_fop {
+	int			done;
+	struct file_operations	fop;	/* not 'const' */
+	spinlock_t		spin;
+} au_sp_fop[AuSp_Last] = {
+	[AuSp_FIFO] = {
+		.fop	= {
+			.owner	= THIS_MODULE,
+			.open	= aufs_open_sp
+		}
+	}
+};
+
+static void au_init_fop_sp(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_sp_fop *p;
+	int i;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	p = au_sp_fop;
+	if (unlikely(!p->done)) {
+		/* initialize first time only */
+		static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(spin);
+
+		spin_lock(&spin);
+		if (!p->done) {
+			BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(au_sp_fop)/sizeof(*au_sp_fop)
+				     != AuSp_Last);
+			for (i = 0; i < AuSp_Last; i++)
+				spin_lock_init(&p[i].spin);
+			p->done = 1;
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&spin);
+	}
+
+	switch (file->f_mode & (FMODE_READ | FMODE_WRITE)) {
+	case FMODE_READ:
+		i = AuSp_FIFO_R;
+		break;
+	case FMODE_WRITE:
+		i = AuSp_FIFO_W;
+		break;
+	case FMODE_READ | FMODE_WRITE:
+		i = AuSp_FIFO_RW;
+		break;
+	default:
+		BUG();
+	}
+
+	p += i;
+	if (unlikely(!p->done)) {
+		/* initialize first time only */
+		h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+		spin_lock(&p->spin);
+		if (!p->done) {
+			p->fop = *h_file->f_op;
+			p->fop.owner = THIS_MODULE;
+			if (p->fop.aio_read)
+				p->fop.aio_read = aufs_aio_read_sp;
+			if (p->fop.aio_write)
+				p->fop.aio_write = aufs_aio_write_sp;
+			p->fop.release = aufs_release_sp;
+			p->done = 1;
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&p->spin);
+	}
+	file->f_op = &p->fop;
+}
+
+static int au_cpup_sp(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct au_wr_dir_args wr_dir_args = {
+		.force_btgt	= -1,
+		.flags		= 0
+	};
+	struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+		.dentry	= dentry,
+		.bdst	= -1,
+		.bsrc	= -1,
+		.len	= -1,
+		.pin	= &pin,
+		.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME
+	};
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s\n", AuDLNPair(dentry));
+
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+	err = au_wr_dir(dentry, /*src_dentry*/NULL, &wr_dir_args);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+	cpg.bdst = err;
+	err = 0;
+	if (cpg.bdst == au_dbstart(dentry))
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	err = au_pin(&pin, dentry, cpg.bdst, au_opt_udba(dentry->d_sb),
+		     AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+	if (!err) {
+		err = au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+		au_unpin(&pin);
+	}
+
+out:
+	di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_do_open_sp(struct file *file, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	err = au_fi_sp_add(file);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	AuDbg("%.*s\n", AuDLNPair(dentry));
+
+	/*
+	 * try copying-up.
+	 * operate on the ro branch is not an error.
+	 */
+	au_cpup_sp(dentry); /* ignore */
+
+	/* prepare h_file */
+	err = au_do_open_nondir(file, vfsub_file_flags(file));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_del;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	h_inode = file_inode(h_file);
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_write_unlock(file);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	/* open this fifo in aufs */
+	err = h_inode->i_fop->open(file_inode(file), file);
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	fi_write_lock(file);
+	di_read_lock_child(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	if (!err) {
+		au_init_fop_sp(file);
+		goto out; /* success */
+	}
+
+out_del:
+	au_fi_sp_del(file);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_open_sp(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	err = au_do_open(file, au_do_open_sp, /*fidir*/NULL);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_init_special_fop(struct inode *inode, umode_t mode, dev_t rdev)
+{
+	init_special_inode(inode, mode, rdev);
+
+	switch (mode & S_IFMT) {
+	case S_IFIFO:
+		inode->i_fop = &au_sp_fop[AuSp_FIFO].fop;
+		/*FALLTHROUGH*/
+	case S_IFCHR:
+	case S_IFBLK:
+	case S_IFSOCK:
+		break;
+	default:
+		AuDebugOn(1);
+	}
+}
+
+int au_special_file(umode_t mode)
+{
+	int ret;
+
+	ret = 0;
+	switch (mode & S_IFMT) {
+	case S_IFIFO:
+#if 0
+	case S_IFCHR:
+	case S_IFBLK:
+	case S_IFSOCK:
+#endif
+		ret = 1;
+	}
+
+	return ret;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/fstype.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/fstype.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/fstype.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/fstype.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,469 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * judging filesystem type
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_FSTYPE_H__
+#define __AUFS_FSTYPE_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/magic.h>
+#include <linux/romfs_fs.h>
+
+static inline int au_test_aufs(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return sb->s_magic == AUFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+}
+
+static inline const char *au_sbtype(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return sb->s_type->name;
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_iso9660(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_ROMFS_FS) || defined(CONFIG_ROMFS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == ROMFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_romfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_ISO9660_FS) || defined(CONFIG_ISO9660_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == ISOFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_cramfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_CRAMFS) || defined(CONFIG_CRAMFS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == CRAMFS_MAGIC;
+#endif
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_nfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_NFS_FS) || defined(CONFIG_NFS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == NFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_fuse(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_FUSE_FS) || defined(CONFIG_FUSE_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == FUSE_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_xfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_XFS_FS) || defined(CONFIG_XFS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == XFS_SB_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_tmpfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_TMPFS
+	return sb->s_magic == TMPFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_ecryptfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_ECRYPT_FS) || defined(CONFIG_ECRYPT_FS_MODULE)
+	return !strcmp(au_sbtype(sb), "ecryptfs");
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_ocfs2(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_OCFS2_FS) || defined(CONFIG_OCFS2_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == OCFS2_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_ocfs2_dlmfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_OCFS2_FS_O2CB) || defined(CONFIG_OCFS2_FS_O2CB_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == DLMFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_coda(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_CODA_FS) || defined(CONFIG_CODA_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == CODA_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_v9fs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_9P_FS) || defined(CONFIG_9P_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == V9FS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_ext4(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_EXT4_FS) || defined(CONFIG_EXT4_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == EXT4_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_sysv(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_SYSV_FS) || defined(CONFIG_SYSV_FS_MODULE)
+	return !strcmp(au_sbtype(sb), "sysv");
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_ramfs(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return sb->s_magic == RAMFS_MAGIC;
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_ubifs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_UBIFS_FS) || defined(CONFIG_UBIFS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == UBIFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_procfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
+	return sb->s_magic == PROC_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_sysfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
+	return sb->s_magic == SYSFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_configfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_CONFIGFS_FS) || defined(CONFIG_CONFIGFS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == CONFIGFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_minix(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_MINIX_FS) || defined(CONFIG_MINIX_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == MINIX3_SUPER_MAGIC
+		|| sb->s_magic == MINIX2_SUPER_MAGIC
+		|| sb->s_magic == MINIX2_SUPER_MAGIC2
+		|| sb->s_magic == MINIX_SUPER_MAGIC
+		|| sb->s_magic == MINIX_SUPER_MAGIC2;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_cifs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_CIFS_FS) || defined(CONFIGCIFS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == CIFS_MAGIC_NUMBER;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_fat(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_FAT_FS) || defined(CONFIG_FAT_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == MSDOS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_msdos(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_fat(sb);
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_vfat(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_fat(sb);
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_securityfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_SECURITYFS
+	return sb->s_magic == SECURITYFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_squashfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_SQUASHFS) || defined(CONFIG_SQUASHFS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == SQUASHFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_btrfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_BTRFS_FS) || defined(CONFIG_BTRFS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == BTRFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_xenfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_XENFS) || defined(CONFIG_XENFS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == XENFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_debugfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
+	return sb->s_magic == DEBUGFS_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_nilfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_NILFS) || defined(CONFIG_NILFS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == NILFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_hfsplus(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_HFSPLUS_FS) || defined(CONFIG_HFSPLUS_FS_MODULE)
+	return sb->s_magic == HFSPLUS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+/*
+ * they can't be an aufs branch.
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_unsuppoted(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return
+#ifndef CONFIG_AUFS_BR_RAMFS
+		au_test_ramfs(sb) ||
+#endif
+		au_test_procfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_sysfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_configfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_debugfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_securityfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_xenfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_ecryptfs(sb)
+		/* || !strcmp(au_sbtype(sb), "unionfs") */
+		|| au_test_aufs(sb); /* will be supported in next version */
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_fs_remote(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return !au_test_tmpfs(sb)
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_BR_RAMFS
+		&& !au_test_ramfs(sb)
+#endif
+		&& !(sb->s_type->fs_flags & FS_REQUIRES_DEV);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * Note: these functions (below) are created after reading ->getattr() in all
+ * filesystems under linux/fs. it means we have to do so in every update...
+ */
+
+/*
+ * some filesystems require getattr to refresh the inode attributes before
+ * referencing.
+ * in most cases, we can rely on the inode attribute in NFS (or every remote fs)
+ * and leave the work for d_revalidate()
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_refresh_iattr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_nfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_fuse(sb)
+		/* || au_test_ocfs2(sb) */	/* untested */
+		/* || au_test_btrfs(sb) */	/* untested */
+		/* || au_test_coda(sb) */	/* untested */
+		/* || au_test_v9fs(sb) */	/* untested */
+		;
+}
+
+/*
+ * filesystems which don't maintain i_size or i_blocks.
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_bad_iattr_size(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_xfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_btrfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_ubifs(sb)
+		|| au_test_hfsplus(sb)	/* maintained, but incorrect */
+		/* || au_test_ext4(sb) */	/* untested */
+		/* || au_test_ocfs2(sb) */	/* untested */
+		/* || au_test_ocfs2_dlmfs(sb) */ /* untested */
+		/* || au_test_sysv(sb) */	/* untested */
+		/* || au_test_minix(sb) */	/* untested */
+		;
+}
+
+/*
+ * filesystems which don't store the correct value in some of their inode
+ * attributes.
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_bad_iattr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_fs_bad_iattr_size(sb)
+		/* || au_test_cifs(sb) */	/* untested */
+		|| au_test_fat(sb)
+		|| au_test_msdos(sb)
+		|| au_test_vfat(sb);
+}
+
+/* they don't check i_nlink in link(2) */
+static inline int au_test_fs_no_limit_nlink(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_tmpfs(sb)
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_BR_RAMFS
+		|| au_test_ramfs(sb)
+#endif
+		|| au_test_ubifs(sb)
+		|| au_test_hfsplus(sb);
+}
+
+/*
+ * filesystems which sets S_NOATIME and S_NOCMTIME.
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_notime(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_nfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_fuse(sb)
+		|| au_test_ubifs(sb)
+		/* || au_test_cifs(sb) */	/* untested */
+		;
+}
+
+/*
+ * filesystems which requires replacing i_mapping.
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_bad_mapping(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_fuse(sb)
+		|| au_test_ubifs(sb);
+}
+
+/* temporary support for i#1 in cramfs */
+static inline int au_test_fs_unique_ino(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	if (au_test_cramfs(inode->i_sb))
+		return inode->i_ino != 1;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * the filesystem where the xino files placed must support i/o after unlink and
+ * maintain i_size and i_blocks.
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_bad_xino(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_fs_remote(sb)
+		|| au_test_fs_bad_iattr_size(sb)
+		/* don't want unnecessary work for xino */
+		|| au_test_aufs(sb)
+		|| au_test_ecryptfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_nilfs(sb);
+}
+
+static inline int au_test_fs_trunc_xino(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_tmpfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_ramfs(sb);
+}
+
+/*
+ * test if the @sb is real-readonly.
+ */
+static inline int au_test_fs_rr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_test_squashfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_iso9660(sb)
+		|| au_test_cramfs(sb)
+		|| au_test_romfs(sb);
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_FSTYPE_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/hfsnotify.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/hfsnotify.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/hfsnotify.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/hfsnotify.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,295 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * fsnotify for the lower directories
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* FS_IN_IGNORED is unnecessary */
+static const __u32 AuHfsnMask = (FS_MOVED_TO | FS_MOVED_FROM | FS_DELETE
+				 | FS_CREATE | FS_EVENT_ON_CHILD);
+static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(au_hfsn_wq);
+static __cacheline_aligned_in_smp atomic64_t au_hfsn_ifree = ATOMIC64_INIT(0);
+
+static void au_hfsn_free_mark(struct fsnotify_mark *mark)
+{
+	struct au_hnotify *hn = container_of(mark, struct au_hnotify,
+					     hn_mark);
+	AuDbg("here\n");
+	au_cache_free_hnotify(hn);
+	smp_mb__before_atomic_dec();
+	if (atomic64_dec_and_test(&au_hfsn_ifree))
+		wake_up(&au_hfsn_wq);
+}
+
+static int au_hfsn_alloc(struct au_hinode *hinode)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_hnotify *hn;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct fsnotify_mark *mark;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+
+	hn = hinode->hi_notify;
+	sb = hn->hn_aufs_inode->i_sb;
+	bindex = au_br_index(sb, hinode->hi_id);
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	AuDebugOn(!br->br_hfsn);
+
+	mark = &hn->hn_mark;
+	fsnotify_init_mark(mark, au_hfsn_free_mark);
+	mark->mask = AuHfsnMask;
+	/*
+	 * by udba rename or rmdir, aufs assign a new inode to the known
+	 * h_inode, so specify 1 to allow dups.
+	 */
+	err = fsnotify_add_mark(mark, br->br_hfsn->hfsn_group, hinode->hi_inode,
+				 /*mnt*/NULL, /*allow_dups*/1);
+	/* even if err */
+	fsnotify_put_mark(mark);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_hfsn_free(struct au_hinode *hinode, struct au_hnotify *hn)
+{
+	struct fsnotify_mark *mark;
+	unsigned long long ull;
+	struct fsnotify_group *group;
+
+	ull = atomic64_inc_return(&au_hfsn_ifree);
+	BUG_ON(!ull);
+
+	mark = &hn->hn_mark;
+	spin_lock(&mark->lock);
+	group = mark->group;
+	fsnotify_get_group(group);
+	spin_unlock(&mark->lock);
+	fsnotify_destroy_mark(mark, group);
+	fsnotify_put_group(group);
+
+	/* free hn by myself */
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void au_hfsn_ctl(struct au_hinode *hinode, int do_set)
+{
+	struct fsnotify_mark *mark;
+
+	mark = &hinode->hi_notify->hn_mark;
+	spin_lock(&mark->lock);
+	if (do_set) {
+		AuDebugOn(mark->mask & AuHfsnMask);
+		mark->mask |= AuHfsnMask;
+	} else {
+		AuDebugOn(!(mark->mask & AuHfsnMask));
+		mark->mask &= ~AuHfsnMask;
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&mark->lock);
+	/* fsnotify_recalc_inode_mask(hinode->hi_inode); */
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* #define AuDbgHnotify */
+#ifdef AuDbgHnotify
+static char *au_hfsn_name(u32 mask)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+#define test_ret(flag)				\
+	do {					\
+		if (mask & flag)		\
+			return #flag;		\
+	} while (0)
+	test_ret(FS_ACCESS);
+	test_ret(FS_MODIFY);
+	test_ret(FS_ATTRIB);
+	test_ret(FS_CLOSE_WRITE);
+	test_ret(FS_CLOSE_NOWRITE);
+	test_ret(FS_OPEN);
+	test_ret(FS_MOVED_FROM);
+	test_ret(FS_MOVED_TO);
+	test_ret(FS_CREATE);
+	test_ret(FS_DELETE);
+	test_ret(FS_DELETE_SELF);
+	test_ret(FS_MOVE_SELF);
+	test_ret(FS_UNMOUNT);
+	test_ret(FS_Q_OVERFLOW);
+	test_ret(FS_IN_IGNORED);
+	test_ret(FS_IN_ISDIR);
+	test_ret(FS_IN_ONESHOT);
+	test_ret(FS_EVENT_ON_CHILD);
+	return "";
+#undef test_ret
+#else
+	return "??";
+#endif
+}
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void au_hfsn_free_group(struct fsnotify_group *group)
+{
+	struct au_br_hfsnotify *hfsn = group->private;
+
+	AuDbg("here\n");
+	kfree(hfsn);
+}
+
+static int au_hfsn_handle_event(struct fsnotify_group *group,
+				struct fsnotify_mark *inode_mark,
+				struct fsnotify_mark *vfsmount_mark,
+				struct fsnotify_event *event)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_hnotify *hnotify;
+	struct inode *h_dir, *h_inode;
+	__u32 mask;
+	struct qstr h_child_qstr = QSTR_INIT(event->file_name, event->name_len);
+
+	AuDebugOn(event->data_type != FSNOTIFY_EVENT_INODE);
+
+	err = 0;
+	/* if FS_UNMOUNT happens, there must be another bug */
+	mask = event->mask;
+	AuDebugOn(mask & FS_UNMOUNT);
+	if (mask & (FS_IN_IGNORED | FS_UNMOUNT))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_dir = event->to_tell;
+	h_inode = event->inode;
+#ifdef AuDbgHnotify
+	au_debug_on();
+	if (1 || h_child_qstr.len != sizeof(AUFS_XINO_FNAME) - 1
+	    || strncmp(h_child_qstr.name, AUFS_XINO_FNAME, h_child_qstr.len)) {
+		AuDbg("i%lu, mask 0x%x %s, hcname %.*s, hi%lu\n",
+		      h_dir->i_ino, mask, au_hfsn_name(mask),
+		      AuLNPair(&h_child_qstr), h_inode ? h_inode->i_ino : 0);
+		/* WARN_ON(1); */
+	}
+	au_debug_off();
+#endif
+
+	AuDebugOn(!inode_mark);
+	hnotify = container_of(inode_mark, struct au_hnotify, hn_mark);
+	err = au_hnotify(h_dir, hnotify, mask, &h_child_qstr, h_inode);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* isn't it waste to ask every registered 'group'? */
+/* copied from linux/fs/notify/inotify/inotify_fsnotiry.c */
+/* it should be exported to modules */
+static bool au_hfsn_should_send_event(struct fsnotify_group *group,
+				      struct inode *h_inode,
+				      struct fsnotify_mark *inode_mark,
+				      struct fsnotify_mark *vfsmount_mark,
+				      __u32 mask, void *data, int data_type)
+{
+	mask = (mask & ~FS_EVENT_ON_CHILD);
+	return inode_mark->mask & mask;
+}
+
+static struct fsnotify_ops au_hfsn_ops = {
+	.should_send_event	= au_hfsn_should_send_event,
+	.handle_event		= au_hfsn_handle_event,
+	.free_group_priv	= au_hfsn_free_group
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void au_hfsn_fin_br(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct au_br_hfsnotify *hfsn;
+
+	hfsn = br->br_hfsn;
+	if (hfsn)
+		fsnotify_put_group(hfsn->hfsn_group);
+}
+
+static int au_hfsn_init_br(struct au_branch *br, int perm)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct fsnotify_group *group;
+	struct au_br_hfsnotify *hfsn;
+
+	err = 0;
+	br->br_hfsn = NULL;
+	if (!au_br_hnotifyable(perm))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	hfsn = kmalloc(sizeof(*hfsn), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!hfsn))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	group = fsnotify_alloc_group(&au_hfsn_ops);
+	if (IS_ERR(group)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(group);
+		pr_err("fsnotify_alloc_group() failed, %d\n", err);
+		goto out_hfsn;
+	}
+
+	group->private = hfsn;
+	hfsn->hfsn_group = group;
+	br->br_hfsn = hfsn;
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_hfsn:
+	kfree(hfsn);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_hfsn_reset_br(unsigned int udba, struct au_branch *br, int perm)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!br->br_hfsn)
+		err = au_hfsn_init_br(br, perm);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void au_hfsn_fin(void)
+{
+	AuDbg("au_hfsn_ifree %lld\n", (long long)atomic64_read(&au_hfsn_ifree));
+	wait_event(au_hfsn_wq, !atomic64_read(&au_hfsn_ifree));
+}
+
+const struct au_hnotify_op au_hnotify_op = {
+	.ctl		= au_hfsn_ctl,
+	.alloc		= au_hfsn_alloc,
+	.free		= au_hfsn_free,
+
+	.fin		= au_hfsn_fin,
+
+	.reset_br	= au_hfsn_reset_br,
+	.fin_br		= au_hfsn_fin_br,
+	.init_br	= au_hfsn_init_br
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/hfsplus.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/hfsplus.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/hfsplus.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/hfsplus.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2010-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * special support for filesystems which aqucires an inode mutex
+ * at final closing a file, eg, hfsplus.
+ *
+ * This trick is very simple and stupid, just to open the file before really
+ * neceeary open to tell hfsplus that this is not the final closing.
+ * The caller should call au_h_open_pre() after acquiring the inode mutex,
+ * and au_h_open_post() after releasing it.
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+struct file *au_h_open_pre(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			   int force_wr)
+{
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	AuDebugOn(!h_dentry);
+	AuDebugOn(!h_dentry->d_inode);
+
+	h_file = NULL;
+	if (au_test_hfsplus(h_dentry->d_sb)
+	    && S_ISREG(h_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		h_file = au_h_open(dentry, bindex,
+				   O_RDONLY | O_NOATIME | O_LARGEFILE,
+				   /*file*/NULL, force_wr);
+	return h_file;
+}
+
+void au_h_open_post(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		    struct file *h_file)
+{
+	if (h_file) {
+		fput(h_file);
+		au_sbr_put(dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+	}
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/hnotify.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/hnotify.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/hnotify.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/hnotify.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,711 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * abstraction to notify the direct changes on lower directories
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+int au_hn_alloc(struct au_hinode *hinode, struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_hnotify *hn;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	hn = au_cache_alloc_hnotify();
+	if (hn) {
+		hn->hn_aufs_inode = inode;
+		hinode->hi_notify = hn;
+		err = au_hnotify_op.alloc(hinode);
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			hinode->hi_notify = NULL;
+			au_cache_free_hnotify(hn);
+			/*
+			 * The upper dir was removed by udba, but the same named
+			 * dir left. In this case, aufs assignes a new inode
+			 * number and set the monitor again.
+			 * For the lower dir, the old monitnor is still left.
+			 */
+			if (err == -EEXIST)
+				err = 0;
+		}
+	}
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_hn_free(struct au_hinode *hinode)
+{
+	struct au_hnotify *hn;
+
+	hn = hinode->hi_notify;
+	if (hn) {
+		hinode->hi_notify = NULL;
+		if (au_hnotify_op.free(hinode, hn))
+			au_cache_free_hnotify(hn);
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_hn_ctl(struct au_hinode *hinode, int do_set)
+{
+	if (hinode->hi_notify)
+		au_hnotify_op.ctl(hinode, do_set);
+}
+
+void au_hn_reset(struct inode *inode, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct inode *hi;
+	struct dentry *iwhdentry;
+
+	bend = au_ibend(inode);
+	for (bindex = au_ibstart(inode); bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		hi = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+		if (!hi)
+			continue;
+
+		/* mutex_lock_nested(&hi->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD); */
+		iwhdentry = au_hi_wh(inode, bindex);
+		if (iwhdentry)
+			dget(iwhdentry);
+		au_igrab(hi);
+		au_set_h_iptr(inode, bindex, NULL, 0);
+		au_set_h_iptr(inode, bindex, au_igrab(hi),
+			      flags & ~AuHi_XINO);
+		iput(hi);
+		dput(iwhdentry);
+		/* mutex_unlock(&hi->i_mutex); */
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int hn_xino(struct inode *inode, struct inode *h_inode)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend, bfound, bstart;
+	struct inode *h_i;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (unlikely(inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO)) {
+		pr_warn("branch root dir was changed\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	bfound = -1;
+	bend = au_ibend(inode);
+	bstart = au_ibstart(inode);
+#if 0 /* reserved for future use */
+	if (bindex == bend) {
+		/* keep this ino in rename case */
+		goto out;
+	}
+#endif
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (au_h_iptr(inode, bindex) == h_inode) {
+			bfound = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+	if (bfound < 0)
+		goto out;
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_i = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+		if (!h_i)
+			continue;
+
+		err = au_xino_write(inode->i_sb, bindex, h_i->i_ino, /*ino*/0);
+		/* ignore this error */
+		/* bad action? */
+	}
+
+	/* children inode number will be broken */
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int hn_gen_tree(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err, i, j, ndentry;
+	struct au_dcsub_pages dpages;
+	struct au_dpage *dpage;
+	struct dentry **dentries;
+
+	err = au_dpages_init(&dpages, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_dcsub_pages(&dpages, dentry, NULL, NULL);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_dpages;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < dpages.ndpage; i++) {
+		dpage = dpages.dpages + i;
+		dentries = dpage->dentries;
+		ndentry = dpage->ndentry;
+		for (j = 0; j < ndentry; j++) {
+			struct dentry *d;
+
+			d = dentries[j];
+			if (IS_ROOT(d))
+				continue;
+
+			au_digen_dec(d);
+			if (d->d_inode)
+				/* todo: reset children xino?
+				   cached children only? */
+				au_iigen_dec(d->d_inode);
+		}
+	}
+
+out_dpages:
+	au_dpages_free(&dpages);
+
+#if 0
+	/* discard children */
+	dentry_unhash(dentry);
+	dput(dentry);
+#endif
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * return 0 if processed.
+ */
+static int hn_gen_by_inode(char *name, unsigned int nlen, struct inode *inode,
+			   const unsigned int isdir)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+	struct qstr *dname;
+
+	err = 1;
+	if (unlikely(inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO)) {
+		pr_warn("branch root dir was changed\n");
+		err = 0;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!isdir) {
+		AuDebugOn(!name);
+		au_iigen_dec(inode);
+		spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
+		hlist_for_each_entry(d, &inode->i_dentry, d_alias) {
+			spin_lock(&d->d_lock);
+			dname = &d->d_name;
+			if (dname->len != nlen
+			    && memcmp(dname->name, name, nlen)) {
+				spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+				continue;
+			}
+			err = 0;
+			au_digen_dec(d);
+			spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+			break;
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
+	} else {
+		au_fset_si(au_sbi(inode->i_sb), FAILED_REFRESH_DIR);
+		d = d_find_alias(inode);
+		if (!d) {
+			au_iigen_dec(inode);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		spin_lock(&d->d_lock);
+		dname = &d->d_name;
+		if (dname->len == nlen && !memcmp(dname->name, name, nlen)) {
+			spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+			err = hn_gen_tree(d);
+			spin_lock(&d->d_lock);
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+		dput(d);
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int hn_gen_by_name(struct dentry *dentry, const unsigned int isdir)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (IS_ROOT(dentry)
+	    /* || (inode && inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO) */
+		) {
+		pr_warn("branch root dir was changed\n");
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!isdir) {
+		au_digen_dec(dentry);
+		if (inode)
+			au_iigen_dec(inode);
+	} else {
+		au_fset_si(au_sbi(dentry->d_sb), FAILED_REFRESH_DIR);
+		if (inode)
+			err = hn_gen_tree(dentry);
+	}
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* hnotify job flags */
+#define AuHnJob_XINO0		1
+#define AuHnJob_GEN		(1 << 1)
+#define AuHnJob_DIRENT		(1 << 2)
+#define AuHnJob_ISDIR		(1 << 3)
+#define AuHnJob_TRYXINO0	(1 << 4)
+#define AuHnJob_MNTPNT		(1 << 5)
+#define au_ftest_hnjob(flags, name)	((flags) & AuHnJob_##name)
+#define au_fset_hnjob(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuHnJob_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_hnjob(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuHnJob_##name; } while (0)
+
+enum {
+	AuHn_CHILD,
+	AuHn_PARENT,
+	AuHnLast
+};
+
+struct au_hnotify_args {
+	struct inode *h_dir, *dir, *h_child_inode;
+	u32 mask;
+	unsigned int flags[AuHnLast];
+	unsigned int h_child_nlen;
+	char h_child_name[];
+};
+
+struct hn_job_args {
+	unsigned int flags;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode, *dir, *h_dir;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	char *h_name;
+	int h_nlen;
+};
+
+static int hn_job(struct hn_job_args *a)
+{
+	const unsigned int isdir = au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags, ISDIR);
+
+	/* reset xino */
+	if (au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags, XINO0) && a->inode)
+		hn_xino(a->inode, a->h_inode); /* ignore this error */
+
+	if (au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags, TRYXINO0)
+	    && a->inode
+	    && a->h_inode) {
+		mutex_lock_nested(&a->h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+		if (!a->h_inode->i_nlink)
+			hn_xino(a->inode, a->h_inode); /* ignore this error */
+		mutex_unlock(&a->h_inode->i_mutex);
+	}
+
+	/* make the generation obsolete */
+	if (au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags, GEN)) {
+		int err = -1;
+		if (a->inode)
+			err = hn_gen_by_inode(a->h_name, a->h_nlen, a->inode,
+					      isdir);
+		if (err && a->dentry)
+			hn_gen_by_name(a->dentry, isdir);
+		/* ignore this error */
+	}
+
+	/* make dir entries obsolete */
+	if (au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags, DIRENT) && a->inode) {
+		struct au_vdir *vdir;
+
+		vdir = au_ivdir(a->inode);
+		if (vdir)
+			vdir->vd_jiffy = 0;
+		/* IMustLock(a->inode); */
+		/* a->inode->i_version++; */
+	}
+
+	/* can do nothing but warn */
+	if (au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags, MNTPNT)
+	    && a->dentry
+	    && d_mountpoint(a->dentry))
+		pr_warn("mount-point %.*s is removed or renamed\n",
+			AuDLNPair(a->dentry));
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct dentry *lookup_wlock_by_name(char *name, unsigned int nlen,
+					   struct inode *dir)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry, *d, *parent;
+	struct qstr *dname;
+
+	parent = d_find_alias(dir);
+	if (!parent)
+		return NULL;
+
+	dentry = NULL;
+	spin_lock(&parent->d_lock);
+	list_for_each_entry(d, &parent->d_subdirs, d_u.d_child) {
+		/* AuDbg("%.*s\n", AuDLNPair(d)); */
+		spin_lock_nested(&d->d_lock, DENTRY_D_LOCK_NESTED);
+		dname = &d->d_name;
+		if (dname->len != nlen || memcmp(dname->name, name, nlen))
+			goto cont_unlock;
+		if (au_di(d))
+			au_digen_dec(d);
+		else
+			goto cont_unlock;
+		if (d_count(d)) {
+			dentry = dget_dlock(d);
+			spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+			break;
+		}
+
+	cont_unlock:
+		spin_unlock(&d->d_lock);
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&parent->d_lock);
+	dput(parent);
+
+	if (dentry)
+		di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+static struct inode *lookup_wlock_by_ino(struct super_block *sb,
+					 aufs_bindex_t bindex, ino_t h_ino)
+{
+	struct inode *inode;
+	ino_t ino;
+	int err;
+
+	inode = NULL;
+	err = au_xino_read(sb, bindex, h_ino, &ino);
+	if (!err && ino)
+		inode = ilookup(sb, ino);
+	if (!inode)
+		goto out;
+
+	if (unlikely(inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO)) {
+		pr_warn("wrong root branch\n");
+		iput(inode);
+		inode = NULL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+
+out:
+	return inode;
+}
+
+static void au_hn_bh(void *_args)
+{
+	struct au_hnotify_args *a = _args;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend, bfound;
+	unsigned char xino, try_iput;
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	ino_t h_ino;
+	struct hn_job_args args;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	AuDebugOn(!_args);
+	AuDebugOn(!a->h_dir);
+	AuDebugOn(!a->dir);
+	AuDebugOn(!a->mask);
+	AuDbg("mask 0x%x, i%lu, hi%lu, hci%lu\n",
+	      a->mask, a->dir->i_ino, a->h_dir->i_ino,
+	      a->h_child_inode ? a->h_child_inode->i_ino : 0);
+
+	inode = NULL;
+	dentry = NULL;
+	/*
+	 * do not lock a->dir->i_mutex here
+	 * because of d_revalidate() may cause a deadlock.
+	 */
+	sb = a->dir->i_sb;
+	AuDebugOn(!sb);
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	AuDebugOn(!sbinfo);
+	si_write_lock(sb, AuLock_NOPLMW);
+
+	ii_read_lock_parent(a->dir);
+	bfound = -1;
+	bend = au_ibend(a->dir);
+	for (bindex = au_ibstart(a->dir); bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (au_h_iptr(a->dir, bindex) == a->h_dir) {
+			bfound = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+	ii_read_unlock(a->dir);
+	if (unlikely(bfound < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	xino = !!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO);
+	h_ino = 0;
+	if (a->h_child_inode)
+		h_ino = a->h_child_inode->i_ino;
+
+	if (a->h_child_nlen
+	    && (au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags[AuHn_CHILD], GEN)
+		|| au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags[AuHn_CHILD], MNTPNT)))
+		dentry = lookup_wlock_by_name(a->h_child_name, a->h_child_nlen,
+					      a->dir);
+	try_iput = 0;
+	if (dentry)
+		inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (xino && !inode && h_ino
+	    && (au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags[AuHn_CHILD], XINO0)
+		|| au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags[AuHn_CHILD], TRYXINO0)
+		|| au_ftest_hnjob(a->flags[AuHn_CHILD], GEN))) {
+		inode = lookup_wlock_by_ino(sb, bfound, h_ino);
+		try_iput = 1;
+	    }
+
+	args.flags = a->flags[AuHn_CHILD];
+	args.dentry = dentry;
+	args.inode = inode;
+	args.h_inode = a->h_child_inode;
+	args.dir = a->dir;
+	args.h_dir = a->h_dir;
+	args.h_name = a->h_child_name;
+	args.h_nlen = a->h_child_nlen;
+	err = hn_job(&args);
+	if (dentry) {
+		if (au_di(dentry))
+			di_write_unlock(dentry);
+		dput(dentry);
+	}
+	if (inode && try_iput) {
+		ii_write_unlock(inode);
+		iput(inode);
+	}
+
+	ii_write_lock_parent(a->dir);
+	args.flags = a->flags[AuHn_PARENT];
+	args.dentry = NULL;
+	args.inode = a->dir;
+	args.h_inode = a->h_dir;
+	args.dir = NULL;
+	args.h_dir = NULL;
+	args.h_name = NULL;
+	args.h_nlen = 0;
+	err = hn_job(&args);
+	ii_write_unlock(a->dir);
+
+out:
+	iput(a->h_child_inode);
+	iput(a->h_dir);
+	iput(a->dir);
+	si_write_unlock(sb);
+	au_nwt_done(&sbinfo->si_nowait);
+	kfree(a);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_hnotify(struct inode *h_dir, struct au_hnotify *hnotify, u32 mask,
+	       struct qstr *h_child_qstr, struct inode *h_child_inode)
+{
+	int err, len;
+	unsigned int flags[AuHnLast], f;
+	unsigned char isdir, isroot, wh;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct au_hnotify_args *args;
+	char *p, *h_child_name;
+
+	err = 0;
+	AuDebugOn(!hnotify || !hnotify->hn_aufs_inode);
+	dir = igrab(hnotify->hn_aufs_inode);
+	if (!dir)
+		goto out;
+
+	isroot = (dir->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO);
+	wh = 0;
+	h_child_name = (void *)h_child_qstr->name;
+	len = h_child_qstr->len;
+	if (h_child_name) {
+		if (len > AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN
+		    && !memcmp(h_child_name, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN)) {
+			h_child_name += AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+			len -= AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+			wh = 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	isdir = 0;
+	if (h_child_inode)
+		isdir = !!S_ISDIR(h_child_inode->i_mode);
+	flags[AuHn_PARENT] = AuHnJob_ISDIR;
+	flags[AuHn_CHILD] = 0;
+	if (isdir)
+		flags[AuHn_CHILD] = AuHnJob_ISDIR;
+	au_fset_hnjob(flags[AuHn_PARENT], DIRENT);
+	au_fset_hnjob(flags[AuHn_CHILD], GEN);
+	switch (mask & FS_EVENTS_POSS_ON_CHILD) {
+	case FS_MOVED_FROM:
+	case FS_MOVED_TO:
+		au_fset_hnjob(flags[AuHn_CHILD], XINO0);
+		au_fset_hnjob(flags[AuHn_CHILD], MNTPNT);
+		/*FALLTHROUGH*/
+	case FS_CREATE:
+		AuDebugOn(!h_child_name || !h_child_inode);
+		break;
+
+	case FS_DELETE:
+		/*
+		 * aufs never be able to get this child inode.
+		 * revalidation should be in d_revalidate()
+		 * by checking i_nlink, i_generation or d_unhashed().
+		 */
+		AuDebugOn(!h_child_name);
+		au_fset_hnjob(flags[AuHn_CHILD], TRYXINO0);
+		au_fset_hnjob(flags[AuHn_CHILD], MNTPNT);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		AuDebugOn(1);
+	}
+
+	if (wh)
+		h_child_inode = NULL;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	/* iput() and kfree() will be called in au_hnotify() */
+	args = kmalloc(sizeof(*args) + len + 1, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!args)) {
+		AuErr1("no memory\n");
+		iput(dir);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	args->flags[AuHn_PARENT] = flags[AuHn_PARENT];
+	args->flags[AuHn_CHILD] = flags[AuHn_CHILD];
+	args->mask = mask;
+	args->dir = dir;
+	args->h_dir = igrab(h_dir);
+	if (h_child_inode)
+		h_child_inode = igrab(h_child_inode); /* can be NULL */
+	args->h_child_inode = h_child_inode;
+	args->h_child_nlen = len;
+	if (len) {
+		p = (void *)args;
+		p += sizeof(*args);
+		memcpy(p, h_child_name, len);
+		p[len] = 0;
+	}
+
+	f = 0;
+	if (!dir->i_nlink)
+		f = AuWkq_NEST;
+	err = au_wkq_nowait(au_hn_bh, args, dir->i_sb, f);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		pr_err("wkq %d\n", err);
+		iput(args->h_child_inode);
+		iput(args->h_dir);
+		iput(args->dir);
+		kfree(args);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_hnotify_reset_br(unsigned int udba, struct au_branch *br, int perm)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	AuDebugOn(!(udba & AuOptMask_UDBA));
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (au_hnotify_op.reset_br)
+		err = au_hnotify_op.reset_br(udba, br, perm);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_hnotify_init_br(struct au_branch *br, int perm)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (au_hnotify_op.init_br)
+		err = au_hnotify_op.init_br(br, perm);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_hnotify_fin_br(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	if (au_hnotify_op.fin_br)
+		au_hnotify_op.fin_br(br);
+}
+
+static void au_hn_destroy_cache(void)
+{
+	kmem_cache_destroy(au_cachep[AuCache_HNOTIFY]);
+	au_cachep[AuCache_HNOTIFY] = NULL;
+}
+
+int __init au_hnotify_init(void)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	au_cachep[AuCache_HNOTIFY] = AuCache(au_hnotify);
+	if (au_cachep[AuCache_HNOTIFY]) {
+		err = 0;
+		if (au_hnotify_op.init)
+			err = au_hnotify_op.init();
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			au_hn_destroy_cache();
+	}
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_hnotify_fin(void)
+{
+	if (au_hnotify_op.fin)
+		au_hnotify_op.fin();
+	/* cf. au_cache_fin() */
+	if (au_cachep[AuCache_HNOTIFY])
+		au_hn_destroy_cache();
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/iinfo.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/iinfo.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/iinfo.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/iinfo.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,275 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * inode private data
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+struct inode *au_h_iptr(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	IiMustAnyLock(inode);
+
+	h_inode = au_ii(inode)->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(h_inode && atomic_read(&h_inode->i_count) <= 0);
+	return h_inode;
+}
+
+/* todo: hard/soft set? */
+void au_hiput(struct au_hinode *hinode)
+{
+	au_hn_free(hinode);
+	dput(hinode->hi_whdentry);
+	iput(hinode->hi_inode);
+}
+
+unsigned int au_hi_flags(struct inode *inode, int isdir)
+{
+	unsigned int flags;
+	const unsigned int mnt_flags = au_mntflags(inode->i_sb);
+
+	flags = 0;
+	if (au_opt_test(mnt_flags, XINO))
+		au_fset_hi(flags, XINO);
+	if (isdir && au_opt_test(mnt_flags, UDBA_HNOTIFY))
+		au_fset_hi(flags, HNOTIFY);
+	return flags;
+}
+
+void au_set_h_iptr(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		   struct inode *h_inode, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	struct au_hinode *hinode;
+	struct inode *hi;
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+
+	hinode = iinfo->ii_hinode + bindex;
+	hi = hinode->hi_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(h_inode && atomic_read(&h_inode->i_count) <= 0);
+
+	if (hi)
+		au_hiput(hinode);
+	hinode->hi_inode = h_inode;
+	if (h_inode) {
+		int err;
+		struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
+		struct au_branch *br;
+
+		AuDebugOn(inode->i_mode
+			  && (h_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT)
+			  != (inode->i_mode & S_IFMT));
+		if (bindex == iinfo->ii_bstart)
+			au_cpup_igen(inode, h_inode);
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		hinode->hi_id = br->br_id;
+		if (au_ftest_hi(flags, XINO)) {
+			err = au_xino_write(sb, bindex, h_inode->i_ino,
+					    inode->i_ino);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				AuIOErr1("failed au_xino_write() %d\n", err);
+		}
+
+		if (au_ftest_hi(flags, HNOTIFY)
+		    && au_br_hnotifyable(br->br_perm)) {
+			err = au_hn_alloc(hinode, inode);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				AuIOErr1("au_hn_alloc() %d\n", err);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+void au_set_hi_wh(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		  struct dentry *h_wh)
+{
+	struct au_hinode *hinode;
+
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+
+	hinode = au_ii(inode)->ii_hinode + bindex;
+	AuDebugOn(hinode->hi_whdentry);
+	hinode->hi_whdentry = h_wh;
+}
+
+void au_update_iigen(struct inode *inode, int half)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+	struct au_iigen *iigen;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+
+	sigen = au_sigen(inode->i_sb);
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	iigen = &iinfo->ii_generation;
+	spin_lock(&iinfo->ii_genspin);
+	iigen->ig_generation = sigen;
+	if (half)
+		au_ig_fset(iigen->ig_flags, HALF_REFRESHED);
+	else
+		au_ig_fclr(iigen->ig_flags, HALF_REFRESHED);
+	spin_unlock(&iinfo->ii_genspin);
+}
+
+/* it may be called at remount time, too */
+void au_update_ibrange(struct inode *inode, int do_put_zero)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	if (!iinfo)
+		return;
+
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+
+	if (do_put_zero && iinfo->ii_bstart >= 0) {
+		for (bindex = iinfo->ii_bstart; bindex <= iinfo->ii_bend;
+		     bindex++) {
+			struct inode *h_i;
+
+			h_i = iinfo->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_inode;
+			if (h_i && !h_i->i_nlink)
+				au_set_h_iptr(inode, bindex, NULL, 0);
+		}
+	}
+
+	iinfo->ii_bstart = -1;
+	iinfo->ii_bend = -1;
+	bend = au_sbend(inode->i_sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (iinfo->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_inode) {
+			iinfo->ii_bstart = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+	if (iinfo->ii_bstart >= 0)
+		for (bindex = bend; bindex >= iinfo->ii_bstart; bindex--)
+			if (iinfo->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_inode) {
+				iinfo->ii_bend = bindex;
+				break;
+			}
+	AuDebugOn(iinfo->ii_bstart > iinfo->ii_bend);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_icntnr_init_once(void *_c)
+{
+	struct au_icntnr *c = _c;
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo = &c->iinfo;
+	static struct lock_class_key aufs_ii;
+
+	spin_lock_init(&iinfo->ii_genspin);
+	au_rw_init(&iinfo->ii_rwsem);
+	au_rw_class(&iinfo->ii_rwsem, &aufs_ii);
+	inode_init_once(&c->vfs_inode);
+}
+
+int au_iinfo_init(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	int nbr, i;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	iinfo = &(container_of(inode, struct au_icntnr, vfs_inode)->iinfo);
+	nbr = au_sbend(sb) + 1;
+	if (unlikely(nbr <= 0))
+		nbr = 1;
+	iinfo->ii_hinode = kcalloc(nbr, sizeof(*iinfo->ii_hinode), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (iinfo->ii_hinode) {
+		au_ninodes_inc(sb);
+		for (i = 0; i < nbr; i++)
+			iinfo->ii_hinode[i].hi_id = -1;
+
+		iinfo->ii_generation.ig_generation = au_sigen(sb);
+		iinfo->ii_bstart = -1;
+		iinfo->ii_bend = -1;
+		iinfo->ii_vdir = NULL;
+		return 0;
+	}
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+int au_ii_realloc(struct au_iinfo *iinfo, int nbr)
+{
+	int err, sz;
+	struct au_hinode *hip;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&iinfo->ii_rwsem);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	sz = sizeof(*hip) * (iinfo->ii_bend + 1);
+	if (!sz)
+		sz = sizeof(*hip);
+	hip = au_kzrealloc(iinfo->ii_hinode, sz, sizeof(*hip) * nbr, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (hip) {
+		iinfo->ii_hinode = hip;
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_iinfo_fin(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+	struct au_hinode *hi;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	const unsigned char unlinked = !inode->i_nlink;
+
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	/* bad_inode case */
+	if (!iinfo)
+		return;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	au_ninodes_dec(sb);
+	if (si_pid_test(sb))
+		au_xino_delete_inode(inode, unlinked);
+	else {
+		/*
+		 * it is safe to hide the dependency between sbinfo and
+		 * sb->s_umount.
+		 */
+		lockdep_off();
+		si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+		au_xino_delete_inode(inode, unlinked);
+		si_read_unlock(sb);
+		lockdep_on();
+	}
+
+	if (iinfo->ii_vdir)
+		au_vdir_free(iinfo->ii_vdir);
+
+	bindex = iinfo->ii_bstart;
+	if (bindex >= 0) {
+		hi = iinfo->ii_hinode + bindex;
+		bend = iinfo->ii_bend;
+		while (bindex++ <= bend) {
+			if (hi->hi_inode)
+				au_hiput(hi);
+			hi++;
+		}
+	}
+	kfree(iinfo->ii_hinode);
+	iinfo->ii_hinode = NULL;
+	AuRwDestroy(&iinfo->ii_rwsem);
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/inode.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/inode.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/inode.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/inode.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,491 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * inode functions
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+struct inode *au_igrab(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	if (inode) {
+		AuDebugOn(!atomic_read(&inode->i_count));
+		ihold(inode);
+	}
+	return inode;
+}
+
+static void au_refresh_hinode_attr(struct inode *inode, int do_version)
+{
+	au_cpup_attr_all(inode, /*force*/0);
+	au_update_iigen(inode, /*half*/1);
+	if (do_version)
+		inode->i_version++;
+}
+
+static int au_ii_refresh(struct inode *inode, int *update)
+{
+	int err, e;
+	umode_t type;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, new_bindex;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+	struct au_hinode *p, *q, tmp;
+
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+
+	*update = 0;
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	type = inode->i_mode & S_IFMT;
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	err = au_ii_realloc(iinfo, au_sbend(sb) + 1);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	AuDebugOn(iinfo->ii_bstart < 0);
+	p = iinfo->ii_hinode + iinfo->ii_bstart;
+	for (bindex = iinfo->ii_bstart; bindex <= iinfo->ii_bend;
+	     bindex++, p++) {
+		if (!p->hi_inode)
+			continue;
+
+		AuDebugOn(type != (p->hi_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT));
+		new_bindex = au_br_index(sb, p->hi_id);
+		if (new_bindex == bindex)
+			continue;
+
+		if (new_bindex < 0) {
+			*update = 1;
+			au_hiput(p);
+			p->hi_inode = NULL;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if (new_bindex < iinfo->ii_bstart)
+			iinfo->ii_bstart = new_bindex;
+		if (iinfo->ii_bend < new_bindex)
+			iinfo->ii_bend = new_bindex;
+		/* swap two lower inode, and loop again */
+		q = iinfo->ii_hinode + new_bindex;
+		tmp = *q;
+		*q = *p;
+		*p = tmp;
+		if (tmp.hi_inode) {
+			bindex--;
+			p--;
+		}
+	}
+	au_update_ibrange(inode, /*do_put_zero*/0);
+	e = au_dy_irefresh(inode);
+	if (unlikely(e && !err))
+		err = e;
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_refresh_hinode_self(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err, update;
+
+	err = au_ii_refresh(inode, &update);
+	if (!err)
+		au_refresh_hinode_attr(inode, update && S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode));
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_refresh_hinode(struct inode *inode, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err, e, update;
+	unsigned int flags;
+	umode_t mode;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	unsigned char isdir;
+	struct au_hinode *p;
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+
+	err = au_ii_refresh(inode, &update);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	update = 0;
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	p = iinfo->ii_hinode + iinfo->ii_bstart;
+	mode = (inode->i_mode & S_IFMT);
+	isdir = S_ISDIR(mode);
+	flags = au_hi_flags(inode, isdir);
+	bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_dbstart(dentry); bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		struct inode *h_i;
+		struct dentry *h_d;
+
+		h_d = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!h_d || !h_d->d_inode)
+			continue;
+
+		AuDebugOn(mode != (h_d->d_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT));
+		if (iinfo->ii_bstart <= bindex && bindex <= iinfo->ii_bend) {
+			h_i = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+			if (h_i) {
+				if (h_i == h_d->d_inode)
+					continue;
+				err = -EIO;
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+		if (bindex < iinfo->ii_bstart)
+			iinfo->ii_bstart = bindex;
+		if (iinfo->ii_bend < bindex)
+			iinfo->ii_bend = bindex;
+		au_set_h_iptr(inode, bindex, au_igrab(h_d->d_inode), flags);
+		update = 1;
+	}
+	au_update_ibrange(inode, /*do_put_zero*/0);
+	e = au_dy_irefresh(inode);
+	if (unlikely(e && !err))
+		err = e;
+	if (!err)
+		au_refresh_hinode_attr(inode, update && isdir);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int set_inode(struct inode *inode, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int flags;
+	umode_t mode;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bstart, btail;
+	unsigned char isdir;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+
+	err = 0;
+	isdir = 0;
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	h_inode = au_h_dptr(dentry, bstart)->d_inode;
+	mode = h_inode->i_mode;
+	switch (mode & S_IFMT) {
+	case S_IFREG:
+		btail = au_dbtail(dentry);
+		inode->i_op = &aufs_iop;
+		inode->i_fop = &aufs_file_fop;
+		err = au_dy_iaop(inode, bstart, h_inode);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+		break;
+	case S_IFDIR:
+		isdir = 1;
+		btail = au_dbtaildir(dentry);
+		inode->i_op = &aufs_dir_iop;
+		inode->i_fop = &aufs_dir_fop;
+		break;
+	case S_IFLNK:
+		btail = au_dbtail(dentry);
+		inode->i_op = &aufs_symlink_iop;
+		break;
+	case S_IFBLK:
+	case S_IFCHR:
+	case S_IFIFO:
+	case S_IFSOCK:
+		btail = au_dbtail(dentry);
+		inode->i_op = &aufs_iop;
+		au_init_special_fop(inode, mode, h_inode->i_rdev);
+		break;
+	default:
+		AuIOErr("Unknown file type 0%o\n", mode);
+		err = -EIO;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* do not set hnotify for whiteouted dirs (SHWH mode) */
+	flags = au_hi_flags(inode, isdir);
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(dentry->d_sb), SHWH)
+	    && au_ftest_hi(flags, HNOTIFY)
+	    && dentry->d_name.len > AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN
+	    && !memcmp(dentry->d_name.name, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN))
+		au_fclr_hi(flags, HNOTIFY);
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	iinfo->ii_bstart = bstart;
+	iinfo->ii_bend = btail;
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= btail; bindex++) {
+		h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+		if (h_dentry)
+			au_set_h_iptr(inode, bindex,
+				      au_igrab(h_dentry->d_inode), flags);
+	}
+	au_cpup_attr_all(inode, /*force*/1);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * successful returns with iinfo write_locked
+ * minus: errno
+ * zero: success, matched
+ * plus: no error, but unmatched
+ */
+static int reval_inode(struct inode *inode, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int gen;
+	struct au_iigen iigen;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct inode *h_inode, *h_dinode;
+
+	/*
+	 * before this function, if aufs got any iinfo lock, it must be only
+	 * one, the parent dir.
+	 * it can happen by UDBA and the obsoleted inode number.
+	 */
+	err = -EIO;
+	if (unlikely(inode->i_ino == parent_ino(dentry)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 1;
+	ii_write_lock_new_child(inode);
+	h_dinode = au_h_dptr(dentry, au_dbstart(dentry))->d_inode;
+	bend = au_ibend(inode);
+	for (bindex = au_ibstart(inode); bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+		if (!h_inode || h_inode != h_dinode)
+			continue;
+
+		err = 0;
+		gen = au_iigen(inode, &iigen);
+		if (gen == au_digen(dentry)
+		    && !au_ig_ftest(iigen.ig_flags, HALF_REFRESHED))
+			break;
+
+		/* fully refresh inode using dentry */
+		err = au_refresh_hinode(inode, dentry);
+		if (!err)
+			au_update_iigen(inode, /*half*/0);
+		break;
+	}
+
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		ii_write_unlock(inode);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_ino(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex, ino_t h_ino,
+	   unsigned int d_type, ino_t *ino)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct mutex *mtx;
+
+	/* prevent hardlinked inode number from race condition */
+	mtx = NULL;
+	if (d_type != DT_DIR) {
+		mtx = &au_sbr(sb, bindex)->br_xino.xi_nondir_mtx;
+		mutex_lock(mtx);
+	}
+	err = au_xino_read(sb, bindex, h_ino, ino);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (!*ino) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		*ino = au_xino_new_ino(sb);
+		if (unlikely(!*ino))
+			goto out;
+		err = au_xino_write(sb, bindex, h_ino, *ino);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (mtx)
+		mutex_unlock(mtx);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* successful returns with iinfo write_locked */
+/* todo: return with unlocked? */
+struct inode *au_new_inode(struct dentry *dentry, int must_new)
+{
+	struct inode *inode, *h_inode;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct mutex *mtx;
+	ino_t h_ino, ino;
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bstart);
+	h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	h_ino = h_inode->i_ino;
+
+	/*
+	 * stop 'race'-ing between hardlinks under different
+	 * parents.
+	 */
+	mtx = NULL;
+	if (!S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode))
+		mtx = &au_sbr(sb, bstart)->br_xino.xi_nondir_mtx;
+
+new_ino:
+	if (mtx)
+		mutex_lock(mtx);
+	err = au_xino_read(sb, bstart, h_ino, &ino);
+	inode = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (!ino) {
+		ino = au_xino_new_ino(sb);
+		if (unlikely(!ino)) {
+			inode = ERR_PTR(-EIO);
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+
+	AuDbg("i%lu\n", (unsigned long)ino);
+	inode = au_iget_locked(sb, ino);
+	err = PTR_ERR(inode);
+	if (IS_ERR(inode))
+		goto out;
+
+	AuDbg("%lx, new %d\n", inode->i_state, !!(inode->i_state & I_NEW));
+	if (inode->i_state & I_NEW) {
+		/* verbose coding for lock class name */
+		if (unlikely(S_ISLNK(h_inode->i_mode)))
+			au_rw_class(&au_ii(inode)->ii_rwsem,
+				    au_lc_key + AuLcSymlink_IIINFO);
+		else if (unlikely(S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode)))
+			au_rw_class(&au_ii(inode)->ii_rwsem,
+				    au_lc_key + AuLcDir_IIINFO);
+		else /* likely */
+			au_rw_class(&au_ii(inode)->ii_rwsem,
+				    au_lc_key + AuLcNonDir_IIINFO);
+
+		ii_write_lock_new_child(inode);
+		err = set_inode(inode, dentry);
+		if (!err) {
+			unlock_new_inode(inode);
+			goto out; /* success */
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * iget_failed() calls iput(), but we need to call
+		 * ii_write_unlock() after iget_failed(). so dirty hack for
+		 * i_count.
+		 */
+		atomic_inc(&inode->i_count);
+		iget_failed(inode);
+		ii_write_unlock(inode);
+		au_xino_write(sb, bstart, h_ino, /*ino*/0);
+		/* ignore this error */
+		goto out_iput;
+	} else if (!must_new && !IS_DEADDIR(inode) && inode->i_nlink) {
+		/*
+		 * horrible race condition between lookup, readdir and copyup
+		 * (or something).
+		 */
+		if (mtx)
+			mutex_unlock(mtx);
+		err = reval_inode(inode, dentry);
+		if (unlikely(err < 0)) {
+			mtx = NULL;
+			goto out_iput;
+		}
+
+		if (!err) {
+			mtx = NULL;
+			goto out; /* success */
+		} else if (mtx)
+			mutex_lock(mtx);
+	}
+
+	if (unlikely(au_test_fs_unique_ino(h_dentry->d_inode)))
+		AuWarn1("Warning: Un-notified UDBA or repeatedly renamed dir,"
+			" b%d, %s, %.*s, hi%lu, i%lu.\n",
+			bstart, au_sbtype(h_dentry->d_sb), AuDLNPair(dentry),
+			(unsigned long)h_ino, (unsigned long)ino);
+	ino = 0;
+	err = au_xino_write(sb, bstart, h_ino, /*ino*/0);
+	if (!err) {
+		iput(inode);
+		if (mtx)
+			mutex_unlock(mtx);
+		goto new_ino;
+	}
+
+out_iput:
+	iput(inode);
+	inode = ERR_PTR(err);
+out:
+	if (mtx)
+		mutex_unlock(mtx);
+	return inode;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_test_ro(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	       struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, bindex));
+
+	/* pseudo-link after flushed may happen out of bounds */
+	if (!err
+	    && inode
+	    && au_ibstart(inode) <= bindex
+	    && bindex <= au_ibend(inode)) {
+		/*
+		 * permission check is unnecessary since vfsub routine
+		 * will be called later
+		 */
+		struct inode *hi = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+		if (hi)
+			err = IS_IMMUTABLE(hi) ? -EROFS : 0;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_test_h_perm(struct inode *h_inode, int mask)
+{
+	if (uid_eq(current_fsuid(), GLOBAL_ROOT_UID))
+		return 0;
+	return inode_permission(h_inode, mask);
+}
+
+int au_test_h_perm_sio(struct inode *h_inode, int mask)
+{
+	if (au_test_nfs(h_inode->i_sb)
+	    && (mask & MAY_WRITE)
+	    && S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode))
+		mask |= MAY_READ; /* force permission check */
+	return au_test_h_perm(h_inode, mask);
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/inode.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/inode.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/inode.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/inode.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,599 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * inode operations
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_INODE_H__
+#define __AUFS_INODE_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/fsnotify.h>
+#include "rwsem.h"
+
+struct vfsmount;
+
+struct au_hnotify {
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HFSNOTIFY
+	/* never use fsnotify_add_vfsmount_mark() */
+	struct fsnotify_mark		hn_mark;
+#endif
+	struct inode			*hn_aufs_inode;	/* no get/put */
+#endif
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+struct au_hinode {
+	struct inode		*hi_inode;
+	aufs_bindex_t		hi_id;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+	struct au_hnotify	*hi_notify;
+#endif
+
+	/* reference to the copied-up whiteout with get/put */
+	struct dentry		*hi_whdentry;
+};
+
+/* ig_flags */
+#define AuIG_HALF_REFRESHED		1
+#define au_ig_ftest(flags, name)	((flags) & AuIG_##name)
+#define au_ig_fset(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuIG_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_ig_fclr(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuIG_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_iigen {
+	__u32		ig_generation, ig_flags;
+};
+
+struct au_vdir;
+struct au_iinfo {
+	spinlock_t		ii_genspin;
+	struct au_iigen		ii_generation;
+	struct super_block	*ii_hsb1;	/* no get/put */
+
+	struct au_rwsem		ii_rwsem;
+	aufs_bindex_t		ii_bstart, ii_bend;
+	__u32			ii_higen;
+	struct au_hinode	*ii_hinode;
+	struct au_vdir		*ii_vdir;
+};
+
+struct au_icntnr {
+	struct au_iinfo iinfo;
+	struct inode vfs_inode;
+} ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
+
+/* au_pin flags */
+#define AuPin_DI_LOCKED		1
+#define AuPin_MNT_WRITE		(1 << 1)
+#define au_ftest_pin(flags, name)	((flags) & AuPin_##name)
+#define au_fset_pin(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuPin_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_pin(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuPin_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_pin {
+	/* input */
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	unsigned int udba;
+	unsigned char lsc_di, lsc_hi, flags;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+
+	/* output */
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct au_hinode *hdir;
+	struct vfsmount *h_mnt;
+
+	/* temporary unlock/relock for copyup */
+	struct dentry *h_dentry, *h_parent;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct task_struct *task;
+};
+
+void au_pin_hdir_unlock(struct au_pin *p);
+int au_pin_hdir_relock(struct au_pin *p);
+void au_pin_hdir_set_owner(struct au_pin *p, struct task_struct *task);
+void au_pin_hdir_acquire_nest(struct au_pin *p);
+void au_pin_hdir_release(struct au_pin *p);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline struct au_iinfo *au_ii(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+
+	iinfo = &(container_of(inode, struct au_icntnr, vfs_inode)->iinfo);
+	if (iinfo->ii_hinode)
+		return iinfo;
+	return NULL; /* debugging bad_inode case */
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* inode.c */
+struct inode *au_igrab(struct inode *inode);
+int au_refresh_hinode_self(struct inode *inode);
+int au_refresh_hinode(struct inode *inode, struct dentry *dentry);
+int au_ino(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex, ino_t h_ino,
+	   unsigned int d_type, ino_t *ino);
+struct inode *au_new_inode(struct dentry *dentry, int must_new);
+int au_test_ro(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	       struct inode *inode);
+int au_test_h_perm(struct inode *h_inode, int mask);
+int au_test_h_perm_sio(struct inode *h_inode, int mask);
+
+static inline int au_wh_ino(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			    ino_t h_ino, unsigned int d_type, ino_t *ino)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+	return au_ino(sb, bindex, h_ino, d_type, ino);
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+/* i_op.c */
+extern struct inode_operations aufs_iop, aufs_symlink_iop, aufs_dir_iop;
+
+/* au_wr_dir flags */
+#define AuWrDir_ADD_ENTRY	1
+#define AuWrDir_TMP_WHENTRY	(1 << 1)
+#define AuWrDir_ISDIR		(1 << 2)
+#define au_ftest_wrdir(flags, name)	((flags) & AuWrDir_##name)
+#define au_fset_wrdir(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuWrDir_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_wrdir(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuWrDir_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_wr_dir_args {
+	aufs_bindex_t force_btgt;
+	unsigned char flags;
+};
+int au_wr_dir(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *src_dentry,
+	      struct au_wr_dir_args *args);
+
+struct dentry *au_pinned_h_parent(struct au_pin *pin);
+void au_pin_init(struct au_pin *pin, struct dentry *dentry,
+		 aufs_bindex_t bindex, int lsc_di, int lsc_hi,
+		 unsigned int udba, unsigned char flags);
+int au_pin(struct au_pin *pin, struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	   unsigned int udba, unsigned char flags) __must_check;
+int au_do_pin(struct au_pin *pin) __must_check;
+void au_unpin(struct au_pin *pin);
+
+/* i_op_add.c */
+int au_may_add(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	       struct dentry *h_parent, int isdir);
+int aufs_mknod(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode,
+	       dev_t dev);
+int aufs_symlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, const char *symname);
+int aufs_create(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode,
+		bool want_excl);
+int aufs_link(struct dentry *src_dentry, struct inode *dir,
+	      struct dentry *dentry);
+int aufs_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode);
+
+/* i_op_del.c */
+int au_wr_dir_need_wh(struct dentry *dentry, int isdir, aufs_bindex_t *bcpup);
+int au_may_del(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	       struct dentry *h_parent, int isdir);
+int aufs_unlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry);
+int aufs_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry);
+
+/* i_op_ren.c */
+int au_wbr(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t btgt);
+int aufs_rename(struct inode *src_dir, struct dentry *src_dentry,
+		struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry);
+
+/* iinfo.c */
+struct inode *au_h_iptr(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+void au_hiput(struct au_hinode *hinode);
+void au_set_hi_wh(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		  struct dentry *h_wh);
+unsigned int au_hi_flags(struct inode *inode, int isdir);
+
+/* hinode flags */
+#define AuHi_XINO	1
+#define AuHi_HNOTIFY	(1 << 1)
+#define au_ftest_hi(flags, name)	((flags) & AuHi_##name)
+#define au_fset_hi(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuHi_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_hi(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuHi_##name; } while (0)
+
+#ifndef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+#undef AuHi_HNOTIFY
+#define AuHi_HNOTIFY	0
+#endif
+
+void au_set_h_iptr(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		   struct inode *h_inode, unsigned int flags);
+
+void au_update_iigen(struct inode *inode, int half);
+void au_update_ibrange(struct inode *inode, int do_put_zero);
+
+void au_icntnr_init_once(void *_c);
+int au_iinfo_init(struct inode *inode);
+void au_iinfo_fin(struct inode *inode);
+int au_ii_realloc(struct au_iinfo *iinfo, int nbr);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
+/* plink.c */
+int au_plink_maint(struct super_block *sb, int flags);
+void au_plink_maint_leave(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo);
+int au_plink_maint_enter(struct super_block *sb);
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+void au_plink_list(struct super_block *sb);
+#else
+AuStubVoid(au_plink_list, struct super_block *sb)
+#endif
+int au_plink_test(struct inode *inode);
+struct dentry *au_plink_lkup(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+void au_plink_append(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		     struct dentry *h_dentry);
+void au_plink_put(struct super_block *sb, int verbose);
+void au_plink_clean(struct super_block *sb, int verbose);
+void au_plink_half_refresh(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t br_id);
+#else
+AuStubInt0(au_plink_maint, struct super_block *sb, int flags);
+AuStubVoid(au_plink_maint_leave, struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo);
+AuStubInt0(au_plink_maint_enter, struct super_block *sb);
+AuStubVoid(au_plink_list, struct super_block *sb);
+AuStubInt0(au_plink_test, struct inode *inode);
+AuStub(struct dentry *, au_plink_lkup, return NULL,
+       struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+AuStubVoid(au_plink_append, struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	   struct dentry *h_dentry);
+AuStubVoid(au_plink_put, struct super_block *sb, int verbose);
+AuStubVoid(au_plink_clean, struct super_block *sb, int verbose);
+AuStubVoid(au_plink_half_refresh, struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t br_id);
+#endif /* CONFIG_PROC_FS */
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* lock subclass for iinfo */
+enum {
+	AuLsc_II_CHILD,		/* child first */
+	AuLsc_II_CHILD2,	/* rename(2), link(2), and cpup at hnotify */
+	AuLsc_II_CHILD3,	/* copyup dirs */
+	AuLsc_II_PARENT,	/* see AuLsc_I_PARENT in vfsub.h */
+	AuLsc_II_PARENT2,
+	AuLsc_II_PARENT3,	/* copyup dirs */
+	AuLsc_II_NEW_CHILD
+};
+
+/*
+ * ii_read_lock_child, ii_write_lock_child,
+ * ii_read_lock_child2, ii_write_lock_child2,
+ * ii_read_lock_child3, ii_write_lock_child3,
+ * ii_read_lock_parent, ii_write_lock_parent,
+ * ii_read_lock_parent2, ii_write_lock_parent2,
+ * ii_read_lock_parent3, ii_write_lock_parent3,
+ * ii_read_lock_new_child, ii_write_lock_new_child,
+ */
+#define AuReadLockFunc(name, lsc) \
+static inline void ii_read_lock_##name(struct inode *i) \
+{ \
+	au_rw_read_lock_nested(&au_ii(i)->ii_rwsem, AuLsc_II_##lsc); \
+}
+
+#define AuWriteLockFunc(name, lsc) \
+static inline void ii_write_lock_##name(struct inode *i) \
+{ \
+	au_rw_write_lock_nested(&au_ii(i)->ii_rwsem, AuLsc_II_##lsc); \
+}
+
+#define AuRWLockFuncs(name, lsc) \
+	AuReadLockFunc(name, lsc) \
+	AuWriteLockFunc(name, lsc)
+
+AuRWLockFuncs(child, CHILD);
+AuRWLockFuncs(child2, CHILD2);
+AuRWLockFuncs(child3, CHILD3);
+AuRWLockFuncs(parent, PARENT);
+AuRWLockFuncs(parent2, PARENT2);
+AuRWLockFuncs(parent3, PARENT3);
+AuRWLockFuncs(new_child, NEW_CHILD);
+
+#undef AuReadLockFunc
+#undef AuWriteLockFunc
+#undef AuRWLockFuncs
+
+/*
+ * ii_read_unlock, ii_write_unlock, ii_downgrade_lock
+ */
+AuSimpleUnlockRwsemFuncs(ii, struct inode *i, &au_ii(i)->ii_rwsem);
+
+#define IiMustNoWaiters(i)	AuRwMustNoWaiters(&au_ii(i)->ii_rwsem)
+#define IiMustAnyLock(i)	AuRwMustAnyLock(&au_ii(i)->ii_rwsem)
+#define IiMustWriteLock(i)	AuRwMustWriteLock(&au_ii(i)->ii_rwsem)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline void au_icntnr_init(struct au_icntnr *c)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+	c->vfs_inode.i_mode = 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline unsigned int au_iigen(struct inode *inode, struct au_iigen *iigen)
+{
+	unsigned int gen;
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	spin_lock(&iinfo->ii_genspin);
+	if (iigen)
+		*iigen = iinfo->ii_generation;
+	gen = iinfo->ii_generation.ig_generation;
+	spin_unlock(&iinfo->ii_genspin);
+
+	return gen;
+}
+
+/* tiny test for inode number */
+/* tmpfs generation is too rough */
+static inline int au_test_higen(struct inode *inode, struct inode *h_inode)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	AuRwMustAnyLock(&iinfo->ii_rwsem);
+	return !(iinfo->ii_hsb1 == h_inode->i_sb
+		 && iinfo->ii_higen == h_inode->i_generation);
+}
+
+static inline void au_iigen_dec(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	spin_lock(&iinfo->ii_genspin);
+	iinfo->ii_generation.ig_generation--;
+	spin_unlock(&iinfo->ii_genspin);
+}
+
+static inline int au_iigen_test(struct inode *inode, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (unlikely(inode && au_iigen(inode, NULL) != sigen))
+		err = -EIO;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_ii_br_id(struct inode *inode,
+					aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	IiMustAnyLock(inode);
+	return au_ii(inode)->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_id;
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_ibstart(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	IiMustAnyLock(inode);
+	return au_ii(inode)->ii_bstart;
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_ibend(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	IiMustAnyLock(inode);
+	return au_ii(inode)->ii_bend;
+}
+
+static inline struct au_vdir *au_ivdir(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	IiMustAnyLock(inode);
+	return au_ii(inode)->ii_vdir;
+}
+
+static inline struct dentry *au_hi_wh(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	IiMustAnyLock(inode);
+	return au_ii(inode)->ii_hinode[0 + bindex].hi_whdentry;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_ibstart(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+	au_ii(inode)->ii_bstart = bindex;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_ibend(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+	au_ii(inode)->ii_bend = bindex;
+}
+
+static inline void au_set_ivdir(struct inode *inode, struct au_vdir *vdir)
+{
+	IiMustWriteLock(inode);
+	au_ii(inode)->ii_vdir = vdir;
+}
+
+static inline struct au_hinode *au_hi(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	IiMustAnyLock(inode);
+	return au_ii(inode)->ii_hinode + bindex;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline struct dentry *au_pinned_parent(struct au_pin *pin)
+{
+	if (pin)
+		return pin->parent;
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline struct inode *au_pinned_h_dir(struct au_pin *pin)
+{
+	if (pin && pin->hdir)
+		return pin->hdir->hi_inode;
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline struct au_hinode *au_pinned_hdir(struct au_pin *pin)
+{
+	if (pin)
+		return pin->hdir;
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline void au_pin_set_dentry(struct au_pin *pin, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	if (pin)
+		pin->dentry = dentry;
+}
+
+static inline void au_pin_set_parent_lflag(struct au_pin *pin,
+					   unsigned char lflag)
+{
+	if (pin) {
+		if (lflag)
+			au_fset_pin(pin->flags, DI_LOCKED);
+		else
+			au_fclr_pin(pin->flags, DI_LOCKED);
+	}
+}
+
+static inline void au_pin_set_parent(struct au_pin *pin, struct dentry *parent)
+{
+	if (pin) {
+		dput(pin->parent);
+		pin->parent = dget(parent);
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_branch;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+struct au_hnotify_op {
+	void (*ctl)(struct au_hinode *hinode, int do_set);
+	int (*alloc)(struct au_hinode *hinode);
+
+	/*
+	 * if it returns true, the the caller should free hinode->hi_notify,
+	 * otherwise ->free() frees it.
+	 */
+	int (*free)(struct au_hinode *hinode,
+		    struct au_hnotify *hn) __must_check;
+
+	void (*fin)(void);
+	int (*init)(void);
+
+	int (*reset_br)(unsigned int udba, struct au_branch *br, int perm);
+	void (*fin_br)(struct au_branch *br);
+	int (*init_br)(struct au_branch *br, int perm);
+};
+
+/* hnotify.c */
+int au_hn_alloc(struct au_hinode *hinode, struct inode *inode);
+void au_hn_free(struct au_hinode *hinode);
+void au_hn_ctl(struct au_hinode *hinode, int do_set);
+void au_hn_reset(struct inode *inode, unsigned int flags);
+int au_hnotify(struct inode *h_dir, struct au_hnotify *hnotify, u32 mask,
+	       struct qstr *h_child_qstr, struct inode *h_child_inode);
+int au_hnotify_reset_br(unsigned int udba, struct au_branch *br, int perm);
+int au_hnotify_init_br(struct au_branch *br, int perm);
+void au_hnotify_fin_br(struct au_branch *br);
+int __init au_hnotify_init(void);
+void au_hnotify_fin(void);
+
+/* hfsnotify.c */
+extern const struct au_hnotify_op au_hnotify_op;
+
+static inline
+void au_hn_init(struct au_hinode *hinode)
+{
+	hinode->hi_notify = NULL;
+}
+
+static inline struct au_hnotify *au_hn(struct au_hinode *hinode)
+{
+	return hinode->hi_notify;
+}
+
+#else
+static inline
+int au_hn_alloc(struct au_hinode *hinode __maybe_unused,
+		struct inode *inode __maybe_unused)
+{
+	return -EOPNOTSUPP;
+}
+
+static inline struct au_hnotify *au_hn(struct au_hinode *hinode)
+{
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+AuStubVoid(au_hn_free, struct au_hinode *hinode __maybe_unused)
+AuStubVoid(au_hn_ctl, struct au_hinode *hinode __maybe_unused,
+	   int do_set __maybe_unused)
+AuStubVoid(au_hn_reset, struct inode *inode __maybe_unused,
+	   unsigned int flags __maybe_unused)
+AuStubInt0(au_hnotify_reset_br, unsigned int udba __maybe_unused,
+	   struct au_branch *br __maybe_unused,
+	   int perm __maybe_unused)
+AuStubInt0(au_hnotify_init_br, struct au_branch *br __maybe_unused,
+	   int perm __maybe_unused)
+AuStubVoid(au_hnotify_fin_br, struct au_branch *br __maybe_unused)
+AuStubInt0(__init au_hnotify_init, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_hnotify_fin, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_hn_init, struct au_hinode *hinode __maybe_unused)
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY */
+
+static inline void au_hn_suspend(struct au_hinode *hdir)
+{
+	au_hn_ctl(hdir, /*do_set*/0);
+}
+
+static inline void au_hn_resume(struct au_hinode *hdir)
+{
+	au_hn_ctl(hdir, /*do_set*/1);
+}
+
+static inline void au_hn_imtx_lock(struct au_hinode *hdir)
+{
+	mutex_lock(&hdir->hi_inode->i_mutex);
+	au_hn_suspend(hdir);
+}
+
+static inline void au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(struct au_hinode *hdir,
+					  unsigned int sc __maybe_unused)
+{
+	mutex_lock_nested(&hdir->hi_inode->i_mutex, sc);
+	au_hn_suspend(hdir);
+}
+
+static inline void au_hn_imtx_unlock(struct au_hinode *hdir)
+{
+	au_hn_resume(hdir);
+	mutex_unlock(&hdir->hi_inode->i_mutex);
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_INODE_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/ioctl.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/ioctl.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/ioctl.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/ioctl.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,201 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * ioctl
+ * plink-management and readdir in userspace.
+ * assist the pathconf(3) wrapper library.
+ * move-down
+ */
+
+#include <linux/compat.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+static int au_wbr_fd(struct path *path, struct aufs_wbr_fd __user *arg)
+{
+	int err, fd;
+	aufs_bindex_t wbi, bindex, bend;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct aufs_wbr_fd wbrfd = {
+		.oflags	= au_dir_roflags,
+		.brid	= -1
+	};
+	const int valid = O_RDONLY | O_NONBLOCK | O_LARGEFILE | O_DIRECTORY
+		| O_NOATIME | O_CLOEXEC;
+
+	AuDebugOn(wbrfd.oflags & ~valid);
+
+	if (arg) {
+		err = copy_from_user(&wbrfd, arg, sizeof(wbrfd));
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			err = -EFAULT;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		AuDbg("wbrfd{0%o, %d}\n", wbrfd.oflags, wbrfd.brid);
+		wbrfd.oflags |= au_dir_roflags;
+		AuDbg("0%o\n", wbrfd.oflags);
+		if (unlikely(wbrfd.oflags & ~valid))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	fd = get_unused_fd();
+	err = fd;
+	if (unlikely(fd < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_file = ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+	wbi = 0;
+	br = NULL;
+	sb = path->dentry->d_sb;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	aufs_read_lock(root, AuLock_IR);
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	if (wbrfd.brid >= 0) {
+		wbi = au_br_index(sb, wbrfd.brid);
+		if (unlikely(wbi < 0 || wbi > bend))
+			goto out_unlock;
+	}
+
+	h_file = ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
+	br = au_sbr(sb, wbi);
+	if (!au_br_writable(br->br_perm)) {
+		if (arg)
+			goto out_unlock;
+
+		bindex = wbi + 1;
+		wbi = -1;
+		for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+			if (au_br_writable(br->br_perm)) {
+				wbi = bindex;
+				br = au_sbr(sb, wbi);
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	AuDbg("wbi %d\n", wbi);
+	if (wbi >= 0)
+		h_file = au_h_open(root, wbi, wbrfd.oflags, NULL,
+				   /*force_wr*/0);
+
+out_unlock:
+	aufs_read_unlock(root, AuLock_IR);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+		goto out_fd;
+
+	atomic_dec(&br->br_count); /* cf. au_h_open() */
+	fd_install(fd, h_file);
+	err = fd;
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_fd:
+	put_unused_fd(fd);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+long aufs_ioctl_dir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	long err;
+
+	switch (cmd) {
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU:
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU_INO:
+		err = au_rdu_ioctl(file, cmd, arg);
+		break;
+
+	case AUFS_CTL_WBR_FD:
+		err = au_wbr_fd(&file->f_path, (void __user *)arg);
+		break;
+
+	case AUFS_CTL_IBUSY:
+		err = au_ibusy_ioctl(file, arg);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		/* do not call the lower */
+		AuDbg("0x%x\n", cmd);
+		err = -ENOTTY;
+	}
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+long aufs_ioctl_nondir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	long err;
+
+	switch (cmd) {
+	case AUFS_CTL_MVDOWN:
+		err = au_mvdown(file->f_dentry, (void __user *)arg);
+		break;
+
+	case AUFS_CTL_WBR_FD:
+		err = au_wbr_fd(&file->f_path, (void __user *)arg);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		/* do not call the lower */
+		AuDbg("0x%x\n", cmd);
+		err = -ENOTTY;
+	}
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+long aufs_compat_ioctl_dir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+			   unsigned long arg)
+{
+	long err;
+
+	switch (cmd) {
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU:
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU_INO:
+		err = au_rdu_compat_ioctl(file, cmd, arg);
+		break;
+
+	case AUFS_CTL_IBUSY:
+		err = au_ibusy_compat_ioctl(file, arg);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		err = aufs_ioctl_dir(file, cmd, arg);
+	}
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+long aufs_compat_ioctl_nondir(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+			      unsigned long arg)
+{
+	return aufs_ioctl_nondir(file, cmd, (unsigned long)compat_ptr(arg));
+}
+#endif
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op_add.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op_add.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op_add.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op_add.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,738 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * inode operations (add entry)
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/*
+ * final procedure of adding a new entry, except link(2).
+ * remove whiteout, instantiate, copyup the parent dir's times and size
+ * and update version.
+ * if it failed, re-create the removed whiteout.
+ */
+static int epilog(struct inode *dir, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		  struct dentry *wh_dentry, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	aufs_bindex_t bwh;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_dir;
+	struct dentry *wh;
+
+	bwh = -1;
+	if (wh_dentry) {
+		h_dir = wh_dentry->d_parent->d_inode; /* dir inode is locked */
+		IMustLock(h_dir);
+		AuDebugOn(au_h_iptr(dir, bindex) != h_dir);
+		bwh = au_dbwh(dentry);
+		h_path.dentry = wh_dentry;
+		h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(dir->i_sb, bindex);
+		err = au_wh_unlink_dentry(au_h_iptr(dir, bindex), &h_path,
+					  dentry);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	inode = au_new_inode(dentry, /*must_new*/1);
+	if (!IS_ERR(inode)) {
+		d_instantiate(dentry, inode);
+		dir = dentry->d_parent->d_inode; /* dir inode is locked */
+		IMustLock(dir);
+		if (au_ibstart(dir) == au_dbstart(dentry))
+			au_cpup_attr_timesizes(dir);
+		dir->i_version++;
+		return 0; /* success */
+	}
+
+	err = PTR_ERR(inode);
+	if (!wh_dentry)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* revert */
+	/* dir inode is locked */
+	wh = au_wh_create(dentry, bwh, wh_dentry->d_parent);
+	rerr = PTR_ERR(wh);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh)) {
+		AuIOErr("%.*s reverting whiteout failed(%d, %d)\n",
+			AuDLNPair(dentry), err, rerr);
+		err = -EIO;
+	} else
+		dput(wh);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_d_may_add(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (unlikely(d_unhashed(dentry)))
+		err = -ENOENT;
+	if (unlikely(dentry->d_inode))
+		err = -EEXIST;
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * simple tests for the adding inode operations.
+ * following the checks in vfs, plus the parent-child relationship.
+ */
+int au_may_add(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	       struct dentry *h_parent, int isdir)
+{
+	int err;
+	umode_t h_mode;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	err = -ENAMETOOLONG;
+	if (unlikely(dentry->d_name.len > AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!dentry->d_inode) {
+		err = -EEXIST;
+		if (unlikely(h_inode))
+			goto out;
+	} else {
+		/* rename(2) case */
+		err = -EIO;
+		if (unlikely(!h_inode || !h_inode->i_nlink))
+			goto out;
+
+		h_mode = h_inode->i_mode;
+		if (!isdir) {
+			err = -EISDIR;
+			if (unlikely(S_ISDIR(h_mode)))
+				goto out;
+		} else if (unlikely(!S_ISDIR(h_mode))) {
+			err = -ENOTDIR;
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	/* expected parent dir is locked */
+	if (unlikely(h_parent != h_dentry->d_parent))
+		err = -EIO;
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * initial procedure of adding a new entry.
+ * prepare writable branch and the parent dir, lock it,
+ * and lookup whiteout for the new entry.
+ */
+static struct dentry*
+lock_hdir_lkup_wh(struct dentry *dentry, struct au_dtime *dt,
+		  struct dentry *src_dentry, struct au_pin *pin,
+		  struct au_wr_dir_args *wr_dir_args)
+{
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry, *h_parent;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	int err;
+	unsigned int udba;
+	aufs_bindex_t bcpup;
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s\n", AuDLNPair(dentry));
+
+	err = au_wr_dir(dentry, src_dentry, wr_dir_args);
+	bcpup = err;
+	wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	udba = au_opt_udba(sb);
+	err = au_pin(pin, dentry, bcpup, udba,
+		     AuPin_DI_LOCKED | AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+	wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_parent = au_pinned_h_parent(pin);
+	if (udba != AuOpt_UDBA_NONE
+	    && au_dbstart(dentry) == bcpup)
+		err = au_may_add(dentry, bcpup, h_parent,
+				 au_ftest_wrdir(wr_dir_args->flags, ISDIR));
+	else if (unlikely(dentry->d_name.len > AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN))
+		err = -ENAMETOOLONG;
+	wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unpin;
+
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bcpup);
+	if (dt) {
+		struct path tmp = {
+			.dentry	= h_parent,
+			.mnt	= au_br_mnt(br)
+		};
+		au_dtime_store(dt, au_pinned_parent(pin), &tmp);
+	}
+
+	wh_dentry = NULL;
+	if (bcpup != au_dbwh(dentry))
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	wh_dentry = au_wh_lkup(h_parent, &dentry->d_name, br);
+
+out_unpin:
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		au_unpin(pin);
+out:
+	return wh_dentry;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+enum { Mknod, Symlink, Creat };
+struct simple_arg {
+	int type;
+	union {
+		struct {
+			umode_t mode;
+			bool want_excl;
+		} c;
+		struct {
+			const char *symname;
+		} s;
+		struct {
+			umode_t mode;
+			dev_t dev;
+		} m;
+	} u;
+};
+
+static int add_simple(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+		      struct simple_arg *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	unsigned char created;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry, *parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	/* to reuduce stack size */
+	struct {
+		struct au_dtime dt;
+		struct au_pin pin;
+		struct path h_path;
+		struct au_wr_dir_args wr_dir_args;
+	} *a;
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s\n", AuDLNPair(dentry));
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kmalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+	a->wr_dir_args.force_btgt = -1;
+	a->wr_dir_args.flags = AuWrDir_ADD_ENTRY;
+
+	parent = dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_DW | AuLock_GEN);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_free;
+	err = au_d_may_add(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+	wh_dentry = lock_hdir_lkup_wh(dentry, &a->dt, /*src_dentry*/NULL,
+				      &a->pin, &a->wr_dir_args);
+	err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bstart);
+	a->h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(dentry->d_sb, bstart);
+	h_dir = au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin);
+	switch (arg->type) {
+	case Creat:
+		err = vfsub_create(h_dir, &a->h_path, arg->u.c.mode,
+				   arg->u.c.want_excl);
+		break;
+	case Symlink:
+		err = vfsub_symlink(h_dir, &a->h_path, arg->u.s.symname);
+		break;
+	case Mknod:
+		err = vfsub_mknod(h_dir, &a->h_path, arg->u.m.mode,
+				  arg->u.m.dev);
+		break;
+	default:
+		BUG();
+	}
+	created = !err;
+	if (!err)
+		err = epilog(dir, bstart, wh_dentry, dentry);
+
+	/* revert */
+	if (unlikely(created && err && a->h_path.dentry->d_inode)) {
+		int rerr;
+		rerr = vfsub_unlink(h_dir, &a->h_path, /*force*/0);
+		if (rerr) {
+			AuIOErr("%.*s revert failure(%d, %d)\n",
+				AuDLNPair(dentry), err, rerr);
+			err = -EIO;
+		}
+		au_dtime_revert(&a->dt);
+	}
+
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+
+out_parent:
+	di_write_unlock(parent);
+out_unlock:
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		au_update_dbstart(dentry);
+		d_drop(dentry);
+	}
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_DW);
+out_free:
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int aufs_mknod(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode,
+	       dev_t dev)
+{
+	struct simple_arg arg = {
+		.type = Mknod,
+		.u.m = {
+			.mode	= mode,
+			.dev	= dev
+		}
+	};
+	return add_simple(dir, dentry, &arg);
+}
+
+int aufs_symlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, const char *symname)
+{
+	struct simple_arg arg = {
+		.type = Symlink,
+		.u.s.symname = symname
+	};
+	return add_simple(dir, dentry, &arg);
+}
+
+int aufs_create(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode,
+		bool want_excl)
+{
+	struct simple_arg arg = {
+		.type = Creat,
+		.u.c = {
+			.mode		= mode,
+			.want_excl	= want_excl
+		}
+	};
+	return add_simple(dir, dentry, &arg);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_link_args {
+	aufs_bindex_t bdst, bsrc;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct dentry *src_parent, *parent;
+};
+
+static int au_cpup_before_link(struct dentry *src_dentry,
+			       struct au_link_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *h_src_dentry;
+	struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+		.dentry	= src_dentry,
+		.bdst	= a->bdst,
+		.bsrc	= a->bsrc,
+		.len	= -1,
+		.pin	= &a->pin,
+		.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME | AuCpup_HOPEN /* | AuCpup_KEEPLINO */
+	};
+
+	di_read_lock_parent(a->src_parent, AuLock_IR);
+	err = au_test_and_cpup_dirs(src_dentry, a->bdst);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_src_dentry = au_h_dptr(src_dentry, a->bsrc);
+	err = au_pin(&a->pin, src_dentry, a->bdst,
+		     au_opt_udba(src_dentry->d_sb),
+		     AuPin_DI_LOCKED | AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+
+out:
+	di_read_unlock(a->src_parent, AuLock_IR);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_cpup_or_link(struct dentry *src_dentry, struct dentry *dentry,
+			   struct au_link_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned char plink;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+	struct dentry *h_src_dentry;
+	struct inode *h_inode, *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *h_file;
+
+	plink = 0;
+	h_inode = NULL;
+	sb = src_dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = src_dentry->d_inode;
+	if (au_ibstart(inode) <= a->bdst)
+		h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, a->bdst);
+	if (!h_inode || !h_inode->i_nlink) {
+		/* copyup src_dentry as the name of dentry. */
+		bend = au_dbend(dentry);
+		if (bend < a->bsrc)
+			au_set_dbend(dentry, a->bsrc);
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, a->bsrc,
+			      dget(au_h_dptr(src_dentry, a->bsrc)));
+		dget(a->h_path.dentry);
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, a->bdst, NULL);
+		dentry->d_inode = src_dentry->d_inode; /* tmp */
+		h_file = au_h_open_pre(dentry, a->bsrc, /*force_wr*/0);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_file))
+			err = PTR_ERR(h_file);
+		else {
+			struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+				.dentry	= dentry,
+				.bdst	= a->bdst,
+				.bsrc	= -1,
+				.len	= -1,
+				.pin	= &a->pin,
+				.flags	= AuCpup_KEEPLINO
+			};
+			err = au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+			au_h_open_post(dentry, a->bsrc, h_file);
+			if (!err) {
+				dput(a->h_path.dentry);
+				a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, a->bdst);
+			} else
+				au_set_h_dptr(dentry, a->bdst,
+					      a->h_path.dentry);
+		}
+		dentry->d_inode = NULL; /* restore */
+		au_set_h_dptr(dentry, a->bsrc, NULL);
+		au_set_dbend(dentry, bend);
+	} else {
+		/* the inode of src_dentry already exists on a.bdst branch */
+		h_src_dentry = d_find_alias(h_inode);
+		if (!h_src_dentry && au_plink_test(inode)) {
+			plink = 1;
+			h_src_dentry = au_plink_lkup(inode, a->bdst);
+			err = PTR_ERR(h_src_dentry);
+			if (IS_ERR(h_src_dentry))
+				goto out;
+
+			if (unlikely(!h_src_dentry->d_inode)) {
+				dput(h_src_dentry);
+				h_src_dentry = NULL;
+			}
+
+		}
+		if (h_src_dentry) {
+			err = vfsub_link(h_src_dentry, au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin),
+					 &a->h_path);
+			dput(h_src_dentry);
+		} else {
+			AuIOErr("no dentry found for hi%lu on b%d\n",
+				h_inode->i_ino, a->bdst);
+			err = -EIO;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!err && !plink)
+		au_plink_append(inode, a->bdst, a->h_path.dentry);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int aufs_link(struct dentry *src_dentry, struct inode *dir,
+	      struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	struct au_dtime dt;
+	struct au_link_args *a;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry, *h_src_dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_wr_dir_args wr_dir_args = {
+		/* .force_btgt	= -1, */
+		.flags		= AuWrDir_ADD_ENTRY
+	};
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+	inode = src_dentry->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(inode);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kzalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+
+	a->parent = dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	err = aufs_read_and_write_lock2(dentry, src_dentry,
+					AuLock_NOPLM | AuLock_GEN);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_kfree;
+	err = au_d_hashed_positive(src_dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	err = au_d_may_add(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	a->src_parent = dget_parent(src_dentry);
+	wr_dir_args.force_btgt = au_ibstart(inode);
+
+	di_write_lock_parent(a->parent);
+	wr_dir_args.force_btgt = au_wbr(dentry, wr_dir_args.force_btgt);
+	wh_dentry = lock_hdir_lkup_wh(dentry, &dt, src_dentry, &a->pin,
+				      &wr_dir_args);
+	err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	a->bdst = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, a->bdst);
+	a->h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, a->bdst);
+	a->bsrc = au_ibstart(inode);
+	h_src_dentry = au_h_d_alias(src_dentry, a->bsrc);
+	if (!h_src_dentry) {
+		a->bsrc = au_dbstart(src_dentry);
+		h_src_dentry = au_h_d_alias(src_dentry, a->bsrc);
+		AuDebugOn(!h_src_dentry);
+	} else if (IS_ERR(h_src_dentry))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK)) {
+		if (a->bdst < a->bsrc
+		    /* && h_src_dentry->d_sb != a->h_path.dentry->d_sb */)
+			err = au_cpup_or_link(src_dentry, dentry, a);
+		else
+			err = vfsub_link(h_src_dentry, au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin),
+					 &a->h_path);
+		dput(h_src_dentry);
+	} else {
+		/*
+		 * copyup src_dentry to the branch we process,
+		 * and then link(2) to it.
+		 */
+		dput(h_src_dentry);
+		if (a->bdst < a->bsrc
+		    /* && h_src_dentry->d_sb != a->h_path.dentry->d_sb */) {
+			au_unpin(&a->pin);
+			di_write_unlock(a->parent);
+			err = au_cpup_before_link(src_dentry, a);
+			di_write_lock_parent(a->parent);
+			if (!err)
+				err = au_pin(&a->pin, dentry, a->bdst,
+					     au_opt_udba(sb),
+					     AuPin_DI_LOCKED | AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				goto out_wh;
+		}
+		if (!err) {
+			h_src_dentry = au_h_dptr(src_dentry, a->bdst);
+			err = -ENOENT;
+			if (h_src_dentry && h_src_dentry->d_inode)
+				err = vfsub_link(h_src_dentry,
+						 au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin),
+						 &a->h_path);
+		}
+	}
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unpin;
+
+	if (wh_dentry) {
+		a->h_path.dentry = wh_dentry;
+		err = au_wh_unlink_dentry(au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin), &a->h_path,
+					  dentry);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_revert;
+	}
+
+	dir->i_version++;
+	if (au_ibstart(dir) == au_dbstart(dentry))
+		au_cpup_attr_timesizes(dir);
+	inc_nlink(inode);
+	inode->i_ctime = dir->i_ctime;
+	d_instantiate(dentry, au_igrab(inode));
+	if (d_unhashed(a->h_path.dentry))
+		/* some filesystem calls d_drop() */
+		d_drop(dentry);
+	goto out_unpin; /* success */
+
+out_revert:
+	rerr = vfsub_unlink(au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin), &a->h_path, /*force*/0);
+	if (unlikely(rerr)) {
+		AuIOErr("%.*s reverting failed(%d, %d)\n",
+			AuDLNPair(dentry), err, rerr);
+		err = -EIO;
+	}
+	au_dtime_revert(&dt);
+out_unpin:
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+out_wh:
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+out_parent:
+	di_write_unlock(a->parent);
+	dput(a->src_parent);
+out_unlock:
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		au_update_dbstart(dentry);
+		d_drop(dentry);
+	}
+	aufs_read_and_write_unlock2(dentry, src_dentry);
+out_kfree:
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int aufs_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	unsigned char diropq;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry, *parent, *opq_dentry;
+	struct mutex *h_mtx;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct {
+		struct au_pin pin;
+		struct au_dtime dt;
+	} *a; /* reduce the stack usage */
+	struct au_wr_dir_args wr_dir_args = {
+		.force_btgt	= -1,
+		.flags		= AuWrDir_ADD_ENTRY | AuWrDir_ISDIR
+	};
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kmalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_DW | AuLock_GEN);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_free;
+	err = au_d_may_add(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	parent = dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+	wh_dentry = lock_hdir_lkup_wh(dentry, &a->dt, /*src_dentry*/NULL,
+				      &a->pin, &wr_dir_args);
+	err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	bindex = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, bindex);
+	err = vfsub_mkdir(au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin), &h_path, mode);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unpin;
+
+	/* make the dir opaque */
+	diropq = 0;
+	h_mtx = &h_path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex;
+	if (wh_dentry
+	    || au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), ALWAYS_DIROPQ)) {
+		mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+		opq_dentry = au_diropq_create(dentry, bindex);
+		mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+		err = PTR_ERR(opq_dentry);
+		if (IS_ERR(opq_dentry))
+			goto out_dir;
+		dput(opq_dentry);
+		diropq = 1;
+	}
+
+	err = epilog(dir, bindex, wh_dentry, dentry);
+	if (!err) {
+		inc_nlink(dir);
+		goto out_unpin; /* success */
+	}
+
+	/* revert */
+	if (diropq) {
+		AuLabel(revert opq);
+		mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+		rerr = au_diropq_remove(dentry, bindex);
+		mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+		if (rerr) {
+			AuIOErr("%.*s reverting diropq failed(%d, %d)\n",
+				AuDLNPair(dentry), err, rerr);
+			err = -EIO;
+		}
+	}
+
+out_dir:
+	AuLabel(revert dir);
+	rerr = vfsub_rmdir(au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin), &h_path);
+	if (rerr) {
+		AuIOErr("%.*s reverting dir failed(%d, %d)\n",
+			AuDLNPair(dentry), err, rerr);
+		err = -EIO;
+	}
+	au_dtime_revert(&a->dt);
+out_unpin:
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+out_parent:
+	di_write_unlock(parent);
+out_unlock:
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		au_update_dbstart(dentry);
+		d_drop(dentry);
+	}
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_DW);
+out_free:
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1117 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * inode operations (except add/del/rename)
+ */
+
+#include <linux/device_cgroup.h>
+#include <linux/fs_stack.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/namei.h>
+#include <linux/security.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+static int h_permission(struct inode *h_inode, int mask,
+			struct vfsmount *h_mnt, int brperm)
+{
+	int err;
+	const unsigned char write_mask = !!(mask & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_APPEND));
+
+	err = -EACCES;
+	if ((write_mask && IS_IMMUTABLE(h_inode))
+	    || ((mask & MAY_EXEC)
+		&& S_ISREG(h_inode->i_mode)
+		&& ((h_mnt->mnt_flags & MNT_NOEXEC)
+		    || !(h_inode->i_mode & S_IXUGO))))
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * - skip the lower fs test in the case of write to ro branch.
+	 * - nfs dir permission write check is optimized, but a policy for
+	 *   link/rename requires a real check.
+	 */
+	if ((write_mask && !au_br_writable(brperm))
+	    || (au_test_nfs(h_inode->i_sb) && S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode)
+		&& write_mask && !(mask & MAY_READ))
+	    || !h_inode->i_op->permission) {
+		/* AuLabel(generic_permission); */
+		err = generic_permission(h_inode, mask);
+	} else {
+		/* AuLabel(h_inode->permission); */
+		err = h_inode->i_op->permission(h_inode, mask);
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+	}
+
+	if (!err)
+		err = devcgroup_inode_permission(h_inode, mask);
+	if (!err)
+		err = security_inode_permission(h_inode, mask);
+
+#if 0
+	if (!err) {
+		/* todo: do we need to call ima_path_check()? */
+		struct path h_path = {
+			.dentry	=
+			.mnt	= h_mnt
+		};
+		err = ima_path_check(&h_path,
+				     mask & (MAY_READ | MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC),
+				     IMA_COUNT_LEAVE);
+	}
+#endif
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	const unsigned char isdir = !!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode),
+		write_mask = !!(mask & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_APPEND));
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	/* todo: support rcu-walk? */
+	if (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK)
+		return -ECHILD;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	ii_read_lock_child(inode);
+#if 0
+	err = au_iigen_test(inode, au_sigen(sb));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+#endif
+
+	if (!isdir || write_mask) {
+		err = au_busy_or_stale();
+		h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, au_ibstart(inode));
+		if (unlikely(!h_inode
+			     || (h_inode->i_mode & S_IFMT)
+			     != (inode->i_mode & S_IFMT)))
+			goto out;
+
+		err = 0;
+		bindex = au_ibstart(inode);
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		err = h_permission(h_inode, mask, au_br_mnt(br), br->br_perm);
+		if (write_mask
+		    && !err
+		    && !special_file(h_inode->i_mode)) {
+			/* test whether the upper writable branch exists */
+			err = -EROFS;
+			for (; bindex >= 0; bindex--)
+				if (!au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, bindex))) {
+					err = 0;
+					break;
+				}
+		}
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* non-write to dir */
+	err = 0;
+	bend = au_ibend(inode);
+	for (bindex = au_ibstart(inode); !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+		if (h_inode) {
+			err = au_busy_or_stale();
+			if (unlikely(!S_ISDIR(h_inode->i_mode)))
+				break;
+
+			br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+			err = h_permission(h_inode, mask, au_br_mnt(br),
+					   br->br_perm);
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	ii_read_unlock(inode);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct dentry *aufs_lookup(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+				  unsigned int flags)
+{
+	struct dentry *ret, *parent;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	int err, npositive;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	/* todo: support rcu-walk? */
+	ret = ERR_PTR(-ECHILD);
+	if (flags & LOOKUP_RCU)
+		goto out;
+
+	ret = ERR_PTR(-ENAMETOOLONG);
+	if (unlikely(dentry->d_name.len > AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dir->i_sb;
+	err = si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+	ret = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_di_init(dentry);
+	ret = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_si;
+
+	inode = NULL;
+	npositive = 0; /* suppress a warning */
+	parent = dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	di_read_lock_parent(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	err = au_alive_dir(parent);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_digen_test(parent, au_sigen(sb));
+	if (!err) {
+		npositive = au_lkup_dentry(dentry, au_dbstart(parent),
+					   /*type*/0);
+		err = npositive;
+	}
+	di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	ret = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	if (npositive) {
+		inode = au_new_inode(dentry, /*must_new*/0);
+		ret = (void *)inode;
+	}
+	if (IS_ERR(inode)) {
+		inode = NULL;
+		goto out_unlock;
+	}
+
+	ret = d_splice_alias(inode, dentry);
+#if 0
+	if (unlikely(d_need_lookup(dentry))) {
+		spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
+		dentry->d_flags &= ~DCACHE_NEED_LOOKUP;
+		spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
+	} else
+#endif
+	if (unlikely(IS_ERR(ret) && inode)) {
+		ii_write_unlock(inode);
+		iput(inode);
+		inode = NULL;
+	}
+
+out_unlock:
+	di_write_unlock(dentry);
+	if (inode) {
+		/* verbose coding for lock class name */
+		if (unlikely(S_ISLNK(inode->i_mode)))
+			au_rw_class(&au_di(dentry)->di_rwsem,
+				    au_lc_key + AuLcSymlink_DIINFO);
+		else if (unlikely(S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)))
+			au_rw_class(&au_di(dentry)->di_rwsem,
+				    au_lc_key + AuLcDir_DIINFO);
+		else /* likely */
+			au_rw_class(&au_di(dentry)->di_rwsem,
+				    au_lc_key + AuLcNonDir_DIINFO);
+	}
+out_si:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+out:
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_wr_dir_cpup(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *parent,
+			  const unsigned char add_entry, aufs_bindex_t bcpup,
+			  aufs_bindex_t bstart)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	if (add_entry)
+		IMustLock(parent->d_inode);
+	else
+		di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!au_h_dptr(parent, bcpup)) {
+		if (bstart > bcpup)
+			err = au_cpup_dirs(dentry, bcpup);
+		else if (bstart < bcpup)
+			err = au_cpdown_dirs(dentry, bcpup);
+		else
+			BUG();
+	}
+	if (!err && add_entry) {
+		h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bcpup);
+		h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+		mutex_lock_nested(&h_dir->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+		err = au_lkup_neg(dentry, bcpup,
+				  au_ftest_wrdir(add_entry, TMP_WHENTRY));
+		/* todo: no unlock here */
+		mutex_unlock(&h_dir->i_mutex);
+
+		AuDbg("bcpup %d\n", bcpup);
+		if (!err) {
+			if (!dentry->d_inode)
+				au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bstart, NULL);
+			au_update_dbrange(dentry, /*do_put_zero*/0);
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!add_entry)
+		di_write_unlock(parent);
+	if (!err)
+		err = bcpup; /* success */
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * decide the branch and the parent dir where we will create a new entry.
+ * returns new bindex or an error.
+ * copyup the parent dir if needed.
+ */
+int au_wr_dir(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *src_dentry,
+	      struct au_wr_dir_args *args)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int flags;
+	aufs_bindex_t bcpup, bstart, src_bstart;
+	const unsigned char add_entry
+		= au_ftest_wrdir(args->flags, ADD_ENTRY)
+		| au_ftest_wrdir(args->flags, TMP_WHENTRY);
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	bcpup = bstart;
+	if (args->force_btgt < 0) {
+		if (src_dentry) {
+			src_bstart = au_dbstart(src_dentry);
+			if (src_bstart < bstart)
+				bcpup = src_bstart;
+		} else if (add_entry) {
+			flags = 0;
+			if (au_ftest_wrdir(args->flags, ISDIR))
+				au_fset_wbr(flags, DIR);
+			err = AuWbrCreate(sbinfo, dentry, flags);
+			bcpup = err;
+		}
+
+		if (bcpup < 0 || au_test_ro(sb, bcpup, dentry->d_inode)) {
+			if (add_entry)
+				err = AuWbrCopyup(sbinfo, dentry);
+			else {
+				if (!IS_ROOT(dentry)) {
+					di_read_lock_parent(parent, !AuLock_IR);
+					err = AuWbrCopyup(sbinfo, dentry);
+					di_read_unlock(parent, !AuLock_IR);
+				} else
+					err = AuWbrCopyup(sbinfo, dentry);
+			}
+			bcpup = err;
+			if (unlikely(err < 0))
+				goto out;
+		}
+	} else {
+		bcpup = args->force_btgt;
+		AuDebugOn(au_test_ro(sb, bcpup, dentry->d_inode));
+	}
+
+	AuDbg("bstart %d, bcpup %d\n", bstart, bcpup);
+	err = bcpup;
+	if (bcpup == bstart)
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	/* copyup the new parent into the branch we process */
+	err = au_wr_dir_cpup(dentry, parent, add_entry, bcpup, bstart);
+	if (err >= 0) {
+		if (!dentry->d_inode) {
+			au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bstart, NULL);
+			au_set_dbstart(dentry, bcpup);
+			au_set_dbend(dentry, bcpup);
+		}
+		AuDebugOn(add_entry && !au_h_dptr(dentry, bcpup));
+	}
+
+out:
+	dput(parent);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_pin_hdir_unlock(struct au_pin *p)
+{
+	if (p->hdir)
+		au_hn_imtx_unlock(p->hdir);
+}
+
+static int au_pin_hdir_lock(struct au_pin *p)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!p->hdir)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* even if an error happens later, keep this lock */
+	au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(p->hdir, p->lsc_hi);
+
+	err = -EBUSY;
+	if (unlikely(p->hdir->hi_inode != p->h_parent->d_inode))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (p->h_dentry)
+		err = au_h_verify(p->h_dentry, p->udba, p->hdir->hi_inode,
+				  p->h_parent, p->br);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_pin_hdir_relock(struct au_pin *p)
+{
+	int err, i;
+	struct inode *h_i;
+	struct dentry *h_d[] = {
+		p->h_dentry,
+		p->h_parent
+	};
+
+	err = au_pin_hdir_lock(p);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	for (i = 0; !err && i < sizeof(h_d)/sizeof(*h_d); i++) {
+		if (!h_d[i])
+			continue;
+		h_i = h_d[i]->d_inode;
+		if (h_i)
+			err = !h_i->i_nlink;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_pin_hdir_set_owner(struct au_pin *p, struct task_struct *task)
+{
+#if defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_MUTEXES) || defined(CONFIG_SMP)
+	p->hdir->hi_inode->i_mutex.owner = task;
+#endif
+}
+
+void au_pin_hdir_acquire_nest(struct au_pin *p)
+{
+	if (p->hdir) {
+		mutex_acquire_nest(&p->hdir->hi_inode->i_mutex.dep_map,
+				   p->lsc_hi, 0, NULL, _RET_IP_);
+		au_pin_hdir_set_owner(p, current);
+	}
+}
+
+void au_pin_hdir_release(struct au_pin *p)
+{
+	if (p->hdir) {
+		au_pin_hdir_set_owner(p, p->task);
+		mutex_release(&p->hdir->hi_inode->i_mutex.dep_map, 1, _RET_IP_);
+	}
+}
+
+struct dentry *au_pinned_h_parent(struct au_pin *pin)
+{
+	if (pin && pin->parent)
+		return au_h_dptr(pin->parent, pin->bindex);
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+void au_unpin(struct au_pin *p)
+{
+	if (p->hdir)
+		au_pin_hdir_unlock(p);
+	if (p->h_mnt && au_ftest_pin(p->flags, MNT_WRITE))
+		vfsub_mnt_drop_write(p->h_mnt);
+	if (!p->hdir)
+		return;
+
+	if (!au_ftest_pin(p->flags, DI_LOCKED))
+		di_read_unlock(p->parent, AuLock_IR);
+	iput(p->hdir->hi_inode);
+	dput(p->parent);
+	p->parent = NULL;
+	p->hdir = NULL;
+	p->h_mnt = NULL;
+	/* do not clear p->task */
+}
+
+int au_do_pin(struct au_pin *p)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sb = p->dentry->d_sb;
+	p->br = au_sbr(sb, p->bindex);
+	if (IS_ROOT(p->dentry)) {
+		if (au_ftest_pin(p->flags, MNT_WRITE)) {
+			p->h_mnt = au_br_mnt(p->br);
+			err = vfsub_mnt_want_write(p->h_mnt);
+			if (unlikely(err)) {
+				au_fclr_pin(p->flags, MNT_WRITE);
+				goto out_err;
+			}
+		}
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	p->h_dentry = NULL;
+	if (p->bindex <= au_dbend(p->dentry))
+		p->h_dentry = au_h_dptr(p->dentry, p->bindex);
+
+	p->parent = dget_parent(p->dentry);
+	if (!au_ftest_pin(p->flags, DI_LOCKED))
+		di_read_lock(p->parent, AuLock_IR, p->lsc_di);
+
+	h_dir = NULL;
+	p->h_parent = au_h_dptr(p->parent, p->bindex);
+	p->hdir = au_hi(p->parent->d_inode, p->bindex);
+	if (p->hdir)
+		h_dir = p->hdir->hi_inode;
+
+	/*
+	 * udba case, or
+	 * if DI_LOCKED is not set, then p->parent may be different
+	 * and h_parent can be NULL.
+	 */
+	if (unlikely(!p->hdir || !h_dir || !p->h_parent)) {
+		err = -EBUSY;
+		if (!au_ftest_pin(p->flags, DI_LOCKED))
+			di_read_unlock(p->parent, AuLock_IR);
+		dput(p->parent);
+		p->parent = NULL;
+		goto out_err;
+	}
+
+	if (au_ftest_pin(p->flags, MNT_WRITE)) {
+		p->h_mnt = au_br_mnt(p->br);
+		err = vfsub_mnt_want_write(p->h_mnt);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			au_fclr_pin(p->flags, MNT_WRITE);
+			if (!au_ftest_pin(p->flags, DI_LOCKED))
+				di_read_unlock(p->parent, AuLock_IR);
+			dput(p->parent);
+			p->parent = NULL;
+			goto out_err;
+		}
+	}
+
+	au_igrab(h_dir);
+	err = au_pin_hdir_lock(p);
+	if (!err)
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+out_err:
+	pr_err("err %d\n", err);
+	err = au_busy_or_stale();
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_pin_init(struct au_pin *p, struct dentry *dentry,
+		 aufs_bindex_t bindex, int lsc_di, int lsc_hi,
+		 unsigned int udba, unsigned char flags)
+{
+	p->dentry = dentry;
+	p->udba = udba;
+	p->lsc_di = lsc_di;
+	p->lsc_hi = lsc_hi;
+	p->flags = flags;
+	p->bindex = bindex;
+
+	p->parent = NULL;
+	p->hdir = NULL;
+	p->h_mnt = NULL;
+
+	p->h_dentry = NULL;
+	p->h_parent = NULL;
+	p->br = NULL;
+	p->task = current;
+}
+
+int au_pin(struct au_pin *pin, struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	   unsigned int udba, unsigned char flags)
+{
+	au_pin_init(pin, dentry, bindex, AuLsc_DI_PARENT, AuLsc_I_PARENT2,
+		    udba, flags);
+	return au_do_pin(pin);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * ->setattr() and ->getattr() are called in various cases.
+ * chmod, stat: dentry is revalidated.
+ * fchmod, fstat: file and dentry are not revalidated, additionally they may be
+ *		  unhashed.
+ * for ->setattr(), ia->ia_file is passed from ftruncate only.
+ */
+/* todo: consolidate with do_refresh() and simple_reval_dpath() */
+static int au_reval_for_attr(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+
+	err = 0;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (au_digen_test(dentry, sigen)) {
+		parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+		di_read_lock_parent(parent, AuLock_IR);
+		err = au_refresh_dentry(dentry, parent);
+		di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+		dput(parent);
+	}
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+#define AuIcpup_DID_CPUP	1
+#define au_ftest_icpup(flags, name)	((flags) & AuIcpup_##name)
+#define au_fset_icpup(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuIcpup_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_icpup(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuIcpup_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_icpup_args {
+	unsigned char flags;
+	unsigned char pin_flags;
+	aufs_bindex_t btgt;
+	unsigned int udba;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+};
+
+static int au_pin_and_icpup(struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr *ia,
+			    struct au_icpup_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	loff_t sz;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart, ibstart;
+	struct dentry *hi_wh, *parent;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct au_wr_dir_args wr_dir_args = {
+		.force_btgt	= -1,
+		.flags		= 0
+	};
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
+		au_fset_wrdir(wr_dir_args.flags, ISDIR);
+	/* plink or hi_wh() case */
+	ibstart = au_ibstart(inode);
+	if (bstart != ibstart && !au_test_ro(inode->i_sb, ibstart, inode))
+		wr_dir_args.force_btgt = ibstart;
+	err = au_wr_dir(dentry, /*src_dentry*/NULL, &wr_dir_args);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+	a->btgt = err;
+	if (err != bstart)
+		au_fset_icpup(a->flags, DID_CPUP);
+
+	err = 0;
+	a->pin_flags = AuPin_MNT_WRITE;
+	parent = NULL;
+	if (!IS_ROOT(dentry)) {
+		au_fset_pin(a->pin_flags, DI_LOCKED);
+		parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+		di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+	}
+
+	err = au_pin(&a->pin, dentry, a->btgt, a->udba, a->pin_flags);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bstart);
+	a->h_inode = a->h_path.dentry->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&a->h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	sz = -1;
+	if ((ia->ia_valid & ATTR_SIZE) && ia->ia_size < i_size_read(a->h_inode))
+		sz = ia->ia_size;
+	mutex_unlock(&a->h_inode->i_mutex);
+
+	hi_wh = NULL;
+	if (au_ftest_icpup(a->flags, DID_CPUP) && d_unlinked(dentry)) {
+		hi_wh = au_hi_wh(inode, a->btgt);
+		if (!hi_wh) {
+			struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+				.dentry	= dentry,
+				.bdst	= a->btgt,
+				.bsrc	= -1,
+				.len	= sz,
+				.pin	= &a->pin
+			};
+			err = au_sio_cpup_wh(&cpg, /*file*/NULL);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				goto out_unlock;
+			hi_wh = au_hi_wh(inode, a->btgt);
+			/* todo: revalidate hi_wh? */
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (parent) {
+		au_pin_set_parent_lflag(&a->pin, /*lflag*/0);
+		di_downgrade_lock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+		dput(parent);
+		parent = NULL;
+	}
+	if (!au_ftest_icpup(a->flags, DID_CPUP))
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	if (!d_unhashed(dentry)) {
+		struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+			.dentry	= dentry,
+			.bdst	= a->btgt,
+			.bsrc	= bstart,
+			.len	= sz,
+			.pin	= &a->pin,
+			.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME | AuCpup_HOPEN
+		};
+		err = au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+		if (!err)
+			a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, a->btgt);
+	} else if (!hi_wh)
+		a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, a->btgt);
+	else
+		a->h_path.dentry = hi_wh; /* do not dget here */
+
+out_unlock:
+	a->h_inode = a->h_path.dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!err)
+		goto out; /* success */
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+out_parent:
+	if (parent) {
+		di_write_unlock(parent);
+		dput(parent);
+	}
+out:
+	if (!err)
+		mutex_lock_nested(&a->h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_setattr(struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr *ia)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *file;
+	struct au_icpup_args *a;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(inode);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kzalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (ia->ia_valid & (ATTR_KILL_SUID | ATTR_KILL_SGID))
+		ia->ia_valid &= ~ATTR_MODE;
+
+	file = NULL;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	err = si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_kfree;
+
+	if (ia->ia_valid & ATTR_FILE) {
+		/* currently ftruncate(2) only */
+		AuDebugOn(!S_ISREG(inode->i_mode));
+		file = ia->ia_file;
+		err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/1);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_si;
+		ia->ia_file = au_hf_top(file);
+		a->udba = AuOpt_UDBA_NONE;
+	} else {
+		/* fchmod() doesn't pass ia_file */
+		a->udba = au_opt_udba(sb);
+		di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+		/* no d_unlinked(), to set UDBA_NONE for root */
+		if (d_unhashed(dentry))
+			a->udba = AuOpt_UDBA_NONE;
+		if (a->udba != AuOpt_UDBA_NONE) {
+			AuDebugOn(IS_ROOT(dentry));
+			err = au_reval_for_attr(dentry, au_sigen(sb));
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				goto out_dentry;
+		}
+	}
+
+	err = au_pin_and_icpup(dentry, ia, a);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out_dentry;
+	if (au_ftest_icpup(a->flags, DID_CPUP)) {
+		ia->ia_file = NULL;
+		ia->ia_valid &= ~ATTR_FILE;
+	}
+
+	a->h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, a->btgt);
+	if ((ia->ia_valid & (ATTR_MODE | ATTR_CTIME))
+	    == (ATTR_MODE | ATTR_CTIME)) {
+		err = security_path_chmod(&a->h_path, ia->ia_mode);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_unlock;
+	} else if ((ia->ia_valid & (ATTR_UID | ATTR_GID))
+		   && (ia->ia_valid & ATTR_CTIME)) {
+		err = security_path_chown(&a->h_path, ia->ia_uid, ia->ia_gid);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_unlock;
+	}
+
+	if (ia->ia_valid & ATTR_SIZE) {
+		struct file *f;
+
+		if (ia->ia_size < i_size_read(inode))
+			/* unmap only */
+			truncate_setsize(inode, ia->ia_size);
+
+		f = NULL;
+		if (ia->ia_valid & ATTR_FILE)
+			f = ia->ia_file;
+		mutex_unlock(&a->h_inode->i_mutex);
+		err = vfsub_trunc(&a->h_path, ia->ia_size, ia->ia_valid, f);
+		mutex_lock_nested(&a->h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	} else
+		err = vfsub_notify_change(&a->h_path, ia);
+	if (!err)
+		au_cpup_attr_changeable(inode);
+
+out_unlock:
+	mutex_unlock(&a->h_inode->i_mutex);
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		au_update_dbstart(dentry);
+out_dentry:
+	di_write_unlock(dentry);
+	if (file) {
+		fi_write_unlock(file);
+		ia->ia_file = file;
+		ia->ia_valid |= ATTR_FILE;
+	}
+out_si:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+out_kfree:
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_refresh_iattr(struct inode *inode, struct kstat *st,
+			     unsigned int nlink)
+{
+	unsigned int n;
+
+	inode->i_mode = st->mode;
+	/* don't i_[ug]id_write() here */
+	inode->i_uid = st->uid;
+	inode->i_gid = st->gid;
+	inode->i_atime = st->atime;
+	inode->i_mtime = st->mtime;
+	inode->i_ctime = st->ctime;
+
+	au_cpup_attr_nlink(inode, /*force*/0);
+	if (S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
+		n = inode->i_nlink;
+		n -= nlink;
+		n += st->nlink;
+		smp_mb();
+		/* 0 can happen */
+		set_nlink(inode, n);
+	}
+
+	spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
+	inode->i_blocks = st->blocks;
+	i_size_write(inode, st->size);
+	spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
+}
+
+static int aufs_getattr(struct vfsmount *mnt __maybe_unused,
+			struct dentry *dentry, struct kstat *st)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int mnt_flags;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	unsigned char udba_none, positive;
+	struct super_block *sb, *h_sb;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct path h_path;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	err = si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	mnt_flags = au_mntflags(sb);
+	udba_none = !!au_opt_test(mnt_flags, UDBA_NONE);
+
+	/* support fstat(2) */
+	if (!d_unlinked(dentry) && !udba_none) {
+		unsigned int sigen = au_sigen(sb);
+		err = au_digen_test(dentry, sigen);
+		if (!err) {
+			di_read_lock_child(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+			err = au_dbrange_test(dentry);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				goto out_unlock;
+		} else {
+			AuDebugOn(IS_ROOT(dentry));
+			di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+			err = au_dbrange_test(dentry);
+			if (!err)
+				err = au_reval_for_attr(dentry, sigen);
+			di_downgrade_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				goto out_unlock;
+		}
+	} else
+		di_read_lock_child(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+
+	bindex = au_ibstart(inode);
+	h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, bindex);
+	h_sb = h_path.mnt->mnt_sb;
+	if (!au_test_fs_bad_iattr(h_sb) && udba_none)
+		goto out_fill; /* success */
+
+	h_path.dentry = NULL;
+	if (au_dbstart(dentry) == bindex)
+		h_path.dentry = dget(au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex));
+	else if (au_opt_test(mnt_flags, PLINK) && au_plink_test(inode)) {
+		h_path.dentry = au_plink_lkup(inode, bindex);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_path.dentry))
+			goto out_fill; /* pretending success */
+	}
+	/* illegally overlapped or something */
+	if (unlikely(!h_path.dentry))
+		goto out_fill; /* pretending success */
+
+	positive = !!h_path.dentry->d_inode;
+	if (positive)
+		err = vfs_getattr(&h_path, st);
+	dput(h_path.dentry);
+	if (!err) {
+		if (positive)
+			au_refresh_iattr(inode, st,
+					 h_path.dentry->d_inode->i_nlink);
+		goto out_fill; /* success */
+	}
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	goto out_unlock;
+
+out_fill:
+	generic_fillattr(inode, st);
+out_unlock:
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int h_readlink(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex, char __user *buf,
+		      int bufsiz)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	if (unlikely(!h_dentry->d_inode->i_op->readlink))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = security_inode_readlink(h_dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	if (!au_test_ro(sb, bindex, dentry->d_inode)) {
+		vfsub_touch_atime(au_sbr_mnt(sb, bindex), h_dentry);
+		fsstack_copy_attr_atime(dentry->d_inode, h_dentry->d_inode);
+	}
+	err = h_dentry->d_inode->i_op->readlink(h_dentry, buf, bufsiz);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_readlink(struct dentry *dentry, char __user *buf, int bufsiz)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR | AuLock_GEN);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_d_hashed_positive(dentry);
+	if (!err)
+		err = h_readlink(dentry, au_dbstart(dentry), buf, bufsiz);
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void *aufs_follow_link(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	int err;
+	mm_segment_t old_fs;
+	union {
+		char *k;
+		char __user *u;
+	} buf;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	buf.k = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!buf.k))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_IR | AuLock_GEN);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_name;
+
+	err = au_d_hashed_positive(dentry);
+	if (!err) {
+		old_fs = get_fs();
+		set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+		err = h_readlink(dentry, au_dbstart(dentry), buf.u, PATH_MAX);
+		set_fs(old_fs);
+	}
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+
+	if (err >= 0) {
+		buf.k[err] = 0;
+		/* will be freed by put_link */
+		nd_set_link(nd, buf.k);
+		return NULL; /* success */
+	}
+
+out_name:
+	free_page((unsigned long)buf.k);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return ERR_PTR(err);
+}
+
+static void aufs_put_link(struct dentry *dentry __maybe_unused,
+			  struct nameidata *nd, void *cookie __maybe_unused)
+{
+	char *p;
+
+	p = nd_get_link(nd);
+	if (!IS_ERR_OR_NULL(p))
+		free_page((unsigned long)p);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int aufs_update_time(struct inode *inode, struct timespec *ts, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	/* mmap_sem might be acquired already, cf. aufs_mmap() */
+	lockdep_off();
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+	lockdep_on();
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, au_ibstart(inode));
+	err = vfsub_update_time(h_inode, ts, flags);
+	lockdep_off();
+	ii_write_unlock(inode);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	lockdep_on();
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct inode_operations aufs_symlink_iop = {
+	.permission	= aufs_permission,
+	.setattr	= aufs_setattr,
+	.getattr	= aufs_getattr,
+
+	.readlink	= aufs_readlink,
+	.follow_link	= aufs_follow_link,
+	.put_link	= aufs_put_link,
+
+	/* .update_time	= aufs_update_time */
+};
+
+struct inode_operations aufs_dir_iop = {
+	.create		= aufs_create,
+	.lookup		= aufs_lookup,
+	.link		= aufs_link,
+	.unlink		= aufs_unlink,
+	.symlink	= aufs_symlink,
+	.mkdir		= aufs_mkdir,
+	.rmdir		= aufs_rmdir,
+	.mknod		= aufs_mknod,
+	.rename		= aufs_rename,
+
+	.permission	= aufs_permission,
+	.setattr	= aufs_setattr,
+	.getattr	= aufs_getattr,
+
+	.update_time	= aufs_update_time
+	/* no support for atomic_open() */
+};
+
+struct inode_operations aufs_iop = {
+	.permission	= aufs_permission,
+	.setattr	= aufs_setattr,
+	.getattr	= aufs_getattr,
+
+	.update_time	= aufs_update_time
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op_del.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op_del.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op_del.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op_del.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,501 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * inode operations (del entry)
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/*
+ * decide if a new whiteout for @dentry is necessary or not.
+ * when it is necessary, prepare the parent dir for the upper branch whose
+ * branch index is @bcpup for creation. the actual creation of the whiteout will
+ * be done by caller.
+ * return value:
+ * 0: wh is unnecessary
+ * plus: wh is necessary
+ * minus: error
+ */
+int au_wr_dir_need_wh(struct dentry *dentry, int isdir, aufs_bindex_t *bcpup)
+{
+	int need_wh, err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	if (*bcpup < 0) {
+		*bcpup = bstart;
+		if (au_test_ro(sb, bstart, dentry->d_inode)) {
+			err = AuWbrCopyup(au_sbi(sb), dentry);
+			*bcpup = err;
+			if (unlikely(err < 0))
+				goto out;
+		}
+	} else
+		AuDebugOn(bstart < *bcpup
+			  || au_test_ro(sb, *bcpup, dentry->d_inode));
+	AuDbg("bcpup %d, bstart %d\n", *bcpup, bstart);
+
+	if (*bcpup != bstart) {
+		err = au_cpup_dirs(dentry, *bcpup);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+		need_wh = 1;
+	} else {
+		struct au_dinfo *dinfo, *tmp;
+
+		need_wh = -ENOMEM;
+		dinfo = au_di(dentry);
+		tmp = au_di_alloc(sb, AuLsc_DI_TMP);
+		if (tmp) {
+			au_di_cp(tmp, dinfo);
+			au_di_swap(tmp, dinfo);
+			/* returns the number of positive dentries */
+			need_wh = au_lkup_dentry(dentry, bstart + 1, /*type*/0);
+			au_di_swap(tmp, dinfo);
+			au_rw_write_unlock(&tmp->di_rwsem);
+			au_di_free(tmp);
+		}
+	}
+	AuDbg("need_wh %d\n", need_wh);
+	err = need_wh;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * simple tests for the del-entry operations.
+ * following the checks in vfs, plus the parent-child relationship.
+ */
+int au_may_del(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+	       struct dentry *h_parent, int isdir)
+{
+	int err;
+	umode_t h_mode;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry, *h_latest;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	h_inode = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	if (dentry->d_inode) {
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		if (unlikely(!h_inode || !h_inode->i_nlink))
+			goto out;
+
+		h_mode = h_inode->i_mode;
+		if (!isdir) {
+			err = -EISDIR;
+			if (unlikely(S_ISDIR(h_mode)))
+				goto out;
+		} else if (unlikely(!S_ISDIR(h_mode))) {
+			err = -ENOTDIR;
+			goto out;
+		}
+	} else {
+		/* rename(2) case */
+		err = -EIO;
+		if (unlikely(h_inode))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -ENOENT;
+	/* expected parent dir is locked */
+	if (unlikely(h_parent != h_dentry->d_parent))
+		goto out;
+	err = 0;
+
+	/*
+	 * rmdir a dir may break the consistency on some filesystem.
+	 * let's try heavy test.
+	 */
+	err = -EACCES;
+	if (unlikely(au_test_h_perm(h_parent->d_inode, MAY_EXEC | MAY_WRITE)))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_latest = au_sio_lkup_one(&dentry->d_name, h_parent,
+				   au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bindex));
+	err = -EIO;
+	if (IS_ERR(h_latest))
+		goto out;
+	if (h_latest == h_dentry)
+		err = 0;
+	dput(h_latest);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * decide the branch where we operate for @dentry. the branch index will be set
+ * @rbcpup. after diciding it, 'pin' it and store the timestamps of the parent
+ * dir for reverting.
+ * when a new whiteout is necessary, create it.
+ */
+static struct dentry*
+lock_hdir_create_wh(struct dentry *dentry, int isdir, aufs_bindex_t *rbcpup,
+		    struct au_dtime *dt, struct au_pin *pin)
+{
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct path h_path;
+	int err, need_wh;
+	unsigned int udba;
+	aufs_bindex_t bcpup;
+
+	need_wh = au_wr_dir_need_wh(dentry, isdir, rbcpup);
+	wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(need_wh);
+	if (unlikely(need_wh < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	udba = au_opt_udba(sb);
+	bcpup = *rbcpup;
+	err = au_pin(pin, dentry, bcpup, udba,
+		     AuPin_DI_LOCKED | AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+	wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_path.dentry = au_pinned_h_parent(pin);
+	if (udba != AuOpt_UDBA_NONE
+	    && au_dbstart(dentry) == bcpup) {
+		err = au_may_del(dentry, bcpup, h_path.dentry, isdir);
+		wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_unpin;
+	}
+
+	h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, bcpup);
+	au_dtime_store(dt, au_pinned_parent(pin), &h_path);
+	wh_dentry = NULL;
+	if (!need_wh)
+		goto out; /* success, no need to create whiteout */
+
+	wh_dentry = au_wh_create(dentry, bcpup, h_path.dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out_unpin;
+
+	/* returns with the parent is locked and wh_dentry is dget-ed */
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_unpin:
+	au_unpin(pin);
+out:
+	return wh_dentry;
+}
+
+/*
+ * when removing a dir, rename it to a unique temporary whiteout-ed name first
+ * in order to be revertible and save time for removing many child whiteouts
+ * under the dir.
+ * returns 1 when there are too many child whiteout and caller should remove
+ * them asynchronously. returns 0 when the number of children is enough small to
+ * remove now or the branch fs is a remote fs.
+ * otherwise return an error.
+ */
+static int renwh_and_rmdir(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			   struct au_nhash *whlist, struct inode *dir)
+{
+	int rmdir_later, err, dirwh;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	err = au_whtmp_ren(h_dentry, au_sbr(sb, bindex));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* stop monitoring */
+	au_hn_free(au_hi(dentry->d_inode, bindex));
+
+	if (!au_test_fs_remote(h_dentry->d_sb)) {
+		dirwh = au_sbi(sb)->si_dirwh;
+		rmdir_later = (dirwh <= 1);
+		if (!rmdir_later)
+			rmdir_later = au_nhash_test_longer_wh(whlist, bindex,
+							      dirwh);
+		if (rmdir_later)
+			return rmdir_later;
+	}
+
+	err = au_whtmp_rmdir(dir, bindex, h_dentry, whlist);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		AuIOErr("rmdir %.*s, b%d failed, %d. ignored\n",
+			AuDLNPair(h_dentry), bindex, err);
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * final procedure for deleting a entry.
+ * maintain dentry and iattr.
+ */
+static void epilog(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+		   aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	d_drop(dentry);
+	inode->i_ctime = dir->i_ctime;
+
+	if (au_ibstart(dir) == bindex)
+		au_cpup_attr_timesizes(dir);
+	dir->i_version++;
+}
+
+/*
+ * when an error happened, remove the created whiteout and revert everything.
+ */
+static int do_revert(int err, struct inode *dir, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		     aufs_bindex_t bwh, struct dentry *wh_dentry,
+		     struct dentry *dentry, struct au_dtime *dt)
+{
+	int rerr;
+	struct path h_path = {
+		.dentry	= wh_dentry,
+		.mnt	= au_sbr_mnt(dir->i_sb, bindex)
+	};
+
+	rerr = au_wh_unlink_dentry(au_h_iptr(dir, bindex), &h_path, dentry);
+	if (!rerr) {
+		au_set_dbwh(dentry, bwh);
+		au_dtime_revert(dt);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	AuIOErr("%.*s reverting whiteout failed(%d, %d)\n",
+		AuDLNPair(dentry), err, rerr);
+	return -EIO;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int aufs_unlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bwh, bindex, bstart;
+	struct inode *inode, *h_dir;
+	struct dentry *parent, *wh_dentry;
+	/* to reuduce stack size */
+	struct {
+		struct au_dtime dt;
+		struct au_pin pin;
+		struct path h_path;
+	} *a;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kmalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_DW | AuLock_GEN);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_free;
+	err = au_d_hashed_positive(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(inode);
+	err = -EISDIR;
+	if (unlikely(S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)))
+		goto out_unlock; /* possible? */
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	bwh = au_dbwh(dentry);
+	bindex = -1;
+	parent = dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+	wh_dentry = lock_hdir_create_wh(dentry, /*isdir*/0, &bindex, &a->dt,
+					&a->pin);
+	err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	a->h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(dentry->d_sb, bstart);
+	a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bstart);
+	dget(a->h_path.dentry);
+	if (bindex == bstart) {
+		h_dir = au_pinned_h_dir(&a->pin);
+		err = vfsub_unlink(h_dir, &a->h_path, /*force*/0);
+	} else {
+		/* dir inode is locked */
+		h_dir = wh_dentry->d_parent->d_inode;
+		IMustLock(h_dir);
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!err) {
+		vfsub_drop_nlink(inode);
+		epilog(dir, dentry, bindex);
+
+		/* update target timestamps */
+		if (bindex == bstart) {
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&a->h_path, /*did*/NULL);
+			/*ignore*/
+			inode->i_ctime = a->h_path.dentry->d_inode->i_ctime;
+		} else
+			/* todo: this timestamp may be reverted later */
+			inode->i_ctime = h_dir->i_ctime;
+		goto out_unpin; /* success */
+	}
+
+	/* revert */
+	if (wh_dentry) {
+		int rerr;
+
+		rerr = do_revert(err, dir, bindex, bwh, wh_dentry, dentry,
+				 &a->dt);
+		if (rerr)
+			err = rerr;
+	}
+
+out_unpin:
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+	dput(a->h_path.dentry);
+out_parent:
+	di_write_unlock(parent);
+out_unlock:
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_DW);
+out_free:
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int aufs_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err, rmdir_later;
+	aufs_bindex_t bwh, bindex, bstart;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct dentry *parent, *wh_dentry, *h_dentry;
+	struct au_whtmp_rmdir *args;
+	/* to reuduce stack size */
+	struct {
+		struct au_dtime dt;
+		struct au_pin pin;
+	} *a;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kmalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_DW | AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_GEN);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_free;
+	err = au_alive_dir(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(inode);
+	err = -ENOTDIR;
+	if (unlikely(!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)))
+		goto out_unlock; /* possible? */
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	args = au_whtmp_rmdir_alloc(dir->i_sb, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!args))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	parent = dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	di_write_lock_parent(parent);
+	err = au_test_empty(dentry, &args->whlist);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	bwh = au_dbwh(dentry);
+	bindex = -1;
+	wh_dentry = lock_hdir_create_wh(dentry, /*isdir*/1, &bindex, &a->dt,
+					&a->pin);
+	err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bstart);
+	dget(h_dentry);
+	rmdir_later = 0;
+	if (bindex == bstart) {
+		err = renwh_and_rmdir(dentry, bstart, &args->whlist, dir);
+		if (err > 0) {
+			rmdir_later = err;
+			err = 0;
+		}
+	} else {
+		/* stop monitoring */
+		au_hn_free(au_hi(inode, bstart));
+
+		/* dir inode is locked */
+		IMustLock(wh_dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!err) {
+		vfsub_dead_dir(inode);
+		au_set_dbdiropq(dentry, -1);
+		epilog(dir, dentry, bindex);
+
+		if (rmdir_later) {
+			au_whtmp_kick_rmdir(dir, bstart, h_dentry, args);
+			args = NULL;
+		}
+
+		goto out_unpin; /* success */
+	}
+
+	/* revert */
+	AuLabel(revert);
+	if (wh_dentry) {
+		int rerr;
+
+		rerr = do_revert(err, dir, bindex, bwh, wh_dentry, dentry,
+				 &a->dt);
+		if (rerr)
+			err = rerr;
+	}
+
+out_unpin:
+	au_unpin(&a->pin);
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+	dput(h_dentry);
+out_parent:
+	di_write_unlock(parent);
+	if (args)
+		au_whtmp_rmdir_free(args);
+out_unlock:
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_DW);
+out_free:
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op_ren.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op_ren.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/i_op_ren.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/i_op_ren.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1008 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * inode operation (rename entry)
+ * todo: this is crazy monster
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+enum { AuSRC, AuDST, AuSrcDst };
+enum { AuPARENT, AuCHILD, AuParentChild };
+
+#define AuRen_ISDIR	1
+#define AuRen_ISSAMEDIR	(1 << 1)
+#define AuRen_WHSRC	(1 << 2)
+#define AuRen_WHDST	(1 << 3)
+#define AuRen_MNT_WRITE	(1 << 4)
+#define AuRen_DT_DSTDIR	(1 << 5)
+#define AuRen_DIROPQ	(1 << 6)
+#define AuRen_CPUP	(1 << 7)
+#define au_ftest_ren(flags, name)	((flags) & AuRen_##name)
+#define au_fset_ren(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuRen_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_ren(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuRen_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_ren_args {
+	struct {
+		struct dentry *dentry, *h_dentry, *parent, *h_parent,
+			*wh_dentry;
+		struct inode *dir, *inode;
+		struct au_hinode *hdir;
+		struct au_dtime dt[AuParentChild];
+		aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+	} sd[AuSrcDst];
+
+#define src_dentry	sd[AuSRC].dentry
+#define src_dir		sd[AuSRC].dir
+#define src_inode	sd[AuSRC].inode
+#define src_h_dentry	sd[AuSRC].h_dentry
+#define src_parent	sd[AuSRC].parent
+#define src_h_parent	sd[AuSRC].h_parent
+#define src_wh_dentry	sd[AuSRC].wh_dentry
+#define src_hdir	sd[AuSRC].hdir
+#define src_h_dir	sd[AuSRC].hdir->hi_inode
+#define src_dt		sd[AuSRC].dt
+#define src_bstart	sd[AuSRC].bstart
+
+#define dst_dentry	sd[AuDST].dentry
+#define dst_dir		sd[AuDST].dir
+#define dst_inode	sd[AuDST].inode
+#define dst_h_dentry	sd[AuDST].h_dentry
+#define dst_parent	sd[AuDST].parent
+#define dst_h_parent	sd[AuDST].h_parent
+#define dst_wh_dentry	sd[AuDST].wh_dentry
+#define dst_hdir	sd[AuDST].hdir
+#define dst_h_dir	sd[AuDST].hdir->hi_inode
+#define dst_dt		sd[AuDST].dt
+#define dst_bstart	sd[AuDST].bstart
+
+	struct dentry *h_trap;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_hinode *src_hinode;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct au_nhash whlist;
+	aufs_bindex_t btgt, src_bwh, src_bdiropq;
+
+	unsigned int flags;
+
+	struct au_whtmp_rmdir *thargs;
+	struct dentry *h_dst;
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * functions for reverting.
+ * when an error happened in a single rename systemcall, we should revert
+ * everything as if nothing happend.
+ * we don't need to revert the copied-up/down the parent dir since they are
+ * harmless.
+ */
+
+#define RevertFailure(fmt, ...) do { \
+	AuIOErr("revert failure: " fmt " (%d, %d)\n", \
+		##__VA_ARGS__, err, rerr); \
+	err = -EIO; \
+} while (0)
+
+static void au_ren_rev_diropq(int err, struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int rerr;
+
+	au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(a->src_hinode, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	rerr = au_diropq_remove(a->src_dentry, a->btgt);
+	au_hn_imtx_unlock(a->src_hinode);
+	au_set_dbdiropq(a->src_dentry, a->src_bdiropq);
+	if (rerr)
+		RevertFailure("remove diropq %.*s", AuDLNPair(a->src_dentry));
+}
+
+static void au_ren_rev_rename(int err, struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int rerr;
+
+	a->h_path.dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(&a->src_dentry->d_name,
+					  a->src_h_parent);
+	rerr = PTR_ERR(a->h_path.dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(a->h_path.dentry)) {
+		RevertFailure("lkup one %.*s", AuDLNPair(a->src_dentry));
+		return;
+	}
+
+	rerr = vfsub_rename(a->dst_h_dir,
+			    au_h_dptr(a->src_dentry, a->btgt),
+			    a->src_h_dir, &a->h_path);
+	d_drop(a->h_path.dentry);
+	dput(a->h_path.dentry);
+	/* au_set_h_dptr(a->src_dentry, a->btgt, NULL); */
+	if (rerr)
+		RevertFailure("rename %.*s", AuDLNPair(a->src_dentry));
+}
+
+static void au_ren_rev_cpup(int err, struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int rerr;
+
+	a->h_path.dentry = a->dst_h_dentry;
+	rerr = vfsub_unlink(a->dst_h_dir, &a->h_path, /*force*/0);
+	au_set_h_dptr(a->src_dentry, a->btgt, NULL);
+	au_set_dbstart(a->src_dentry, a->src_bstart);
+	if (rerr)
+		RevertFailure("unlink %.*s", AuDLNPair(a->dst_h_dentry));
+}
+
+static void au_ren_rev_whtmp(int err, struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int rerr;
+
+	a->h_path.dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(&a->dst_dentry->d_name,
+					  a->dst_h_parent);
+	rerr = PTR_ERR(a->h_path.dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(a->h_path.dentry)) {
+		RevertFailure("lkup one %.*s", AuDLNPair(a->dst_dentry));
+		return;
+	}
+	if (a->h_path.dentry->d_inode) {
+		d_drop(a->h_path.dentry);
+		dput(a->h_path.dentry);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	rerr = vfsub_rename(a->dst_h_dir, a->h_dst, a->dst_h_dir, &a->h_path);
+	d_drop(a->h_path.dentry);
+	dput(a->h_path.dentry);
+	if (!rerr)
+		au_set_h_dptr(a->dst_dentry, a->btgt, dget(a->h_dst));
+	else
+		RevertFailure("rename %.*s", AuDLNPair(a->h_dst));
+}
+
+static void au_ren_rev_whsrc(int err, struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int rerr;
+
+	a->h_path.dentry = a->src_wh_dentry;
+	rerr = au_wh_unlink_dentry(a->src_h_dir, &a->h_path, a->src_dentry);
+	au_set_dbwh(a->src_dentry, a->src_bwh);
+	if (rerr)
+		RevertFailure("unlink %.*s", AuDLNPair(a->src_wh_dentry));
+}
+#undef RevertFailure
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * when we have to copyup the renaming entry, do it with the rename-target name
+ * in order to minimize the cost (the later actual rename is unnecessary).
+ * otherwise rename it on the target branch.
+ */
+static int au_ren_or_cpup(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	d = a->src_dentry;
+	if (au_dbstart(d) == a->btgt) {
+		a->h_path.dentry = a->dst_h_dentry;
+		if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, DIROPQ)
+		    && au_dbdiropq(d) == a->btgt)
+			au_fclr_ren(a->flags, DIROPQ);
+		AuDebugOn(au_dbstart(d) != a->btgt);
+		err = vfsub_rename(a->src_h_dir, au_h_dptr(d, a->btgt),
+				   a->dst_h_dir, &a->h_path);
+	} else
+		BUG();
+
+	if (!err && a->h_dst)
+		/* it will be set to dinfo later */
+		dget(a->h_dst);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* cf. aufs_rmdir() */
+static int au_ren_del_whtmp(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *dir;
+
+	dir = a->dst_dir;
+	SiMustAnyLock(dir->i_sb);
+	if (!au_nhash_test_longer_wh(&a->whlist, a->btgt,
+				     au_sbi(dir->i_sb)->si_dirwh)
+	    || au_test_fs_remote(a->h_dst->d_sb)) {
+		err = au_whtmp_rmdir(dir, a->btgt, a->h_dst, &a->whlist);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			pr_warn("failed removing whtmp dir %.*s (%d), "
+				"ignored.\n", AuDLNPair(a->h_dst), err);
+	} else {
+		au_nhash_wh_free(&a->thargs->whlist);
+		a->thargs->whlist = a->whlist;
+		a->whlist.nh_num = 0;
+		au_whtmp_kick_rmdir(dir, a->btgt, a->h_dst, a->thargs);
+		dput(a->h_dst);
+		a->thargs = NULL;
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* make it 'opaque' dir. */
+static int au_ren_diropq(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *diropq;
+
+	err = 0;
+	a->src_bdiropq = au_dbdiropq(a->src_dentry);
+	a->src_hinode = au_hi(a->src_inode, a->btgt);
+	au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(a->src_hinode, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	diropq = au_diropq_create(a->src_dentry, a->btgt);
+	au_hn_imtx_unlock(a->src_hinode);
+	if (IS_ERR(diropq))
+		err = PTR_ERR(diropq);
+	dput(diropq);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int do_rename(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d, *h_d;
+
+	/* prepare workqueue args for asynchronous rmdir */
+	h_d = a->dst_h_dentry;
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR) && h_d->d_inode) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		a->thargs = au_whtmp_rmdir_alloc(a->src_dentry->d_sb, GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(!a->thargs))
+			goto out;
+		a->h_dst = dget(h_d);
+	}
+
+	/* create whiteout for src_dentry */
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, WHSRC)) {
+		a->src_bwh = au_dbwh(a->src_dentry);
+		AuDebugOn(a->src_bwh >= 0);
+		a->src_wh_dentry
+			= au_wh_create(a->src_dentry, a->btgt, a->src_h_parent);
+		err = PTR_ERR(a->src_wh_dentry);
+		if (IS_ERR(a->src_wh_dentry))
+			goto out_thargs;
+	}
+
+	/* lookup whiteout for dentry */
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, WHDST)) {
+		h_d = au_wh_lkup(a->dst_h_parent, &a->dst_dentry->d_name,
+				 a->br);
+		err = PTR_ERR(h_d);
+		if (IS_ERR(h_d))
+			goto out_whsrc;
+		if (!h_d->d_inode)
+			dput(h_d);
+		else
+			a->dst_wh_dentry = h_d;
+	}
+
+	/* rename dentry to tmpwh */
+	if (a->thargs) {
+		err = au_whtmp_ren(a->dst_h_dentry, a->br);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_whdst;
+
+		d = a->dst_dentry;
+		au_set_h_dptr(d, a->btgt, NULL);
+		err = au_lkup_neg(d, a->btgt, /*wh*/0);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_whtmp;
+		a->dst_h_dentry = au_h_dptr(d, a->btgt);
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(a->dst_h_dentry->d_inode && a->src_bstart != a->btgt);
+
+	/* rename by vfs_rename or cpup */
+	d = a->dst_dentry;
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR)
+	    && (a->dst_wh_dentry
+		|| au_dbdiropq(d) == a->btgt
+		/* hide the lower to keep xino */
+		|| a->btgt < au_dbend(d)
+		|| au_opt_test(au_mntflags(d->d_sb), ALWAYS_DIROPQ)))
+		au_fset_ren(a->flags, DIROPQ);
+	err = au_ren_or_cpup(a);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		/* leave the copied-up one */
+		goto out_whtmp;
+
+	/* make dir opaque */
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, DIROPQ)) {
+		err = au_ren_diropq(a);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_rename;
+	}
+
+	/* update target timestamps */
+	AuDebugOn(au_dbstart(a->src_dentry) != a->btgt);
+	a->h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(a->src_dentry, a->btgt);
+	vfsub_update_h_iattr(&a->h_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	a->src_inode->i_ctime = a->h_path.dentry->d_inode->i_ctime;
+
+	/* remove whiteout for dentry */
+	if (a->dst_wh_dentry) {
+		a->h_path.dentry = a->dst_wh_dentry;
+		err = au_wh_unlink_dentry(a->dst_h_dir, &a->h_path,
+					  a->dst_dentry);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_diropq;
+	}
+
+	/* remove whtmp */
+	if (a->thargs)
+		au_ren_del_whtmp(a); /* ignore this error */
+
+	err = 0;
+	goto out_success;
+
+out_diropq:
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, DIROPQ))
+		au_ren_rev_diropq(err, a);
+out_rename:
+	if (!au_ftest_ren(a->flags, CPUP))
+		au_ren_rev_rename(err, a);
+	else
+		au_ren_rev_cpup(err, a);
+	dput(a->h_dst);
+out_whtmp:
+	if (a->thargs)
+		au_ren_rev_whtmp(err, a);
+out_whdst:
+	dput(a->dst_wh_dentry);
+	a->dst_wh_dentry = NULL;
+out_whsrc:
+	if (a->src_wh_dentry)
+		au_ren_rev_whsrc(err, a);
+out_success:
+	dput(a->src_wh_dentry);
+	dput(a->dst_wh_dentry);
+out_thargs:
+	if (a->thargs) {
+		dput(a->h_dst);
+		au_whtmp_rmdir_free(a->thargs);
+		a->thargs = NULL;
+	}
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * test if @dentry dir can be rename destination or not.
+ * success means, it is a logically empty dir.
+ */
+static int may_rename_dstdir(struct dentry *dentry, struct au_nhash *whlist)
+{
+	return au_test_empty(dentry, whlist);
+}
+
+/*
+ * test if @dentry dir can be rename source or not.
+ * if it can, return 0 and @children is filled.
+ * success means,
+ * - it is a logically empty dir.
+ * - or, it exists on writable branch and has no children including whiteouts
+ *       on the lower branch.
+ */
+static int may_rename_srcdir(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t btgt)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int rdhash;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	if (bstart != btgt) {
+		struct au_nhash whlist;
+
+		SiMustAnyLock(dentry->d_sb);
+		rdhash = au_sbi(dentry->d_sb)->si_rdhash;
+		if (!rdhash)
+			rdhash = au_rdhash_est(au_dir_size(/*file*/NULL,
+							   dentry));
+		err = au_nhash_alloc(&whlist, rdhash, GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+		err = au_test_empty(dentry, &whlist);
+		au_nhash_wh_free(&whlist);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (bstart == au_dbtaildir(dentry))
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	err = au_test_empty_lower(dentry);
+
+out:
+	if (err == -ENOTEMPTY) {
+		AuWarn1("renaming dir who has child(ren) on multiple branches,"
+			" is not supported\n");
+		err = -EXDEV;
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* side effect: sets whlist and h_dentry */
+static int au_ren_may_dir(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int rdhash;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	d = a->dst_dentry;
+	SiMustAnyLock(d->d_sb);
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR) && a->dst_inode) {
+		rdhash = au_sbi(d->d_sb)->si_rdhash;
+		if (!rdhash)
+			rdhash = au_rdhash_est(au_dir_size(/*file*/NULL, d));
+		err = au_nhash_alloc(&a->whlist, rdhash, GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+
+		au_set_dbstart(d, a->dst_bstart);
+		err = may_rename_dstdir(d, &a->whlist);
+		au_set_dbstart(d, a->btgt);
+	}
+	a->dst_h_dentry = au_h_dptr(d, au_dbstart(d));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	d = a->src_dentry;
+	a->src_h_dentry = au_h_dptr(d, au_dbstart(d));
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR)) {
+		err = may_rename_srcdir(d, a->btgt);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			au_nhash_wh_free(&a->whlist);
+			a->whlist.nh_num = 0;
+		}
+	}
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * simple tests for rename.
+ * following the checks in vfs, plus the parent-child relationship.
+ */
+static int au_may_ren(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err, isdir;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	if (a->src_bstart == a->btgt) {
+		err = au_may_del(a->src_dentry, a->btgt, a->src_h_parent,
+				 au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR));
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		if (unlikely(a->src_h_dentry == a->h_trap))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (a->dst_bstart != a->btgt)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -ENOTEMPTY;
+	if (unlikely(a->dst_h_dentry == a->h_trap))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EIO;
+	h_inode = a->dst_h_dentry->d_inode;
+	isdir = !!au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR);
+	if (!a->dst_dentry->d_inode) {
+		if (unlikely(h_inode))
+			goto out;
+		err = au_may_add(a->dst_dentry, a->btgt, a->dst_h_parent,
+				 isdir);
+	} else {
+		if (unlikely(!h_inode || !h_inode->i_nlink))
+			goto out;
+		err = au_may_del(a->dst_dentry, a->btgt, a->dst_h_parent,
+				 isdir);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (unlikely(err == -ENOENT || err == -EEXIST))
+		err = -EIO;
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * locking order
+ * (VFS)
+ * - src_dir and dir by lock_rename()
+ * - inode if exitsts
+ * (aufs)
+ * - lock all
+ *   + src_dentry and dentry by aufs_read_and_write_lock2() which calls,
+ *     + si_read_lock
+ *     + di_write_lock2_child()
+ *       + di_write_lock_child()
+ *	   + ii_write_lock_child()
+ *       + di_write_lock_child2()
+ *	   + ii_write_lock_child2()
+ *     + src_parent and parent
+ *       + di_write_lock_parent()
+ *	   + ii_write_lock_parent()
+ *       + di_write_lock_parent2()
+ *	   + ii_write_lock_parent2()
+ *   + lower src_dir and dir by vfsub_lock_rename()
+ *   + verify the every relationships between child and parent. if any
+ *     of them failed, unlock all and return -EBUSY.
+ */
+static void au_ren_unlock(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	vfsub_unlock_rename(a->src_h_parent, a->src_hdir,
+			    a->dst_h_parent, a->dst_hdir);
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, MNT_WRITE))
+		vfsub_mnt_drop_write(au_br_mnt(a->br));
+}
+
+static int au_ren_lock(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int udba;
+
+	err = 0;
+	a->src_h_parent = au_h_dptr(a->src_parent, a->btgt);
+	a->src_hdir = au_hi(a->src_dir, a->btgt);
+	a->dst_h_parent = au_h_dptr(a->dst_parent, a->btgt);
+	a->dst_hdir = au_hi(a->dst_dir, a->btgt);
+
+	err = vfsub_mnt_want_write(au_br_mnt(a->br));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	au_fset_ren(a->flags, MNT_WRITE);
+	a->h_trap = vfsub_lock_rename(a->src_h_parent, a->src_hdir,
+				      a->dst_h_parent, a->dst_hdir);
+	udba = au_opt_udba(a->src_dentry->d_sb);
+	if (unlikely(a->src_hdir->hi_inode != a->src_h_parent->d_inode
+		     || a->dst_hdir->hi_inode != a->dst_h_parent->d_inode))
+		err = au_busy_or_stale();
+	if (!err && au_dbstart(a->src_dentry) == a->btgt)
+		err = au_h_verify(a->src_h_dentry, udba,
+				  a->src_h_parent->d_inode, a->src_h_parent,
+				  a->br);
+	if (!err && au_dbstart(a->dst_dentry) == a->btgt)
+		err = au_h_verify(a->dst_h_dentry, udba,
+				  a->dst_h_parent->d_inode, a->dst_h_parent,
+				  a->br);
+	if (!err)
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	err = au_busy_or_stale();
+	au_ren_unlock(a);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void au_ren_refresh_dir(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	struct inode *dir;
+
+	dir = a->dst_dir;
+	dir->i_version++;
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR)) {
+		/* is this updating defined in POSIX? */
+		au_cpup_attr_timesizes(a->src_inode);
+		au_cpup_attr_nlink(dir, /*force*/1);
+	}
+
+	if (au_ibstart(dir) == a->btgt)
+		au_cpup_attr_timesizes(dir);
+
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISSAMEDIR))
+		return;
+
+	dir = a->src_dir;
+	dir->i_version++;
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR))
+		au_cpup_attr_nlink(dir, /*force*/1);
+	if (au_ibstart(dir) == a->btgt)
+		au_cpup_attr_timesizes(dir);
+}
+
+static void au_ren_refresh(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct dentry *d, *h_d;
+	struct inode *i, *h_i;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	d = a->dst_dentry;
+	d_drop(d);
+	if (a->h_dst)
+		/* already dget-ed by au_ren_or_cpup() */
+		au_set_h_dptr(d, a->btgt, a->h_dst);
+
+	i = a->dst_inode;
+	if (i) {
+		if (!au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR))
+			vfsub_drop_nlink(i);
+		else {
+			vfsub_dead_dir(i);
+			au_cpup_attr_timesizes(i);
+		}
+		au_update_dbrange(d, /*do_put_zero*/1);
+	} else {
+		bend = a->btgt;
+		for (bindex = au_dbstart(d); bindex < bend; bindex++)
+			au_set_h_dptr(d, bindex, NULL);
+		bend = au_dbend(d);
+		for (bindex = a->btgt + 1; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+			au_set_h_dptr(d, bindex, NULL);
+		au_update_dbrange(d, /*do_put_zero*/0);
+	}
+
+	d = a->src_dentry;
+	au_set_dbwh(d, -1);
+	bend = au_dbend(d);
+	for (bindex = a->btgt + 1; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_d = au_h_dptr(d, bindex);
+		if (h_d)
+			au_set_h_dptr(d, bindex, NULL);
+	}
+	au_set_dbend(d, a->btgt);
+
+	sb = d->d_sb;
+	i = a->src_inode;
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK) && au_plink_test(i))
+		return; /* success */
+
+	bend = au_ibend(i);
+	for (bindex = a->btgt + 1; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_i = au_h_iptr(i, bindex);
+		if (h_i) {
+			au_xino_write(sb, bindex, h_i->i_ino, /*ino*/0);
+			/* ignore this error */
+			au_set_h_iptr(i, bindex, NULL, 0);
+		}
+	}
+	au_set_ibend(i, a->btgt);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* mainly for link(2) and rename(2) */
+int au_wbr(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t btgt)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bdiropq, bwh;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	parent = dentry->d_parent;
+	IMustLock(parent->d_inode); /* dir is locked */
+
+	bdiropq = au_dbdiropq(parent);
+	bwh = au_dbwh(dentry);
+	br = au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, btgt);
+	if (au_br_rdonly(br)
+	    || (0 <= bdiropq && bdiropq < btgt)
+	    || (0 <= bwh && bwh < btgt))
+		btgt = -1;
+
+	AuDbg("btgt %d\n", btgt);
+	return btgt;
+}
+
+/* sets src_bstart, dst_bstart and btgt */
+static int au_ren_wbr(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_wr_dir_args wr_dir_args = {
+		/* .force_btgt	= -1, */
+		.flags		= AuWrDir_ADD_ENTRY
+	};
+
+	a->src_bstart = au_dbstart(a->src_dentry);
+	a->dst_bstart = au_dbstart(a->dst_dentry);
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR))
+		au_fset_wrdir(wr_dir_args.flags, ISDIR);
+	wr_dir_args.force_btgt = a->src_bstart;
+	if (a->dst_inode && a->dst_bstart < a->src_bstart)
+		wr_dir_args.force_btgt = a->dst_bstart;
+	wr_dir_args.force_btgt = au_wbr(a->dst_dentry, wr_dir_args.force_btgt);
+	err = au_wr_dir(a->dst_dentry, a->src_dentry, &wr_dir_args);
+	a->btgt = err;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_ren_dt(struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	a->h_path.dentry = a->src_h_parent;
+	au_dtime_store(a->src_dt + AuPARENT, a->src_parent, &a->h_path);
+	if (!au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISSAMEDIR)) {
+		a->h_path.dentry = a->dst_h_parent;
+		au_dtime_store(a->dst_dt + AuPARENT, a->dst_parent, &a->h_path);
+	}
+
+	au_fclr_ren(a->flags, DT_DSTDIR);
+	if (!au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR))
+		return;
+
+	a->h_path.dentry = a->src_h_dentry;
+	au_dtime_store(a->src_dt + AuCHILD, a->src_dentry, &a->h_path);
+	if (a->dst_h_dentry->d_inode) {
+		au_fset_ren(a->flags, DT_DSTDIR);
+		a->h_path.dentry = a->dst_h_dentry;
+		au_dtime_store(a->dst_dt + AuCHILD, a->dst_dentry, &a->h_path);
+	}
+}
+
+static void au_ren_rev_dt(int err, struct au_ren_args *a)
+{
+	struct dentry *h_d;
+	struct mutex *h_mtx;
+
+	au_dtime_revert(a->src_dt + AuPARENT);
+	if (!au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISSAMEDIR))
+		au_dtime_revert(a->dst_dt + AuPARENT);
+
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR) && err != -EIO) {
+		h_d = a->src_dt[AuCHILD].dt_h_path.dentry;
+		h_mtx = &h_d->d_inode->i_mutex;
+		mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+		au_dtime_revert(a->src_dt + AuCHILD);
+		mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+
+		if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, DT_DSTDIR)) {
+			h_d = a->dst_dt[AuCHILD].dt_h_path.dentry;
+			h_mtx = &h_d->d_inode->i_mutex;
+			mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+			au_dtime_revert(a->dst_dt + AuCHILD);
+			mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int aufs_rename(struct inode *_src_dir, struct dentry *_src_dentry,
+		struct inode *_dst_dir, struct dentry *_dst_dentry)
+{
+	int err, flags;
+	/* reduce stack space */
+	struct au_ren_args *a;
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s, %.*s\n", AuDLNPair(_src_dentry), AuDLNPair(_dst_dentry));
+	IMustLock(_src_dir);
+	IMustLock(_dst_dir);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(*a) > PAGE_SIZE);
+	a = kzalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+
+	a->src_dir = _src_dir;
+	a->src_dentry = _src_dentry;
+	a->src_inode = a->src_dentry->d_inode;
+	a->src_parent = a->src_dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	a->dst_dir = _dst_dir;
+	a->dst_dentry = _dst_dentry;
+	a->dst_inode = a->dst_dentry->d_inode;
+	a->dst_parent = a->dst_dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	if (a->dst_inode) {
+		IMustLock(a->dst_inode);
+		au_igrab(a->dst_inode);
+	}
+
+	err = -ENOTDIR;
+	flags = AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM | AuLock_GEN;
+	if (S_ISDIR(a->src_inode->i_mode)) {
+		au_fset_ren(a->flags, ISDIR);
+		if (unlikely(a->dst_inode && !S_ISDIR(a->dst_inode->i_mode)))
+			goto out_free;
+		err = aufs_read_and_write_lock2(a->dst_dentry, a->src_dentry,
+						AuLock_DIR | flags);
+	} else
+		err = aufs_read_and_write_lock2(a->dst_dentry, a->src_dentry,
+						flags);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_free;
+
+	err = au_d_hashed_positive(a->src_dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+	err = -ENOENT;
+	if (a->dst_inode) {
+		/*
+		 * If it is a dir, VFS unhash dst_dentry before this
+		 * function. It means we cannot rely upon d_unhashed().
+		 */
+		if (unlikely(!a->dst_inode->i_nlink))
+			goto out_unlock;
+		if (!S_ISDIR(a->dst_inode->i_mode)) {
+			err = au_d_hashed_positive(a->dst_dentry);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				goto out_unlock;
+		} else if (unlikely(IS_DEADDIR(a->dst_inode)))
+			goto out_unlock;
+	} else if (unlikely(d_unhashed(a->dst_dentry)))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	/*
+	 * is it possible?
+	 * yes, it happend (in linux-3.3-rcN) but I don't know why.
+	 * there may exist a problem somewhere else.
+	 */
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (unlikely(a->dst_parent->d_inode == a->src_dentry->d_inode))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	au_fset_ren(a->flags, ISSAMEDIR); /* temporary */
+	di_write_lock_parent(a->dst_parent);
+
+	/* which branch we process */
+	err = au_ren_wbr(a);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out_parent;
+	a->br = au_sbr(a->dst_dentry->d_sb, a->btgt);
+	a->h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(a->br);
+
+	/* are they available to be renamed */
+	err = au_ren_may_dir(a);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_children;
+
+	/* prepare the writable parent dir on the same branch */
+	if (a->dst_bstart == a->btgt) {
+		au_fset_ren(a->flags, WHDST);
+	} else {
+		err = au_cpup_dirs(a->dst_dentry, a->btgt);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_children;
+	}
+
+	if (a->src_dir != a->dst_dir) {
+		/*
+		 * this temporary unlock is safe,
+		 * because both dir->i_mutex are locked.
+		 */
+		di_write_unlock(a->dst_parent);
+		di_write_lock_parent(a->src_parent);
+		err = au_wr_dir_need_wh(a->src_dentry,
+					au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR),
+					&a->btgt);
+		di_write_unlock(a->src_parent);
+		di_write_lock2_parent(a->src_parent, a->dst_parent, /*isdir*/1);
+		au_fclr_ren(a->flags, ISSAMEDIR);
+	} else
+		err = au_wr_dir_need_wh(a->src_dentry,
+					au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISDIR),
+					&a->btgt);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out_children;
+	if (err)
+		au_fset_ren(a->flags, WHSRC);
+
+	/* cpup src */
+	if (a->src_bstart != a->btgt) {
+		struct au_pin pin;
+
+		err = au_pin(&pin, a->src_dentry, a->btgt,
+			     au_opt_udba(a->src_dentry->d_sb),
+			     AuPin_DI_LOCKED | AuPin_MNT_WRITE);
+		if (!err) {
+			struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+				.dentry	= a->src_dentry,
+				.bdst	= a->btgt,
+				.bsrc	= a->src_bstart,
+				.len	= -1,
+				.pin	= &pin,
+				.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME | AuCpup_HOPEN
+			};
+			AuDebugOn(au_dbstart(a->src_dentry) != a->src_bstart);
+			err = au_sio_cpup_simple(&cpg);
+			au_unpin(&pin);
+		}
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_children;
+		a->src_bstart = a->btgt;
+		a->src_h_dentry = au_h_dptr(a->src_dentry, a->btgt);
+		au_fset_ren(a->flags, WHSRC);
+	}
+
+	/* lock them all */
+	err = au_ren_lock(a);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		/* leave the copied-up one */
+		goto out_children;
+
+	if (!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(a->dst_dir->i_sb), UDBA_NONE))
+		err = au_may_ren(a);
+	else if (unlikely(a->dst_dentry->d_name.len > AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN))
+		err = -ENAMETOOLONG;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_hdir;
+
+	/* store timestamps to be revertible */
+	au_ren_dt(a);
+
+	/* here we go */
+	err = do_rename(a);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_dt;
+
+	/* update dir attributes */
+	au_ren_refresh_dir(a);
+
+	/* dput/iput all lower dentries */
+	au_ren_refresh(a);
+
+	goto out_hdir; /* success */
+
+out_dt:
+	au_ren_rev_dt(err, a);
+out_hdir:
+	au_ren_unlock(a);
+out_children:
+	au_nhash_wh_free(&a->whlist);
+	if (err && a->dst_inode && a->dst_bstart != a->btgt) {
+		AuDbg("bstart %d, btgt %d\n", a->dst_bstart, a->btgt);
+		au_set_h_dptr(a->dst_dentry, a->btgt, NULL);
+		au_set_dbstart(a->dst_dentry, a->dst_bstart);
+	}
+out_parent:
+	if (!err)
+		d_move(a->src_dentry, a->dst_dentry);
+	else {
+		au_update_dbstart(a->dst_dentry);
+		if (!a->dst_inode)
+			d_drop(a->dst_dentry);
+	}
+	if (au_ftest_ren(a->flags, ISSAMEDIR))
+		di_write_unlock(a->dst_parent);
+	else
+		di_write_unlock2(a->src_parent, a->dst_parent);
+out_unlock:
+	aufs_read_and_write_unlock2(a->dst_dentry, a->src_dentry);
+out_free:
+	iput(a->dst_inode);
+	if (a->thargs)
+		au_whtmp_rmdir_free(a->thargs);
+	kfree(a);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/Kconfig linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/Kconfig
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/Kconfig	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/Kconfig	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,179 @@
+config AUFS_FS
+	tristate "Aufs (Advanced multi layered unification filesystem) support"
+	help
+	Aufs is a stackable unification filesystem such as Unionfs,
+	which unifies several directories and provides a merged single
+	directory.
+	In the early days, aufs was entirely re-designed and
+	re-implemented Unionfs Version 1.x series. Introducing many
+	original ideas, approaches and improvements, it becomes totally
+	different from Unionfs while keeping the basic features.
+
+if AUFS_FS
+choice
+	prompt "Maximum number of branches"
+	default AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_127
+	help
+	Specifies the maximum number of branches (or member directories)
+	in a single aufs. The larger value consumes more system
+	resources and has a minor impact to performance.
+config AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_127
+	bool "127"
+	help
+	Specifies the maximum number of branches (or member directories)
+	in a single aufs. The larger value consumes more system
+	resources and has a minor impact to performance.
+config AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_511
+	bool "511"
+	help
+	Specifies the maximum number of branches (or member directories)
+	in a single aufs. The larger value consumes more system
+	resources and has a minor impact to performance.
+config AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_1023
+	bool "1023"
+	help
+	Specifies the maximum number of branches (or member directories)
+	in a single aufs. The larger value consumes more system
+	resources and has a minor impact to performance.
+config AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_32767
+	bool "32767"
+	help
+	Specifies the maximum number of branches (or member directories)
+	in a single aufs. The larger value consumes more system
+	resources and has a minor impact to performance.
+endchoice
+
+config AUFS_SBILIST
+	bool
+	depends on AUFS_MAGIC_SYSRQ || PROC_FS
+	default y
+	help
+	Automatic configuration for internal use.
+	When aufs supports Magic SysRq or /proc, enabled automatically.
+
+config AUFS_HNOTIFY
+	bool "Detect direct branch access (bypassing aufs)"
+	help
+	If you want to modify files on branches directly, eg. bypassing aufs,
+	and want aufs to detect the changes of them fully, then enable this
+	option and use 'udba=notify' mount option.
+	Currently there is only one available configuration, "fsnotify".
+	It will have a negative impact to the performance.
+	See detail in aufs.5.
+
+choice
+	prompt "method" if AUFS_HNOTIFY
+	default AUFS_HFSNOTIFY
+config AUFS_HFSNOTIFY
+	bool "fsnotify"
+	select FSNOTIFY
+endchoice
+
+config AUFS_EXPORT
+	bool "NFS-exportable aufs"
+	depends on EXPORTFS
+	help
+	If you want to export your mounted aufs via NFS, then enable this
+	option. There are several requirements for this configuration.
+	See detail in aufs.5.
+
+config AUFS_INO_T_64
+	bool
+	depends on AUFS_EXPORT
+	depends on 64BIT && !(ALPHA || S390)
+	default y
+	help
+	Automatic configuration for internal use.
+	/* typedef unsigned long/int __kernel_ino_t */
+	/* alpha and s390x are int */
+
+config AUFS_RDU
+	bool "Readdir in userspace"
+	help
+	Aufs has two methods to provide a merged view for a directory,
+	by a user-space library and by kernel-space natively. The latter
+	is always enabled but sometimes large and slow.
+	If you enable this option, install the library in aufs2-util
+	package, and set some environment variables for your readdir(3),
+	then the work will be handled in user-space which generally
+	shows better performance in most cases.
+	See detail in aufs.5.
+
+config AUFS_SP_IATTR
+	bool "Respect the attributes (mtime/ctime mainly) of special files"
+	help
+	When you write something to a special file, some attributes of it
+	(mtime/ctime mainly) may be updated. Generally such updates are
+	less important (actually some device drivers and NFS ignore
+	it). But some applications (such like test program) requires
+	such updates. If you need these updates, then enable this
+	configuration which introduces some overhead.
+	Currently this configuration handles FIFO only.
+
+config AUFS_SHWH
+	bool "Show whiteouts"
+	help
+	If you want to make the whiteouts in aufs visible, then enable
+	this option and specify 'shwh' mount option. Although it may
+	sounds like philosophy or something, but in technically it
+	simply shows the name of whiteout with keeping its behaviour.
+
+config AUFS_BR_RAMFS
+	bool "Ramfs (initramfs/rootfs) as an aufs branch"
+	help
+	If you want to use ramfs as an aufs branch fs, then enable this
+	option. Generally tmpfs is recommended.
+	Aufs prohibited them to be a branch fs by default, because
+	initramfs becomes unusable after switch_root or something
+	generally. If you sets initramfs as an aufs branch and boot your
+	system by switch_root, you will meet a problem easily since the
+	files in initramfs may be inaccessible.
+	Unless you are going to use ramfs as an aufs branch fs without
+	switch_root or something, leave it N.
+
+config AUFS_BR_FUSE
+	bool "Fuse fs as an aufs branch"
+	depends on FUSE_FS
+	select AUFS_POLL
+	help
+	If you want to use fuse-based userspace filesystem as an aufs
+	branch fs, then enable this option.
+	It implements the internal poll(2) operation which is
+	implemented by fuse only (curretnly).
+
+config AUFS_POLL
+	bool
+	help
+	Automatic configuration for internal use.
+
+config AUFS_BR_HFSPLUS
+	bool "Hfsplus as an aufs branch"
+	depends on HFSPLUS_FS
+	default y
+	help
+	If you want to use hfsplus fs as an aufs branch fs, then enable
+	this option. This option introduces a small overhead at
+	copying-up a file on hfsplus.
+
+config AUFS_BDEV_LOOP
+	bool
+	depends on BLK_DEV_LOOP
+	default y
+	help
+	Automatic configuration for internal use.
+	Convert =[ym] into =y.
+
+config AUFS_DEBUG
+	bool "Debug aufs"
+	help
+	Enable this to compile aufs internal debug code.
+	It will have a negative impact to the performance.
+
+config AUFS_MAGIC_SYSRQ
+	bool
+	depends on AUFS_DEBUG && MAGIC_SYSRQ
+	default y
+	help
+	Automatic configuration for internal use.
+	When aufs supports Magic SysRq, enabled automatically.
+endif
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/loop.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/loop.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/loop.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/loop.c	2014-01-01 22:02:58.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,161 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * support for loopback block device as a branch
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* added into drivers/block/loop.c */
+static struct file *(*backing_file_func)(struct super_block *sb);
+
+/*
+ * test if two lower dentries have overlapping branches.
+ */
+int au_test_loopback_overlap(struct super_block *sb, struct dentry *h_adding)
+{
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+	struct file *backing_file;
+
+	if (unlikely(!backing_file_func)) {
+		/* don't load "loop" module here */
+		backing_file_func = symbol_get(loop_backing_file);
+		if (unlikely(!backing_file_func))
+			/* "loop" module is not loaded */
+			return 0;
+	}
+
+	h_sb = h_adding->d_sb;
+	backing_file = backing_file_func(h_sb);
+	if (!backing_file)
+		return 0;
+
+	h_adding = backing_file->f_dentry;
+	/*
+	 * h_adding can be local NFS.
+	 * in this case aufs cannot detect the loop.
+	 */
+	if (unlikely(h_adding->d_sb == sb))
+		return 1;
+	return !!au_test_subdir(h_adding, sb->s_root);
+}
+
+/* true if a kernel thread named 'loop[0-9].*' accesses a file */
+int au_test_loopback_kthread(void)
+{
+	int ret;
+	struct task_struct *tsk = current;
+	char c, comm[sizeof(tsk->comm)];
+
+	ret = 0;
+	if (tsk->flags & PF_KTHREAD) {
+		get_task_comm(comm, tsk);
+		c = comm[4];
+		ret = ('0' <= c && c <= '9'
+		       && !strncmp(comm, "loop", 4));
+	}
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#define au_warn_loopback_step	16
+static int au_warn_loopback_nelem = au_warn_loopback_step;
+static unsigned long *au_warn_loopback_array;
+
+void au_warn_loopback(struct super_block *h_sb)
+{
+	int i, new_nelem;
+	unsigned long *a, magic;
+	static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(spin);
+
+	magic = h_sb->s_magic;
+	spin_lock(&spin);
+	a = au_warn_loopback_array;
+	for (i = 0; i < au_warn_loopback_nelem && *a; i++)
+		if (a[i] == magic) {
+			spin_unlock(&spin);
+			return;
+		}
+
+	/* h_sb is new to us, print it */
+	if (i < au_warn_loopback_nelem) {
+		a[i] = magic;
+		goto pr;
+	}
+
+	/* expand the array */
+	new_nelem = au_warn_loopback_nelem + au_warn_loopback_step;
+	a = au_kzrealloc(au_warn_loopback_array,
+			 au_warn_loopback_nelem * sizeof(unsigned long),
+			 new_nelem * sizeof(unsigned long), GFP_ATOMIC);
+	if (a) {
+		au_warn_loopback_nelem = new_nelem;
+		au_warn_loopback_array = a;
+		a[i] = magic;
+		goto pr;
+	}
+
+	spin_unlock(&spin);
+	AuWarn1("realloc failed, ignored\n");
+	return;
+
+pr:
+	spin_unlock(&spin);
+	pr_warn("you may want to try another patch for loopback file "
+		"on %s(0x%lx) branch\n", au_sbtype(h_sb), magic);
+}
+
+int au_loopback_init(void)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused;
+
+	AuDebugOn(sizeof(sb->s_magic) != sizeof(unsigned long));
+
+	err = 0;
+	au_warn_loopback_array = kcalloc(au_warn_loopback_step,
+					 sizeof(unsigned long), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!au_warn_loopback_array))
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_loopback_fin(void)
+{
+	symbol_put(loop_backing_file);
+	kfree(au_warn_loopback_array);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* support the loopback block device insude aufs */
+
+struct file *aufs_real_loop(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct file *f;
+
+	BUG_ON(!au_test_aufs(file->f_dentry->d_sb));
+	fi_read_lock(file);
+	f = au_hf_top(file);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+	AuDebugOn(!f);
+	return f;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/loop.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/loop.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/loop.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/loop.h	2014-01-01 22:02:58.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * support for loopback mount as a branch
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_LOOP_H__
+#define __AUFS_LOOP_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+struct dentry;
+struct super_block;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_BDEV_LOOP
+/* drivers/block/loop.c */
+struct file *loop_backing_file(struct super_block *sb);
+
+/* loop.c */
+int au_test_loopback_overlap(struct super_block *sb, struct dentry *h_adding);
+int au_test_loopback_kthread(void);
+void au_warn_loopback(struct super_block *h_sb);
+
+int au_loopback_init(void);
+void au_loopback_fin(void);
+
+struct file *aufs_real_loop(struct file *file);
+#else
+AuStub(struct file *, loop_backing_file, return NULL)
+
+AuStubInt0(au_test_loopback_overlap, struct super_block *sb,
+	   struct dentry *h_adding)
+AuStubInt0(au_test_loopback_kthread, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_warn_loopback, struct super_block *h_sb)
+
+AuStubInt0(au_loopback_init, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_loopback_fin, void)
+
+AuStub(struct file *, aufs_real_loop, return NULL, struct file *file)
+#endif /* BLK_DEV_LOOP */
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_LOOP_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/magic.mk linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/magic.mk
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/magic.mk	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/magic.mk	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/fuse/inode.c
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_FUSE_FS
+ccflags-y += -DFUSE_SUPER_MAGIC=0x65735546
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/ocfs2/ocfs2_fs.h
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_OCFS2_FS
+ccflags-y += -DOCFS2_SUPER_MAGIC=0x7461636f
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/ocfs2/dlm/userdlm.h
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_OCFS2_FS_O2CB
+ccflags-y += -DDLMFS_MAGIC=0x76a9f425
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/cifs/cifsfs.c
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_CIFS_FS
+ccflags-y += -DCIFS_MAGIC_NUMBER=0xFF534D42
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/xfs/xfs_sb.h
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_XFS_FS
+ccflags-y += -DXFS_SB_MAGIC=0x58465342
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/configfs/mount.c
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_CONFIGFS_FS
+ccflags-y += -DCONFIGFS_MAGIC=0x62656570
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/9p/v9fs.h
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_9P_FS
+ccflags-y += -DV9FS_MAGIC=0x01021997
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/ubifs/ubifs.h
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_UBIFS_FS
+ccflags-y += -DUBIFS_SUPER_MAGIC=0x24051905
+endif
+
+# defined in ${srctree}/fs/hfsplus/hfsplus_raw.h
+# tristate
+ifdef CONFIG_HFSPLUS_FS
+ccflags-y += -DHFSPLUS_SUPER_MAGIC=0x482b
+endif
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/Makefile linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/Makefile
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/Makefile	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/Makefile	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+
+include ${src}/magic.mk
+ifeq (${CONFIG_AUFS_FS},m)
+include ${src}/conf.mk
+endif
+-include ${src}/priv_def.mk
+
+# cf. include/linux/kernel.h
+# enable pr_debug
+ccflags-y += -DDEBUG
+# sparse requires the full pathname
+ifdef M
+ccflags-y += -include ${M}/../../include/uapi/linux/aufs_type.h
+else
+ccflags-y += -include ${srctree}/include/uapi/linux/aufs_type.h
+endif
+
+obj-$(CONFIG_AUFS_FS) += aufs.o
+aufs-y := module.o sbinfo.o super.o branch.o xino.o sysaufs.o opts.o \
+	wkq.o vfsub.o dcsub.o \
+	cpup.o whout.o wbr_policy.o \
+	dinfo.o dentry.o \
+	dynop.o \
+	finfo.o file.o f_op.o \
+	dir.o vdir.o \
+	iinfo.o inode.o i_op.o i_op_add.o i_op_del.o i_op_ren.o \
+	mvdown.o ioctl.o
+
+# all are boolean
+aufs-$(CONFIG_PROC_FS) += procfs.o plink.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_SYSFS) += sysfs.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_DEBUG_FS) += dbgaufs.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_BDEV_LOOP) += loop.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY) += hnotify.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_HFSNOTIFY) += hfsnotify.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT) += export.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_POLL) += poll.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_RDU) += rdu.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_SP_IATTR) += f_op_sp.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_BR_HFSPLUS) += hfsplus.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG) += debug.o
+aufs-$(CONFIG_AUFS_MAGIC_SYSRQ) += sysrq.o
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/module.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/module.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/module.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/module.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,202 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * module global variables and operations
+ */
+
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/seq_file.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+void *au_kzrealloc(void *p, unsigned int nused, unsigned int new_sz, gfp_t gfp)
+{
+	if (new_sz <= nused)
+		return p;
+
+	p = krealloc(p, new_sz, gfp);
+	if (p)
+		memset(p + nused, 0, new_sz - nused);
+	return p;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * aufs caches
+ */
+struct kmem_cache *au_cachep[AuCache_Last];
+static int __init au_cache_init(void)
+{
+	au_cachep[AuCache_DINFO] = AuCacheCtor(au_dinfo, au_di_init_once);
+	if (au_cachep[AuCache_DINFO])
+		/* SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU */
+		au_cachep[AuCache_ICNTNR] = AuCacheCtor(au_icntnr,
+							au_icntnr_init_once);
+	if (au_cachep[AuCache_ICNTNR])
+		au_cachep[AuCache_FINFO] = AuCacheCtor(au_finfo,
+						       au_fi_init_once);
+	if (au_cachep[AuCache_FINFO])
+		au_cachep[AuCache_VDIR] = AuCache(au_vdir);
+	if (au_cachep[AuCache_VDIR])
+		au_cachep[AuCache_DEHSTR] = AuCache(au_vdir_dehstr);
+	if (au_cachep[AuCache_DEHSTR])
+		return 0;
+
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+static void au_cache_fin(void)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	/*
+	 * Make sure all delayed rcu free inodes are flushed before we
+	 * destroy cache.
+	 */
+	rcu_barrier();
+
+	/* excluding AuCache_HNOTIFY */
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(AuCache_HNOTIFY + 1 != AuCache_Last);
+	for (i = 0; i < AuCache_HNOTIFY; i++)
+		if (au_cachep[i]) {
+			kmem_cache_destroy(au_cachep[i]);
+			au_cachep[i] = NULL;
+		}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_dir_roflags;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SBILIST
+/*
+ * iterate_supers_type() doesn't protect us from
+ * remounting (branch management)
+ */
+struct au_splhead au_sbilist;
+#endif
+
+struct lock_class_key au_lc_key[AuLcKey_Last];
+
+/*
+ * functions for module interface.
+ */
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+/* MODULE_LICENSE("GPL v2"); */
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Junjiro R. Okajima <aufs-users@lists.sourceforge.net>");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION(AUFS_NAME
+	" -- Advanced multi layered unification filesystem");
+MODULE_VERSION(AUFS_VERSION);
+MODULE_ALIAS_FS(AUFS_NAME);
+
+/* this module parameter has no meaning when SYSFS is disabled */
+int sysaufs_brs = 1;
+MODULE_PARM_DESC(brs, "use <sysfs>/fs/aufs/si_*/brN");
+module_param_named(brs, sysaufs_brs, int, S_IRUGO);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static char au_esc_chars[0x20 + 3]; /* 0x01-0x20, backslash, del, and NULL */
+
+int au_seq_path(struct seq_file *seq, struct path *path)
+{
+	return seq_path(seq, path, au_esc_chars);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int __init aufs_init(void)
+{
+	int err, i;
+	char *p;
+
+	p = au_esc_chars;
+	for (i = 1; i <= ' '; i++)
+		*p++ = i;
+	*p++ = '\\';
+	*p++ = '\x7f';
+	*p = 0;
+
+	au_dir_roflags = au_file_roflags(O_DIRECTORY | O_LARGEFILE);
+
+	au_sbilist_init();
+	sysaufs_brs_init();
+	au_debug_init();
+	au_dy_init();
+	err = sysaufs_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_procfs_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_sysaufs;
+	err = au_wkq_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_procfs;
+	err = au_loopback_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_wkq;
+	err = au_hnotify_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_loopback;
+	err = au_sysrq_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_hin;
+	err = au_cache_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_sysrq;
+	err = register_filesystem(&aufs_fs_type);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_cache;
+	/* since we define pr_fmt, call printk directly */
+	printk(KERN_INFO AUFS_NAME " " AUFS_VERSION "\n");
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_cache:
+	au_cache_fin();
+out_sysrq:
+	au_sysrq_fin();
+out_hin:
+	au_hnotify_fin();
+out_loopback:
+	au_loopback_fin();
+out_wkq:
+	au_wkq_fin();
+out_procfs:
+	au_procfs_fin();
+out_sysaufs:
+	sysaufs_fin();
+	au_dy_fin();
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void __exit aufs_exit(void)
+{
+	unregister_filesystem(&aufs_fs_type);
+	au_cache_fin();
+	au_sysrq_fin();
+	au_hnotify_fin();
+	au_loopback_fin();
+	au_wkq_fin();
+	au_procfs_fin();
+	sysaufs_fin();
+	au_dy_fin();
+}
+
+module_init(aufs_init);
+module_exit(aufs_exit);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/module.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/module.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/module.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/module.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,104 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * module initialization and module-global
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_MODULE_H__
+#define __AUFS_MODULE_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+
+struct path;
+struct seq_file;
+
+/* module parameters */
+extern int sysaufs_brs;
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+extern int au_dir_roflags;
+
+enum {
+	AuLcNonDir_FIINFO,
+	AuLcNonDir_DIINFO,
+	AuLcNonDir_IIINFO,
+
+	AuLcDir_FIINFO,
+	AuLcDir_DIINFO,
+	AuLcDir_IIINFO,
+
+	AuLcSymlink_DIINFO,
+	AuLcSymlink_IIINFO,
+
+	AuLcKey_Last
+};
+extern struct lock_class_key au_lc_key[AuLcKey_Last];
+
+void *au_kzrealloc(void *p, unsigned int nused, unsigned int new_sz, gfp_t gfp);
+int au_seq_path(struct seq_file *seq, struct path *path);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
+/* procfs.c */
+int __init au_procfs_init(void);
+void au_procfs_fin(void);
+#else
+AuStubInt0(au_procfs_init, void);
+AuStubVoid(au_procfs_fin, void);
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* kmem cache */
+enum {
+	AuCache_DINFO,
+	AuCache_ICNTNR,
+	AuCache_FINFO,
+	AuCache_VDIR,
+	AuCache_DEHSTR,
+	AuCache_HNOTIFY, /* must be last */
+	AuCache_Last
+};
+
+#define AuCacheFlags		(SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT | SLAB_MEM_SPREAD)
+#define AuCache(type)		KMEM_CACHE(type, AuCacheFlags)
+#define AuCacheCtor(type, ctor)	\
+	kmem_cache_create(#type, sizeof(struct type), \
+			  __alignof__(struct type), AuCacheFlags, ctor)
+
+extern struct kmem_cache *au_cachep[];
+
+#define AuCacheFuncs(name, index) \
+static inline struct au_##name *au_cache_alloc_##name(void) \
+{ return kmem_cache_alloc(au_cachep[AuCache_##index], GFP_NOFS); } \
+static inline void au_cache_free_##name(struct au_##name *p) \
+{ kmem_cache_free(au_cachep[AuCache_##index], p); }
+
+AuCacheFuncs(dinfo, DINFO);
+AuCacheFuncs(icntnr, ICNTNR);
+AuCacheFuncs(finfo, FINFO);
+AuCacheFuncs(vdir, VDIR);
+AuCacheFuncs(vdir_dehstr, DEHSTR);
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+AuCacheFuncs(hnotify, HNOTIFY);
+#endif
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_MODULE_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/mvdown.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/mvdown.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/mvdown.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/mvdown.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,609 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2011-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+struct au_mvd_args {
+	struct {
+		struct super_block *h_sb;
+		struct dentry *h_parent;
+		struct au_hinode *hdir;
+		struct inode *h_dir, *h_inode;
+	} info[AUFS_MVDOWN_NARRAY];
+
+	struct aufs_mvdown mvdown;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *parent;
+	struct inode *inode, *dir;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	aufs_bindex_t bopq, bwh, bfound;
+	unsigned char rename_lock;
+	struct au_pin pin;
+};
+
+#define mvd_errno		mvdown.au_errno
+#define mvd_bsrc		mvdown.a[AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER].bindex
+#define mvd_src_brid		mvdown.a[AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER].brid
+#define mvd_bdst		mvdown.a[AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER].bindex
+#define mvd_dst_brid		mvdown.a[AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER].brid
+
+#define mvd_h_src_sb		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER].h_sb
+#define mvd_h_src_parent	info[AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER].h_parent
+#define mvd_hdir_src		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER].hdir
+#define mvd_h_src_dir		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER].h_dir
+#define mvd_h_src_inode		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER].h_inode
+
+#define mvd_h_dst_sb		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER].h_sb
+#define mvd_h_dst_parent	info[AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER].h_parent
+#define mvd_hdir_dst		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER].hdir
+#define mvd_h_dst_dir		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER].h_dir
+#define mvd_h_dst_inode		info[AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER].h_inode
+
+#define AU_MVD_PR(flag, ...) do {			\
+		if (flag)				\
+			pr_err(__VA_ARGS__);		\
+	} while (0)
+
+/* make the parent dir on bdst */
+static int au_do_mkdir(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	a->mvd_hdir_src = au_hi(a->dir, a->mvd_bsrc);
+	a->mvd_hdir_dst = au_hi(a->dir, a->mvd_bdst);
+	a->mvd_h_src_parent = au_h_dptr(a->parent, a->mvd_bsrc);
+	a->mvd_h_dst_parent = NULL;
+	if (au_dbend(a->parent) >= a->mvd_bdst)
+		a->mvd_h_dst_parent = au_h_dptr(a->parent, a->mvd_bdst);
+	if (!a->mvd_h_dst_parent) {
+		err = au_cpdown_dirs(a->dentry, a->mvd_bdst);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "cpdown_dirs failed\n");
+			goto out;
+		}
+		a->mvd_h_dst_parent = au_h_dptr(a->parent, a->mvd_bdst);
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* lock them all */
+static int au_do_lock(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *h_trap;
+
+	a->mvd_h_src_sb = au_sbr_sb(a->sb, a->mvd_bsrc);
+	a->mvd_h_dst_sb = au_sbr_sb(a->sb, a->mvd_bdst);
+	if (a->mvd_h_src_sb != a->mvd_h_dst_sb) {
+		a->rename_lock = 0;
+		err = au_pin(&a->pin, a->dentry, a->mvd_bdst,
+			     au_opt_udba(a->sb),
+			     AuPin_MNT_WRITE | AuPin_DI_LOCKED);
+		if (!err) {
+			a->mvd_h_src_dir = a->mvd_h_src_parent->d_inode;
+			mutex_lock_nested(&a->mvd_h_src_dir->i_mutex,
+					  AuLsc_I_PARENT3);
+		} else
+			AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "pin failed\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	a->rename_lock = 1;
+	h_trap = vfsub_lock_rename(a->mvd_h_src_parent, a->mvd_hdir_src,
+				   a->mvd_h_dst_parent, a->mvd_hdir_dst);
+	if (h_trap) {
+		err = (h_trap != a->mvd_h_src_parent);
+		if (err)
+			err = (h_trap != a->mvd_h_dst_parent);
+	}
+	BUG_ON(err); /* it should never happen */
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_do_unlock(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	if (!a->rename_lock) {
+		mutex_unlock(&a->mvd_h_src_dir->i_mutex);
+		au_unpin(&a->pin);
+	} else
+		vfsub_unlock_rename(a->mvd_h_src_parent, a->mvd_hdir_src,
+				    a->mvd_h_dst_parent, a->mvd_hdir_dst);
+}
+
+/* copy-down the file */
+static int au_do_cpdown(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_cp_generic cpg = {
+		.dentry	= a->dentry,
+		.bdst	= a->mvd_bdst,
+		.bsrc	= a->mvd_bsrc,
+		.len	= -1,
+		.pin	= &a->pin,
+		.flags	= AuCpup_DTIME | AuCpup_HOPEN
+	};
+
+	AuDbg("b%d, b%d\n", cpg.bsrc, cpg.bdst);
+	if (a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_OWLOWER)
+		au_fset_cpup(cpg.flags, OVERWRITE);
+	if (a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_ROLOWER)
+		au_fset_cpup(cpg.flags, RWDST);
+	err = au_sio_cpdown_simple(&cpg);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "cpdown failed\n");
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * unlink the whiteout on bdst if exist which may be created by UDBA while we
+ * were sleeping
+ */
+static int au_do_unlink_wh(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	br = au_sbr(a->sb, a->mvd_bdst);
+	h_path.dentry = au_wh_lkup(a->mvd_h_dst_parent, &a->dentry->d_name, br);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_path.dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_path.dentry)) {
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "wh_lkup failed\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (h_path.dentry->d_inode) {
+		h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+		err = vfsub_unlink(a->mvd_h_dst_parent->d_inode, &h_path,
+				   /*force*/0);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "wh_unlink failed\n");
+	}
+	dput(h_path.dentry);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * unlink the topmost h_dentry
+ * Note: the target file MAY be modified by UDBA between this mutex_unlock() and
+ *	mutex_lock() in vfs_unlink(). in this case, such changes may be lost.
+ */
+static int au_do_unlink(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path;
+
+	h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(a->sb, a->mvd_bsrc);
+	h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(a->dentry, a->mvd_bsrc);
+	err = vfsub_unlink(a->mvd_h_src_dir, &h_path, /*force*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "unlink failed\n");
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * copy-down the file and unlink the bsrc file.
+ * - unlink the bdst whout if exist
+ * - copy-down the file (with whtmp name and rename)
+ * - unlink the bsrc file
+ */
+static int au_do_mvdown(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = au_do_mkdir(dmsg, a);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_do_lock(dmsg, a);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * do not revert the activities we made on bdst since they should be
+	 * harmless in aufs.
+	 */
+
+	err = au_do_cpdown(dmsg, a);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_do_unlink_wh(dmsg, a);
+	if (!err && !(a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_KUPPER))
+		err = au_do_unlink(dmsg, a);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	/* maintain internal array */
+	if (!(a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_KUPPER)) {
+		au_set_h_dptr(a->dentry, a->mvd_bsrc, NULL);
+		au_set_dbstart(a->dentry, a->mvd_bdst);
+		au_set_h_iptr(a->inode, a->mvd_bsrc, NULL, /*flags*/0);
+		au_set_ibstart(a->inode, a->mvd_bdst);
+	}
+	if (au_dbend(a->dentry) < a->mvd_bdst)
+		au_set_dbend(a->dentry, a->mvd_bdst);
+	if (au_ibend(a->inode) < a->mvd_bdst)
+		au_set_ibend(a->inode, a->mvd_bdst);
+
+out_unlock:
+	au_do_unlock(dmsg, a);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int find_lower_writable(struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	sb = a->sb;
+	bindex = a->mvd_bsrc;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	if (!(a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_ROLOWER)) {
+		for (bindex++; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+			if (!au_br_rdonly(br))
+				return bindex;
+		}
+	} else {
+		for (bindex++; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+			if (!(au_br_sb(br)->s_flags & MS_RDONLY)) {
+				if (au_br_rdonly(br))
+					a->mvdown.flags
+						|= AUFS_MVDOWN_ROLOWER_R;
+				return bindex;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	return -1;
+}
+
+/* make sure the file is idle */
+static int au_mvd_args_busy(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err, plinked;
+
+	err = 0;
+	plinked = !!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(a->sb), PLINK);
+	if (au_dbstart(a->dentry) == a->mvd_bsrc
+	    && d_count(a->dentry) == 1
+	    && atomic_read(&a->inode->i_count) == 1
+	    /* && a->mvd_h_src_inode->i_nlink == 1 */
+	    && (!plinked || !au_plink_test(a->inode))
+	    && a->inode->i_nlink == 1)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EBUSY;
+	AU_MVD_PR(dmsg,
+		  "b%d, d{b%d, c%u?}, i{c%d?, l%u}, hi{l%u}, p{%d, %d}\n",
+		  a->mvd_bsrc, au_dbstart(a->dentry), d_count(a->dentry),
+		  atomic_read(&a->inode->i_count), a->inode->i_nlink,
+		  a->mvd_h_src_inode->i_nlink,
+		  plinked, plinked ? au_plink_test(a->inode) : 0);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* make sure the parent dir is fine */
+static int au_mvd_args_parent(const unsigned char dmsg,
+			      struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (unlikely(au_alive_dir(a->parent))) {
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "parent dir is dead\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	a->bopq = au_dbdiropq(a->parent);
+	bindex = au_wbr_nonopq(a->dentry, a->mvd_bdst);
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", bindex);
+	if (unlikely((bindex >= 0 && bindex < a->mvd_bdst)
+		     || (a->bopq != -1 && a->bopq < a->mvd_bdst))) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		a->mvd_errno = EAU_MVDOWN_OPAQUE;
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "ancestor is opaque b%d, b%d\n",
+			  a->bopq, a->mvd_bdst);
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_mvd_args_intermediate(const unsigned char dmsg,
+				    struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_dinfo *dinfo, *tmp;
+
+	/* lookup the next lower positive entry */
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	tmp = au_di_alloc(a->sb, AuLsc_DI_TMP);
+	if (unlikely(!tmp))
+		goto out;
+
+	a->bfound = -1;
+	a->bwh = -1;
+	dinfo = au_di(a->dentry);
+	au_di_cp(tmp, dinfo);
+	au_di_swap(tmp, dinfo);
+
+	/* returns the number of positive dentries */
+	err = au_lkup_dentry(a->dentry, a->mvd_bsrc + 1, /*type*/0);
+	if (!err)
+		a->bwh = au_dbwh(a->dentry);
+	else if (err > 0)
+		a->bfound = au_dbstart(a->dentry);
+
+	au_di_swap(tmp, dinfo);
+	au_rw_write_unlock(&tmp->di_rwsem);
+	au_di_free(tmp);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "failed look-up lower\n");
+
+	/*
+	 * here, we have these cases.
+	 * bfound == -1
+	 *	no positive dentry under bsrc. there are more sub-cases.
+	 *	bwh < 0
+	 *		there no whiteout, we can safely move-down.
+	 *	bwh <= bsrc
+	 *		impossible
+	 *	bsrc < bwh && bwh < bdst
+	 *		there is a whiteout on RO branch. cannot proceed.
+	 *	bwh == bdst
+	 *		there is a whiteout on the RW target branch. it should
+	 *		be removed.
+	 *	bdst < bwh
+	 *		there is a whiteout somewhere unrelated branch.
+	 * -1 < bfound && bfound <= bsrc
+	 *	impossible.
+	 * bfound < bdst
+	 *	found, but it is on RO branch between bsrc and bdst. cannot
+	 *	proceed.
+	 * bfound == bdst
+	 *	found, replace it if AUFS_MVDOWN_FORCE is set. otherwise return
+	 *	error.
+	 * bdst < bfound
+	 *	found, after we create the file on bdst, it will be hidden.
+	 */
+
+	AuDebugOn(a->bfound == -1
+		  && a->bwh != -1
+		  && a->bwh <= a->mvd_bsrc);
+	AuDebugOn(-1 < a->bfound
+		  && a->bfound <= a->mvd_bsrc);
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (a->bfound == -1
+	    && a->mvd_bsrc < a->bwh
+	    && a->bwh != -1
+	    && a->bwh < a->mvd_bdst) {
+		a->mvd_errno = EAU_MVDOWN_WHITEOUT;
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "bsrc %d, bdst %d, bfound %d, bwh %d\n",
+			  a->mvd_bsrc, a->mvd_bdst, a->bfound, a->bwh);
+		goto out;
+	} else if (a->bfound != -1 && a->bfound < a->mvd_bdst) {
+		a->mvd_errno = EAU_MVDOWN_UPPER;
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "bdst %d, bfound %d\n",
+			  a->mvd_bdst, a->bfound);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0; /* success */
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_mvd_args_exist(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!(a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_OWLOWER)
+	    && a->bfound == a->mvd_bdst)
+		err = -EEXIST;
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_mvd_args(const unsigned char dmsg, struct au_mvd_args *a)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	err = -EISDIR;
+	if (unlikely(S_ISDIR(a->inode->i_mode)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (!(a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_BRID_UPPER))
+		a->mvd_bsrc = au_ibstart(a->inode);
+	else {
+		a->mvd_bsrc = au_br_index(a->sb, a->mvd_src_brid);
+		if (unlikely(a->mvd_bsrc < 0
+			     || (a->mvd_bsrc < au_dbstart(a->dentry)
+				 || au_dbend(a->dentry) < a->mvd_bsrc
+				 || !au_h_dptr(a->dentry, a->mvd_bsrc))
+			     || (a->mvd_bsrc < au_ibstart(a->inode)
+				 || au_ibend(a->inode) < a->mvd_bsrc
+				 || !au_h_iptr(a->inode, a->mvd_bsrc)))) {
+			a->mvd_errno = EAU_MVDOWN_NOUPPER;
+			AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "no upper\n");
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+	if (unlikely(a->mvd_bsrc == au_sbend(a->sb))) {
+		a->mvd_errno = EAU_MVDOWN_BOTTOM;
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "on the bottom\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+	a->mvd_h_src_inode = au_h_iptr(a->inode, a->mvd_bsrc);
+	br = au_sbr(a->sb, a->mvd_bsrc);
+	err = au_br_rdonly(br);
+	if (!(a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_ROUPPER)) {
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	} else if (!(vfsub_native_ro(a->mvd_h_src_inode)
+		     || IS_APPEND(a->mvd_h_src_inode))) {
+		if (err)
+			a->mvdown.flags |= AUFS_MVDOWN_ROUPPER_R;
+		/* go on */
+	} else
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (!(a->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_BRID_LOWER)) {
+		a->mvd_bdst = find_lower_writable(a);
+		if (unlikely(a->mvd_bdst < 0)) {
+			a->mvd_errno = EAU_MVDOWN_BOTTOM;
+			AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "no writable lower branch\n");
+			goto out;
+		}
+	} else {
+		a->mvd_bdst = au_br_index(a->sb, a->mvd_dst_brid);
+		if (unlikely(a->mvd_bdst < 0
+			     || au_sbend(a->sb) < a->mvd_bdst)) {
+			a->mvd_errno = EAU_MVDOWN_NOLOWERBR;
+			AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "no lower brid\n");
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+
+	err = au_mvd_args_busy(dmsg, a);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_mvd_args_parent(dmsg, a);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_mvd_args_intermediate(dmsg, a);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_mvd_args_exist(dmsg, a);
+	if (!err)
+		AuDbg("b%d, b%d\n", a->mvd_bsrc, a->mvd_bdst);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_mvdown(struct dentry *dentry, struct aufs_mvdown __user *uarg)
+{
+	int err, e;
+	unsigned char dmsg;
+	struct au_mvd_args *args;
+
+	err = -EPERM;
+	if (unlikely(!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN)))
+		goto out;
+
+	WARN_ONCE(1, "move-down is still testing...\n");
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	args = kmalloc(sizeof(*args), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!args))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = copy_from_user(&args->mvdown, uarg, sizeof(args->mvdown));
+	if (!err)
+		err = !access_ok(VERIFY_WRITE, uarg, sizeof(*uarg));
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+	AuDbg("flags 0x%x\n", args->mvdown.flags);
+	args->mvdown.flags &= ~(AUFS_MVDOWN_ROLOWER_R | AUFS_MVDOWN_ROUPPER_R);
+	args->mvdown.au_errno = 0;
+	args->dentry = dentry;
+	args->inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	args->sb = dentry->d_sb;
+
+	err = -ENOENT;
+	dmsg = !!(args->mvdown.flags & AUFS_MVDOWN_DMSG);
+	args->parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	args->dir = args->parent->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&args->dir->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
+	dput(args->parent);
+	if (unlikely(args->parent != dentry->d_parent)) {
+		AU_MVD_PR(dmsg, "parent dir is moved\n");
+		goto out_dir;
+	}
+
+	mutex_lock_nested(&args->inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_CHILD);
+	err = aufs_read_lock(dentry, AuLock_DW | AuLock_FLUSH);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_inode;
+
+	di_write_lock_parent(args->parent);
+	err = au_mvd_args(dmsg, args);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_parent;
+
+	AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+	AuDbgInode(args->inode);
+	err = au_do_mvdown(dmsg, args);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_parent;
+	AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+	AuDbgInode(args->inode);
+
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(args->dir);
+	au_cpup_attr_timesizes(args->inode);
+	au_cpup_igen(args->inode, au_h_iptr(args->inode, args->mvd_bdst));
+	/* au_digen_dec(dentry); */
+
+out_parent:
+	di_write_unlock(args->parent);
+	aufs_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_DW);
+out_inode:
+	mutex_unlock(&args->inode->i_mutex);
+out_dir:
+	mutex_unlock(&args->dir->i_mutex);
+out_free:
+	e = copy_to_user(uarg, &args->mvdown, sizeof(args->mvdown));
+	if (unlikely(e))
+		err = -EFAULT;
+	kfree(args);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/opts.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/opts.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/opts.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/opts.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1703 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * mount options/flags
+ */
+
+#include <linux/namei.h>
+#include <linux/types.h> /* a distribution requires */
+#include <linux/parser.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+enum {
+	Opt_br,
+	Opt_add, Opt_del, Opt_mod, Opt_reorder, Opt_append, Opt_prepend,
+	Opt_idel, Opt_imod, Opt_ireorder,
+	Opt_dirwh, Opt_rdcache, Opt_rdblk, Opt_rdhash, Opt_rendir,
+	Opt_rdblk_def, Opt_rdhash_def,
+	Opt_xino, Opt_zxino, Opt_noxino,
+	Opt_trunc_xino, Opt_trunc_xino_v, Opt_notrunc_xino,
+	Opt_trunc_xino_path, Opt_itrunc_xino,
+	Opt_trunc_xib, Opt_notrunc_xib,
+	Opt_shwh, Opt_noshwh,
+	Opt_plink, Opt_noplink, Opt_list_plink,
+	Opt_udba,
+	Opt_dio, Opt_nodio,
+	/* Opt_lock, Opt_unlock, */
+	Opt_cmd, Opt_cmd_args,
+	Opt_diropq_a, Opt_diropq_w,
+	Opt_warn_perm, Opt_nowarn_perm,
+	Opt_wbr_copyup, Opt_wbr_create,
+	Opt_refrof, Opt_norefrof,
+	Opt_verbose, Opt_noverbose,
+	Opt_sum, Opt_nosum, Opt_wsum,
+	Opt_tail, Opt_ignore, Opt_ignore_silent, Opt_err
+};
+
+static match_table_t options = {
+	{Opt_br, "br=%s"},
+	{Opt_br, "br:%s"},
+
+	{Opt_add, "add=%d:%s"},
+	{Opt_add, "add:%d:%s"},
+	{Opt_add, "ins=%d:%s"},
+	{Opt_add, "ins:%d:%s"},
+	{Opt_append, "append=%s"},
+	{Opt_append, "append:%s"},
+	{Opt_prepend, "prepend=%s"},
+	{Opt_prepend, "prepend:%s"},
+
+	{Opt_del, "del=%s"},
+	{Opt_del, "del:%s"},
+	/* {Opt_idel, "idel:%d"}, */
+	{Opt_mod, "mod=%s"},
+	{Opt_mod, "mod:%s"},
+	/* {Opt_imod, "imod:%d:%s"}, */
+
+	{Opt_dirwh, "dirwh=%d"},
+
+	{Opt_xino, "xino=%s"},
+	{Opt_noxino, "noxino"},
+	{Opt_trunc_xino, "trunc_xino"},
+	{Opt_trunc_xino_v, "trunc_xino_v=%d:%d"},
+	{Opt_notrunc_xino, "notrunc_xino"},
+	{Opt_trunc_xino_path, "trunc_xino=%s"},
+	{Opt_itrunc_xino, "itrunc_xino=%d"},
+	/* {Opt_zxino, "zxino=%s"}, */
+	{Opt_trunc_xib, "trunc_xib"},
+	{Opt_notrunc_xib, "notrunc_xib"},
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
+	{Opt_plink, "plink"},
+#else
+	{Opt_ignore_silent, "plink"},
+#endif
+
+	{Opt_noplink, "noplink"},
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+	{Opt_list_plink, "list_plink"},
+#endif
+
+	{Opt_udba, "udba=%s"},
+
+	{Opt_dio, "dio"},
+	{Opt_nodio, "nodio"},
+
+	{Opt_diropq_a, "diropq=always"},
+	{Opt_diropq_a, "diropq=a"},
+	{Opt_diropq_w, "diropq=whiteouted"},
+	{Opt_diropq_w, "diropq=w"},
+
+	{Opt_warn_perm, "warn_perm"},
+	{Opt_nowarn_perm, "nowarn_perm"},
+
+	/* keep them temporary */
+	{Opt_ignore_silent, "coo=%s"},
+	{Opt_ignore_silent, "nodlgt"},
+	{Opt_ignore_silent, "nodirperm1"},
+	{Opt_ignore_silent, "clean_plink"},
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+	{Opt_shwh, "shwh"},
+#endif
+	{Opt_noshwh, "noshwh"},
+
+	{Opt_rendir, "rendir=%d"},
+
+	{Opt_refrof, "refrof"},
+	{Opt_norefrof, "norefrof"},
+
+	{Opt_verbose, "verbose"},
+	{Opt_verbose, "v"},
+	{Opt_noverbose, "noverbose"},
+	{Opt_noverbose, "quiet"},
+	{Opt_noverbose, "q"},
+	{Opt_noverbose, "silent"},
+
+	{Opt_sum, "sum"},
+	{Opt_nosum, "nosum"},
+	{Opt_wsum, "wsum"},
+
+	{Opt_rdcache, "rdcache=%d"},
+	{Opt_rdblk, "rdblk=%d"},
+	{Opt_rdblk_def, "rdblk=def"},
+	{Opt_rdhash, "rdhash=%d"},
+	{Opt_rdhash_def, "rdhash=def"},
+
+	{Opt_wbr_create, "create=%s"},
+	{Opt_wbr_create, "create_policy=%s"},
+	{Opt_wbr_copyup, "cpup=%s"},
+	{Opt_wbr_copyup, "copyup=%s"},
+	{Opt_wbr_copyup, "copyup_policy=%s"},
+
+	/* internal use for the scripts */
+	{Opt_ignore_silent, "si=%s"},
+
+	{Opt_br, "dirs=%s"},
+	{Opt_ignore, "debug=%d"},
+	{Opt_ignore, "delete=whiteout"},
+	{Opt_ignore, "delete=all"},
+	{Opt_ignore, "imap=%s"},
+
+	/* temporary workaround, due to old mount(8)? */
+	{Opt_ignore_silent, "relatime"},
+
+	{Opt_err, NULL}
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static const char *au_parser_pattern(int val, struct match_token *token)
+{
+	while (token->pattern) {
+		if (token->token == val)
+			return token->pattern;
+		token++;
+	}
+	BUG();
+	return "??";
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static match_table_t brperm = {
+	{AuBrPerm_RO, AUFS_BRPERM_RO},
+	{AuBrPerm_RR, AUFS_BRPERM_RR},
+	{AuBrPerm_RW, AUFS_BRPERM_RW},
+	{0, NULL}
+};
+
+static match_table_t brattr = {
+	{AuBrAttr_UNPIN, AUFS_BRATTR_UNPIN},
+	{AuBrRAttr_WH, AUFS_BRRATTR_WH},
+	{AuBrWAttr_NoLinkWH, AUFS_BRWATTR_NLWH},
+	{0, NULL}
+};
+
+#define AuBrStr_LONGEST	AUFS_BRPERM_RW \
+	"+" AUFS_BRATTR_UNPIN \
+	"+" AUFS_BRWATTR_NLWH
+
+static int br_attr_val(char *str, match_table_t table, substring_t args[])
+{
+	int attr, v;
+	char *p;
+
+	attr = 0;
+	do {
+		p = strchr(str, '+');
+		if (p)
+			*p = 0;
+		v = match_token(str, table, args);
+		if (v)
+			attr |= v;
+		else {
+			if (p)
+				*p = '+';
+			pr_warn("ignored branch attribute %s\n", str);
+			break;
+		}
+		if (p)
+			str = p + 1;
+	} while (p);
+
+	return attr;
+}
+
+static int noinline_for_stack br_perm_val(char *perm)
+{
+	int val;
+	char *p, *q;
+	substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
+
+	p = strchr(perm, '+');
+	if (p)
+		*p = 0;
+	val = match_token(perm, brperm, args);
+	if (!val) {
+		if (p)
+			*p = '+';
+		pr_warn("ignored branch permission %s\n", perm);
+		val = AuBrPerm_RO;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (!p)
+		goto out;
+
+	p++;
+	while (1) {
+		q = strchr(p, '+');
+		if (q)
+			*q = 0;
+		val |= br_attr_val(p, brattr, args);
+		if (q) {
+			*q = '+';
+			p = q + 1;
+		} else
+			break;
+	}
+	switch (val & AuBrPerm_Mask) {
+	case AuBrPerm_RO:
+	case AuBrPerm_RR:
+		if (unlikely(val & AuBrWAttr_NoLinkWH)) {
+			pr_warn("ignored branch attribute %s\n",
+				AUFS_BRWATTR_NLWH);
+			val &= ~AuBrWAttr_NoLinkWH;
+		}
+		break;
+	case AuBrPerm_RW:
+		if (unlikely(val & AuBrRAttr_WH)) {
+			pr_warn("ignored branch attribute %s\n",
+				AUFS_BRRATTR_WH);
+			val &= ~AuBrRAttr_WH;
+		}
+		break;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return val;
+}
+
+/* Caller should free the return value */
+char *au_optstr_br_perm(int brperm)
+{
+	char *p, a[sizeof(AuBrStr_LONGEST)];
+	int sz;
+
+#define SetPerm(str) do {			\
+		sz = sizeof(str);		\
+		memcpy(a, str, sz);		\
+		p = a + sz - 1;			\
+	} while (0)
+
+#define AppendAttr(flag, str) do {			\
+		if (brperm & flag) {		\
+			sz = sizeof(str);	\
+			*p++ = '+';		\
+			memcpy(p, str, sz);	\
+			p += sz - 1;		\
+		}				\
+	} while (0)
+
+	switch (brperm & AuBrPerm_Mask) {
+	case AuBrPerm_RO:
+		SetPerm(AUFS_BRPERM_RO);
+		break;
+	case AuBrPerm_RR:
+		SetPerm(AUFS_BRPERM_RR);
+		break;
+	case AuBrPerm_RW:
+		SetPerm(AUFS_BRPERM_RW);
+		break;
+	default:
+		AuDebugOn(1);
+	}
+
+	AppendAttr(AuBrAttr_UNPIN, AUFS_BRATTR_UNPIN);
+	AppendAttr(AuBrRAttr_WH, AUFS_BRRATTR_WH);
+	AppendAttr(AuBrWAttr_NoLinkWH, AUFS_BRWATTR_NLWH);
+
+	AuDebugOn(strlen(a) >= sizeof(a));
+	return kstrdup(a, GFP_NOFS);
+#undef SetPerm
+#undef AppendAttr
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static match_table_t udbalevel = {
+	{AuOpt_UDBA_REVAL, "reval"},
+	{AuOpt_UDBA_NONE, "none"},
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+	{AuOpt_UDBA_HNOTIFY, "notify"}, /* abstraction */
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_HFSNOTIFY
+	{AuOpt_UDBA_HNOTIFY, "fsnotify"},
+#endif
+#endif
+	{-1, NULL}
+};
+
+static int noinline_for_stack udba_val(char *str)
+{
+	substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
+
+	return match_token(str, udbalevel, args);
+}
+
+const char *au_optstr_udba(int udba)
+{
+	return au_parser_pattern(udba, (void *)udbalevel);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static match_table_t au_wbr_create_policy = {
+	{AuWbrCreate_TDP, "tdp"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_TDP, "top-down-parent"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_RR, "rr"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_RR, "round-robin"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_MFS, "mfs"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_MFS, "most-free-space"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_MFSV, "mfs:%d"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_MFSV, "most-free-space:%d"},
+
+	{AuWbrCreate_MFSRR, "mfsrr:%d"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_MFSRRV, "mfsrr:%d:%d"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_PMFS, "pmfs"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_PMFSV, "pmfs:%d"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_PMFSRR, "pmfsrr:%d"},
+	{AuWbrCreate_PMFSRRV, "pmfsrr:%d:%d"},
+
+	{-1, NULL}
+};
+
+/*
+ * cf. linux/lib/parser.c and cmdline.c
+ * gave up calling memparse() since it uses simple_strtoull() instead of
+ * kstrto...().
+ */
+static int noinline_for_stack
+au_match_ull(substring_t *s, unsigned long long *result)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int len;
+	char a[32];
+
+	err = -ERANGE;
+	len = s->to - s->from;
+	if (len + 1 <= sizeof(a)) {
+		memcpy(a, s->from, len);
+		a[len] = '\0';
+		err = kstrtoull(a, 0, result);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_mfs_wmark(substring_t *arg, char *str,
+			    struct au_opt_wbr_create *create)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long long ull;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!au_match_ull(arg, &ull))
+		create->mfsrr_watermark = ull;
+	else {
+		pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", str);
+		err = -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_mfs_sec(substring_t *arg, char *str,
+			  struct au_opt_wbr_create *create)
+{
+	int n, err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!match_int(arg, &n) && 0 <= n && n <= AUFS_MFS_MAX_SEC)
+		create->mfs_second = n;
+	else {
+		pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", str);
+		err = -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int noinline_for_stack
+au_wbr_create_val(char *str, struct au_opt_wbr_create *create)
+{
+	int err, e;
+	substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
+
+	err = match_token(str, au_wbr_create_policy, args);
+	create->wbr_create = err;
+	switch (err) {
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSRRV:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSRRV:
+		e = au_wbr_mfs_wmark(&args[0], str, create);
+		if (!e)
+			e = au_wbr_mfs_sec(&args[1], str, create);
+		if (unlikely(e))
+			err = e;
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSRR:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSRR:
+		e = au_wbr_mfs_wmark(&args[0], str, create);
+		if (unlikely(e)) {
+			err = e;
+			break;
+		}
+		/*FALLTHROUGH*/
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFS:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFS:
+		create->mfs_second = AUFS_MFS_DEF_SEC;
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSV:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSV:
+		e = au_wbr_mfs_sec(&args[0], str, create);
+		if (unlikely(e))
+			err = e;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+const char *au_optstr_wbr_create(int wbr_create)
+{
+	return au_parser_pattern(wbr_create, (void *)au_wbr_create_policy);
+}
+
+static match_table_t au_wbr_copyup_policy = {
+	{AuWbrCopyup_TDP, "tdp"},
+	{AuWbrCopyup_TDP, "top-down-parent"},
+	{AuWbrCopyup_BUP, "bup"},
+	{AuWbrCopyup_BUP, "bottom-up-parent"},
+	{AuWbrCopyup_BU, "bu"},
+	{AuWbrCopyup_BU, "bottom-up"},
+	{-1, NULL}
+};
+
+static int noinline_for_stack au_wbr_copyup_val(char *str)
+{
+	substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
+
+	return match_token(str, au_wbr_copyup_policy, args);
+}
+
+const char *au_optstr_wbr_copyup(int wbr_copyup)
+{
+	return au_parser_pattern(wbr_copyup, (void *)au_wbr_copyup_policy);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static const int lkup_dirflags = LOOKUP_FOLLOW | LOOKUP_DIRECTORY;
+
+static void dump_opts(struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+	/* reduce stack space */
+	union {
+		struct au_opt_add *add;
+		struct au_opt_del *del;
+		struct au_opt_mod *mod;
+		struct au_opt_xino *xino;
+		struct au_opt_xino_itrunc *xino_itrunc;
+		struct au_opt_wbr_create *create;
+	} u;
+	struct au_opt *opt;
+
+	opt = opts->opt;
+	while (opt->type != Opt_tail) {
+		switch (opt->type) {
+		case Opt_add:
+			u.add = &opt->add;
+			AuDbg("add {b%d, %s, 0x%x, %p}\n",
+				  u.add->bindex, u.add->pathname, u.add->perm,
+				  u.add->path.dentry);
+			break;
+		case Opt_del:
+		case Opt_idel:
+			u.del = &opt->del;
+			AuDbg("del {%s, %p}\n",
+			      u.del->pathname, u.del->h_path.dentry);
+			break;
+		case Opt_mod:
+		case Opt_imod:
+			u.mod = &opt->mod;
+			AuDbg("mod {%s, 0x%x, %p}\n",
+				  u.mod->path, u.mod->perm, u.mod->h_root);
+			break;
+		case Opt_append:
+			u.add = &opt->add;
+			AuDbg("append {b%d, %s, 0x%x, %p}\n",
+				  u.add->bindex, u.add->pathname, u.add->perm,
+				  u.add->path.dentry);
+			break;
+		case Opt_prepend:
+			u.add = &opt->add;
+			AuDbg("prepend {b%d, %s, 0x%x, %p}\n",
+				  u.add->bindex, u.add->pathname, u.add->perm,
+				  u.add->path.dentry);
+			break;
+		case Opt_dirwh:
+			AuDbg("dirwh %d\n", opt->dirwh);
+			break;
+		case Opt_rdcache:
+			AuDbg("rdcache %d\n", opt->rdcache);
+			break;
+		case Opt_rdblk:
+			AuDbg("rdblk %u\n", opt->rdblk);
+			break;
+		case Opt_rdblk_def:
+			AuDbg("rdblk_def\n");
+			break;
+		case Opt_rdhash:
+			AuDbg("rdhash %u\n", opt->rdhash);
+			break;
+		case Opt_rdhash_def:
+			AuDbg("rdhash_def\n");
+			break;
+		case Opt_xino:
+			u.xino = &opt->xino;
+			AuDbg("xino {%s %.*s}\n",
+				  u.xino->path,
+				  AuDLNPair(u.xino->file->f_dentry));
+			break;
+		case Opt_trunc_xino:
+			AuLabel(trunc_xino);
+			break;
+		case Opt_notrunc_xino:
+			AuLabel(notrunc_xino);
+			break;
+		case Opt_trunc_xino_path:
+		case Opt_itrunc_xino:
+			u.xino_itrunc = &opt->xino_itrunc;
+			AuDbg("trunc_xino %d\n", u.xino_itrunc->bindex);
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_noxino:
+			AuLabel(noxino);
+			break;
+		case Opt_trunc_xib:
+			AuLabel(trunc_xib);
+			break;
+		case Opt_notrunc_xib:
+			AuLabel(notrunc_xib);
+			break;
+		case Opt_shwh:
+			AuLabel(shwh);
+			break;
+		case Opt_noshwh:
+			AuLabel(noshwh);
+			break;
+		case Opt_plink:
+			AuLabel(plink);
+			break;
+		case Opt_noplink:
+			AuLabel(noplink);
+			break;
+		case Opt_list_plink:
+			AuLabel(list_plink);
+			break;
+		case Opt_udba:
+			AuDbg("udba %d, %s\n",
+				  opt->udba, au_optstr_udba(opt->udba));
+			break;
+		case Opt_dio:
+			AuLabel(dio);
+			break;
+		case Opt_nodio:
+			AuLabel(nodio);
+			break;
+		case Opt_diropq_a:
+			AuLabel(diropq_a);
+			break;
+		case Opt_diropq_w:
+			AuLabel(diropq_w);
+			break;
+		case Opt_warn_perm:
+			AuLabel(warn_perm);
+			break;
+		case Opt_nowarn_perm:
+			AuLabel(nowarn_perm);
+			break;
+		case Opt_refrof:
+			AuLabel(refrof);
+			break;
+		case Opt_norefrof:
+			AuLabel(norefrof);
+			break;
+		case Opt_verbose:
+			AuLabel(verbose);
+			break;
+		case Opt_noverbose:
+			AuLabel(noverbose);
+			break;
+		case Opt_sum:
+			AuLabel(sum);
+			break;
+		case Opt_nosum:
+			AuLabel(nosum);
+			break;
+		case Opt_wsum:
+			AuLabel(wsum);
+			break;
+		case Opt_wbr_create:
+			u.create = &opt->wbr_create;
+			AuDbg("create %d, %s\n", u.create->wbr_create,
+				  au_optstr_wbr_create(u.create->wbr_create));
+			switch (u.create->wbr_create) {
+			case AuWbrCreate_MFSV:
+			case AuWbrCreate_PMFSV:
+				AuDbg("%d sec\n", u.create->mfs_second);
+				break;
+			case AuWbrCreate_MFSRR:
+				AuDbg("%llu watermark\n",
+					  u.create->mfsrr_watermark);
+				break;
+			case AuWbrCreate_MFSRRV:
+			case AuWbrCreate_PMFSRRV:
+				AuDbg("%llu watermark, %d sec\n",
+					  u.create->mfsrr_watermark,
+					  u.create->mfs_second);
+				break;
+			}
+			break;
+		case Opt_wbr_copyup:
+			AuDbg("copyup %d, %s\n", opt->wbr_copyup,
+				  au_optstr_wbr_copyup(opt->wbr_copyup));
+			break;
+		default:
+			BUG();
+		}
+		opt++;
+	}
+#endif
+}
+
+void au_opts_free(struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+	struct au_opt *opt;
+
+	opt = opts->opt;
+	while (opt->type != Opt_tail) {
+		switch (opt->type) {
+		case Opt_add:
+		case Opt_append:
+		case Opt_prepend:
+			path_put(&opt->add.path);
+			break;
+		case Opt_del:
+		case Opt_idel:
+			path_put(&opt->del.h_path);
+			break;
+		case Opt_mod:
+		case Opt_imod:
+			dput(opt->mod.h_root);
+			break;
+		case Opt_xino:
+			fput(opt->xino.file);
+			break;
+		}
+		opt++;
+	}
+}
+
+static int opt_add(struct au_opt *opt, char *opt_str, unsigned long sb_flags,
+		   aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_opt_add *add = &opt->add;
+	char *p;
+
+	add->bindex = bindex;
+	add->perm = AuBrPerm_RO;
+	add->pathname = opt_str;
+	p = strchr(opt_str, '=');
+	if (p) {
+		*p++ = 0;
+		if (*p)
+			add->perm = br_perm_val(p);
+	}
+
+	err = vfsub_kern_path(add->pathname, lkup_dirflags, &add->path);
+	if (!err) {
+		if (!p) {
+			add->perm = AuBrPerm_RO;
+			if (au_test_fs_rr(add->path.dentry->d_sb))
+				add->perm = AuBrPerm_RR;
+			else if (!bindex && !(sb_flags & MS_RDONLY))
+				add->perm = AuBrPerm_RW;
+		}
+		opt->type = Opt_add;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	pr_err("lookup failed %s (%d)\n", add->pathname, err);
+	err = -EINVAL;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_opts_parse_del(struct au_opt_del *del, substring_t args[])
+{
+	int err;
+
+	del->pathname = args[0].from;
+	AuDbg("del path %s\n", del->pathname);
+
+	err = vfsub_kern_path(del->pathname, lkup_dirflags, &del->h_path);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		pr_err("lookup failed %s (%d)\n", del->pathname, err);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* reserved for future use */
+static int au_opts_parse_idel(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			      struct au_opt_del *del, substring_t args[])
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *root;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	aufs_read_lock(root, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	if (bindex < 0 || au_sbend(sb) < bindex) {
+		pr_err("out of bounds, %d\n", bindex);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	del->h_path.dentry = dget(au_h_dptr(root, bindex));
+	del->h_path.mnt = mntget(au_sbr_mnt(sb, bindex));
+
+out:
+	aufs_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+	return err;
+}
+#endif
+
+static int noinline_for_stack
+au_opts_parse_mod(struct au_opt_mod *mod, substring_t args[])
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path path;
+	char *p;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	mod->path = args[0].from;
+	p = strchr(mod->path, '=');
+	if (unlikely(!p)) {
+		pr_err("no permssion %s\n", args[0].from);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	*p++ = 0;
+	err = vfsub_kern_path(mod->path, lkup_dirflags, &path);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		pr_err("lookup failed %s (%d)\n", mod->path, err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	mod->perm = br_perm_val(p);
+	AuDbg("mod path %s, perm 0x%x, %s\n", mod->path, mod->perm, p);
+	mod->h_root = dget(path.dentry);
+	path_put(&path);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* reserved for future use */
+static int au_opts_parse_imod(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			      struct au_opt_mod *mod, substring_t args[])
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *root;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	aufs_read_lock(root, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	if (bindex < 0 || au_sbend(sb) < bindex) {
+		pr_err("out of bounds, %d\n", bindex);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	mod->perm = br_perm_val(args[1].from);
+	AuDbg("mod path %s, perm 0x%x, %s\n",
+	      mod->path, mod->perm, args[1].from);
+	mod->h_root = dget(au_h_dptr(root, bindex));
+
+out:
+	aufs_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+	return err;
+}
+#endif
+
+static int au_opts_parse_xino(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_xino *xino,
+			      substring_t args[])
+{
+	int err;
+	struct file *file;
+
+	file = au_xino_create(sb, args[0].from, /*silent*/0);
+	err = PTR_ERR(file);
+	if (IS_ERR(file))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (unlikely(file->f_dentry->d_sb == sb)) {
+		fput(file);
+		pr_err("%s must be outside\n", args[0].from);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+	xino->file = file;
+	xino->path = args[0].from;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int noinline_for_stack
+au_opts_parse_xino_itrunc_path(struct super_block *sb,
+			       struct au_opt_xino_itrunc *xino_itrunc,
+			       substring_t args[])
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct path path;
+	struct dentry *root;
+
+	err = vfsub_kern_path(args[0].from, lkup_dirflags, &path);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		pr_err("lookup failed %s (%d)\n", args[0].from, err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	xino_itrunc->bindex = -1;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	aufs_read_lock(root, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		if (au_h_dptr(root, bindex) == path.dentry) {
+			xino_itrunc->bindex = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	aufs_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+	path_put(&path);
+
+	if (unlikely(xino_itrunc->bindex < 0)) {
+		pr_err("no such branch %s\n", args[0].from);
+		err = -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* called without aufs lock */
+int au_opts_parse(struct super_block *sb, char *str, struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+	int err, n, token;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	unsigned char skipped;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct au_opt *opt, *opt_tail;
+	char *opt_str;
+	/* reduce the stack space */
+	union {
+		struct au_opt_xino_itrunc *xino_itrunc;
+		struct au_opt_wbr_create *create;
+	} u;
+	struct {
+		substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
+	} *a;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	a = kmalloc(sizeof(*a), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!a))
+		goto out;
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	err = 0;
+	bindex = 0;
+	opt = opts->opt;
+	opt_tail = opt + opts->max_opt - 1;
+	opt->type = Opt_tail;
+	while (!err && (opt_str = strsep(&str, ",")) && *opt_str) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		skipped = 0;
+		token = match_token(opt_str, options, a->args);
+		switch (token) {
+		case Opt_br:
+			err = 0;
+			while (!err && (opt_str = strsep(&a->args[0].from, ":"))
+			       && *opt_str) {
+				err = opt_add(opt, opt_str, opts->sb_flags,
+					      bindex++);
+				if (unlikely(!err && ++opt > opt_tail)) {
+					err = -E2BIG;
+					break;
+				}
+				opt->type = Opt_tail;
+				skipped = 1;
+			}
+			break;
+		case Opt_add:
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&a->args[0], &n))) {
+				pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", opt_str);
+				break;
+			}
+			bindex = n;
+			err = opt_add(opt, a->args[1].from, opts->sb_flags,
+				      bindex);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+		case Opt_append:
+			err = opt_add(opt, a->args[0].from, opts->sb_flags,
+				      /*dummy bindex*/1);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+		case Opt_prepend:
+			err = opt_add(opt, a->args[0].from, opts->sb_flags,
+				      /*bindex*/0);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+		case Opt_del:
+			err = au_opts_parse_del(&opt->del, a->args);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+#if 0 /* reserved for future use */
+		case Opt_idel:
+			del->pathname = "(indexed)";
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&args[0], &n))) {
+				pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", opt_str);
+				break;
+			}
+			err = au_opts_parse_idel(sb, n, &opt->del, a->args);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+#endif
+		case Opt_mod:
+			err = au_opts_parse_mod(&opt->mod, a->args);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+#ifdef IMOD /* reserved for future use */
+		case Opt_imod:
+			u.mod->path = "(indexed)";
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&a->args[0], &n))) {
+				pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", opt_str);
+				break;
+			}
+			err = au_opts_parse_imod(sb, n, &opt->mod, a->args);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+#endif
+		case Opt_xino:
+			err = au_opts_parse_xino(sb, &opt->xino, a->args);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_trunc_xino_path:
+			err = au_opts_parse_xino_itrunc_path
+				(sb, &opt->xino_itrunc, a->args);
+			if (!err)
+				opt->type = token;
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_itrunc_xino:
+			u.xino_itrunc = &opt->xino_itrunc;
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&a->args[0], &n))) {
+				pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", opt_str);
+				break;
+			}
+			u.xino_itrunc->bindex = n;
+			aufs_read_lock(root, AuLock_FLUSH);
+			if (n < 0 || au_sbend(sb) < n) {
+				pr_err("out of bounds, %d\n", n);
+				aufs_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+				break;
+			}
+			aufs_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+			err = 0;
+			opt->type = token;
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_dirwh:
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&a->args[0], &opt->dirwh)))
+				break;
+			err = 0;
+			opt->type = token;
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_rdcache:
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&a->args[0], &n))) {
+				pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", opt_str);
+				break;
+			}
+			if (unlikely(n > AUFS_RDCACHE_MAX)) {
+				pr_err("rdcache must be smaller than %d\n",
+				       AUFS_RDCACHE_MAX);
+				break;
+			}
+			opt->rdcache = n;
+			err = 0;
+			opt->type = token;
+			break;
+		case Opt_rdblk:
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&a->args[0], &n)
+				     || n < 0
+				     || n > KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE)) {
+				pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", opt_str);
+				break;
+			}
+			if (unlikely(n && n < NAME_MAX)) {
+				pr_err("rdblk must be larger than %d\n",
+				       NAME_MAX);
+				break;
+			}
+			opt->rdblk = n;
+			err = 0;
+			opt->type = token;
+			break;
+		case Opt_rdhash:
+			if (unlikely(match_int(&a->args[0], &n)
+				     || n < 0
+				     || n * sizeof(struct hlist_head)
+				     > KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE)) {
+				pr_err("bad integer in %s\n", opt_str);
+				break;
+			}
+			opt->rdhash = n;
+			err = 0;
+			opt->type = token;
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_trunc_xino:
+		case Opt_notrunc_xino:
+		case Opt_noxino:
+		case Opt_trunc_xib:
+		case Opt_notrunc_xib:
+		case Opt_shwh:
+		case Opt_noshwh:
+		case Opt_plink:
+		case Opt_noplink:
+		case Opt_list_plink:
+		case Opt_dio:
+		case Opt_nodio:
+		case Opt_diropq_a:
+		case Opt_diropq_w:
+		case Opt_warn_perm:
+		case Opt_nowarn_perm:
+		case Opt_refrof:
+		case Opt_norefrof:
+		case Opt_verbose:
+		case Opt_noverbose:
+		case Opt_sum:
+		case Opt_nosum:
+		case Opt_wsum:
+		case Opt_rdblk_def:
+		case Opt_rdhash_def:
+			err = 0;
+			opt->type = token;
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_udba:
+			opt->udba = udba_val(a->args[0].from);
+			if (opt->udba >= 0) {
+				err = 0;
+				opt->type = token;
+			} else
+				pr_err("wrong value, %s\n", opt_str);
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_wbr_create:
+			u.create = &opt->wbr_create;
+			u.create->wbr_create
+				= au_wbr_create_val(a->args[0].from, u.create);
+			if (u.create->wbr_create >= 0) {
+				err = 0;
+				opt->type = token;
+			} else
+				pr_err("wrong value, %s\n", opt_str);
+			break;
+		case Opt_wbr_copyup:
+			opt->wbr_copyup = au_wbr_copyup_val(a->args[0].from);
+			if (opt->wbr_copyup >= 0) {
+				err = 0;
+				opt->type = token;
+			} else
+				pr_err("wrong value, %s\n", opt_str);
+			break;
+
+		case Opt_ignore:
+			pr_warn("ignored %s\n", opt_str);
+			/*FALLTHROUGH*/
+		case Opt_ignore_silent:
+			skipped = 1;
+			err = 0;
+			break;
+		case Opt_err:
+			pr_err("unknown option %s\n", opt_str);
+			break;
+		}
+
+		if (!err && !skipped) {
+			if (unlikely(++opt > opt_tail)) {
+				err = -E2BIG;
+				opt--;
+				opt->type = Opt_tail;
+				break;
+			}
+			opt->type = Opt_tail;
+		}
+	}
+
+	kfree(a);
+	dump_opts(opts);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		au_opts_free(opts);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_opt_wbr_create(struct super_block *sb,
+			     struct au_opt_wbr_create *create)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	err = 1; /* handled */
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	if (sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops->fin) {
+		err = sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops->fin(sb);
+		if (!err)
+			err = 1;
+	}
+
+	sbinfo->si_wbr_create = create->wbr_create;
+	sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops = au_wbr_create_ops + create->wbr_create;
+	switch (create->wbr_create) {
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSRRV:
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSRR:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSRR:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSRRV:
+		sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfsrr_watermark = create->mfsrr_watermark;
+		/*FALLTHROUGH*/
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFS:
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSV:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFS:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSV:
+		sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfs_expire
+			= msecs_to_jiffies(create->mfs_second * MSEC_PER_SEC);
+		break;
+	}
+
+	if (sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops->init)
+		sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops->init(sb); /* ignore */
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns,
+ * plus: processed without an error
+ * zero: unprocessed
+ */
+static int au_opt_simple(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt *opt,
+			 struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	err = 1; /* handled */
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	switch (opt->type) {
+	case Opt_udba:
+		sbinfo->si_mntflags &= ~AuOptMask_UDBA;
+		sbinfo->si_mntflags |= opt->udba;
+		opts->given_udba |= opt->udba;
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_plink:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, PLINK);
+		break;
+	case Opt_noplink:
+		if (au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, PLINK))
+			au_plink_put(sb, /*verbose*/1);
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, PLINK);
+		break;
+	case Opt_list_plink:
+		if (au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, PLINK))
+			au_plink_list(sb);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_dio:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, DIO);
+		au_fset_opts(opts->flags, REFRESH_DYAOP);
+		break;
+	case Opt_nodio:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, DIO);
+		au_fset_opts(opts->flags, REFRESH_DYAOP);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_diropq_a:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, ALWAYS_DIROPQ);
+		break;
+	case Opt_diropq_w:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, ALWAYS_DIROPQ);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_warn_perm:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, WARN_PERM);
+		break;
+	case Opt_nowarn_perm:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, WARN_PERM);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_refrof:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, REFROF);
+		break;
+	case Opt_norefrof:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, REFROF);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_verbose:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, VERBOSE);
+		break;
+	case Opt_noverbose:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, VERBOSE);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_sum:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SUM);
+		break;
+	case Opt_wsum:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SUM);
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SUM_W);
+	case Opt_nosum:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SUM);
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SUM_W);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_wbr_create:
+		err = au_opt_wbr_create(sb, &opt->wbr_create);
+		break;
+	case Opt_wbr_copyup:
+		sbinfo->si_wbr_copyup = opt->wbr_copyup;
+		sbinfo->si_wbr_copyup_ops = au_wbr_copyup_ops + opt->wbr_copyup;
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_dirwh:
+		sbinfo->si_dirwh = opt->dirwh;
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_rdcache:
+		sbinfo->si_rdcache
+			= msecs_to_jiffies(opt->rdcache * MSEC_PER_SEC);
+		break;
+	case Opt_rdblk:
+		sbinfo->si_rdblk = opt->rdblk;
+		break;
+	case Opt_rdblk_def:
+		sbinfo->si_rdblk = AUFS_RDBLK_DEF;
+		break;
+	case Opt_rdhash:
+		sbinfo->si_rdhash = opt->rdhash;
+		break;
+	case Opt_rdhash_def:
+		sbinfo->si_rdhash = AUFS_RDHASH_DEF;
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_shwh:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SHWH);
+		break;
+	case Opt_noshwh:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SHWH);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_trunc_xino:
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, TRUNC_XINO);
+		break;
+	case Opt_notrunc_xino:
+		au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, TRUNC_XINO);
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_trunc_xino_path:
+	case Opt_itrunc_xino:
+		err = au_xino_trunc(sb, opt->xino_itrunc.bindex);
+		if (!err)
+			err = 1;
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_trunc_xib:
+		au_fset_opts(opts->flags, TRUNC_XIB);
+		break;
+	case Opt_notrunc_xib:
+		au_fclr_opts(opts->flags, TRUNC_XIB);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		err = 0;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns tri-state.
+ * plus: processed without an error
+ * zero: unprocessed
+ * minus: error
+ */
+static int au_opt_br(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt *opt,
+		     struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+	int err, do_refresh;
+
+	err = 0;
+	switch (opt->type) {
+	case Opt_append:
+		opt->add.bindex = au_sbend(sb) + 1;
+		if (opt->add.bindex < 0)
+			opt->add.bindex = 0;
+		goto add;
+	case Opt_prepend:
+		opt->add.bindex = 0;
+	add:
+	case Opt_add:
+		err = au_br_add(sb, &opt->add,
+				au_ftest_opts(opts->flags, REMOUNT));
+		if (!err) {
+			err = 1;
+			au_fset_opts(opts->flags, REFRESH);
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_del:
+	case Opt_idel:
+		err = au_br_del(sb, &opt->del,
+				au_ftest_opts(opts->flags, REMOUNT));
+		if (!err) {
+			err = 1;
+			au_fset_opts(opts->flags, TRUNC_XIB);
+			au_fset_opts(opts->flags, REFRESH);
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_mod:
+	case Opt_imod:
+		err = au_br_mod(sb, &opt->mod,
+				au_ftest_opts(opts->flags, REMOUNT),
+				&do_refresh);
+		if (!err) {
+			err = 1;
+			if (do_refresh)
+				au_fset_opts(opts->flags, REFRESH);
+		}
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_opt_xino(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt *opt,
+		       struct au_opt_xino **opt_xino,
+		       struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct dentry *root, *parent, *h_root;
+
+	err = 0;
+	switch (opt->type) {
+	case Opt_xino:
+		err = au_xino_set(sb, &opt->xino,
+				  !!au_ftest_opts(opts->flags, REMOUNT));
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			break;
+
+		*opt_xino = &opt->xino;
+		au_xino_brid_set(sb, -1);
+
+		/* safe d_parent access */
+		parent = opt->xino.file->f_dentry->d_parent;
+		root = sb->s_root;
+		bend = au_sbend(sb);
+		for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			h_root = au_h_dptr(root, bindex);
+			if (h_root == parent) {
+				au_xino_brid_set(sb, au_sbr_id(sb, bindex));
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case Opt_noxino:
+		au_xino_clr(sb);
+		au_xino_brid_set(sb, -1);
+		*opt_xino = (void *)-1;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_opts_verify(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long sb_flags,
+		   unsigned int pending)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	unsigned char do_plink, skip, do_free;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct inode *dir, *h_dir;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct au_hinode *hdir;
+
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	AuDebugOn(!(sbinfo->si_mntflags & AuOptMask_UDBA));
+
+	if (!(sb_flags & MS_RDONLY)) {
+		if (unlikely(!au_br_writable(au_sbr_perm(sb, 0))))
+			pr_warn("first branch should be rw\n");
+		if (unlikely(au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, SHWH)))
+			pr_warn("shwh should be used with ro\n");
+	}
+
+	if (au_opt_test((sbinfo->si_mntflags | pending), UDBA_HNOTIFY)
+	    && !au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO))
+		pr_warn("udba=*notify requires xino\n");
+
+	err = 0;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	dir = root->d_inode;
+	do_plink = !!au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, PLINK);
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		skip = 0;
+		h_dir = au_h_iptr(dir, bindex);
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		do_free = 0;
+
+		wbr = br->br_wbr;
+		if (wbr)
+			wbr_wh_read_lock(wbr);
+
+		if (!au_br_writable(br->br_perm)) {
+			do_free = !!wbr;
+			skip = (!wbr
+				|| (!wbr->wbr_whbase
+				    && !wbr->wbr_plink
+				    && !wbr->wbr_orph));
+		} else if (!au_br_wh_linkable(br->br_perm)) {
+			/* skip = (!br->br_whbase && !br->br_orph); */
+			skip = (!wbr || !wbr->wbr_whbase);
+			if (skip && wbr) {
+				if (do_plink)
+					skip = !!wbr->wbr_plink;
+				else
+					skip = !wbr->wbr_plink;
+			}
+		} else {
+			/* skip = (br->br_whbase && br->br_ohph); */
+			skip = (wbr && wbr->wbr_whbase);
+			if (skip) {
+				if (do_plink)
+					skip = !!wbr->wbr_plink;
+				else
+					skip = !wbr->wbr_plink;
+			}
+		}
+		if (wbr)
+			wbr_wh_read_unlock(wbr);
+
+		if (skip)
+			continue;
+
+		hdir = au_hi(dir, bindex);
+		au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(hdir, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+		if (wbr)
+			wbr_wh_write_lock(wbr);
+		err = au_wh_init(br, sb);
+		if (wbr)
+			wbr_wh_write_unlock(wbr);
+		au_hn_imtx_unlock(hdir);
+
+		if (!err && do_free) {
+			kfree(wbr);
+			br->br_wbr = NULL;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_opts_mount(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int tmp;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct au_opt *opt;
+	struct au_opt_xino *opt_xino, xino;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	err = 0;
+	opt_xino = NULL;
+	opt = opts->opt;
+	while (err >= 0 && opt->type != Opt_tail)
+		err = au_opt_simple(sb, opt++, opts);
+	if (err > 0)
+		err = 0;
+	else if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* disable xino and udba temporary */
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	tmp = sbinfo->si_mntflags;
+	au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO);
+	au_opt_set_udba(sbinfo->si_mntflags, UDBA_REVAL);
+
+	opt = opts->opt;
+	while (err >= 0 && opt->type != Opt_tail)
+		err = au_opt_br(sb, opt++, opts);
+	if (err > 0)
+		err = 0;
+	else if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	if (unlikely(bend < 0)) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		pr_err("no branches\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (au_opt_test(tmp, XINO))
+		au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO);
+	opt = opts->opt;
+	while (!err && opt->type != Opt_tail)
+		err = au_opt_xino(sb, opt++, &opt_xino, opts);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_opts_verify(sb, sb->s_flags, tmp);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* restore xino */
+	if (au_opt_test(tmp, XINO) && !opt_xino) {
+		xino.file = au_xino_def(sb);
+		err = PTR_ERR(xino.file);
+		if (IS_ERR(xino.file))
+			goto out;
+
+		err = au_xino_set(sb, &xino, /*remount*/0);
+		fput(xino.file);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* restore udba */
+	tmp &= AuOptMask_UDBA;
+	sbinfo->si_mntflags &= ~AuOptMask_UDBA;
+	sbinfo->si_mntflags |= tmp;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		err = au_hnotify_reset_br(tmp, br, br->br_perm);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			AuIOErr("hnotify failed on br %d, %d, ignored\n",
+				bindex, err);
+		/* go on even if err */
+	}
+	if (au_opt_test(tmp, UDBA_HNOTIFY)) {
+		struct inode *dir = sb->s_root->d_inode;
+		au_hn_reset(dir, au_hi_flags(dir, /*isdir*/1) & ~AuHi_XINO);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_opts_remount(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opts *opts)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct au_opt_xino *opt_xino;
+	struct au_opt *opt;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	dir = sb->s_root->d_inode;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	err = 0;
+	opt_xino = NULL;
+	opt = opts->opt;
+	while (err >= 0 && opt->type != Opt_tail) {
+		err = au_opt_simple(sb, opt, opts);
+		if (!err)
+			err = au_opt_br(sb, opt, opts);
+		if (!err)
+			err = au_opt_xino(sb, opt, &opt_xino, opts);
+		opt++;
+	}
+	if (err > 0)
+		err = 0;
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	/* go on even err */
+
+	rerr = au_opts_verify(sb, opts->sb_flags, /*pending*/0);
+	if (unlikely(rerr && !err))
+		err = rerr;
+
+	if (au_ftest_opts(opts->flags, TRUNC_XIB)) {
+		rerr = au_xib_trunc(sb);
+		if (unlikely(rerr && !err))
+			err = rerr;
+	}
+
+	/* will be handled by the caller */
+	if (!au_ftest_opts(opts->flags, REFRESH)
+	    && (opts->given_udba || au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO)))
+		au_fset_opts(opts->flags, REFRESH);
+
+	AuDbg("status 0x%x\n", opts->flags);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+unsigned int au_opt_udba(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return au_mntflags(sb) & AuOptMask_UDBA;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/opts.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/opts.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/opts.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/opts.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,210 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * mount options/flags
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_OPTS_H__
+#define __AUFS_OPTS_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/path.h>
+
+struct file;
+struct super_block;
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* mount flags */
+#define AuOpt_XINO		1		/* external inode number bitmap
+						   and translation table */
+#define AuOpt_TRUNC_XINO	(1 << 1)	/* truncate xino files */
+#define AuOpt_UDBA_NONE		(1 << 2)	/* users direct branch access */
+#define AuOpt_UDBA_REVAL	(1 << 3)
+#define AuOpt_UDBA_HNOTIFY	(1 << 4)
+#define AuOpt_SHWH		(1 << 5)	/* show whiteout */
+#define AuOpt_PLINK		(1 << 6)	/* pseudo-link */
+#define AuOpt_DIRPERM1		(1 << 7)	/* unimplemented */
+#define AuOpt_REFROF		(1 << 8)	/* unimplemented */
+#define AuOpt_ALWAYS_DIROPQ	(1 << 9)	/* policy to creating diropq */
+#define AuOpt_SUM		(1 << 10)	/* summation for statfs(2) */
+#define AuOpt_SUM_W		(1 << 11)	/* unimplemented */
+#define AuOpt_WARN_PERM		(1 << 12)	/* warn when add-branch */
+#define AuOpt_VERBOSE		(1 << 13)	/* busy inode when del-branch */
+#define AuOpt_DIO		(1 << 14)	/* direct io */
+
+#ifndef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+#undef AuOpt_UDBA_HNOTIFY
+#define AuOpt_UDBA_HNOTIFY	0
+#endif
+#ifndef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+#undef AuOpt_SHWH
+#define AuOpt_SHWH		0
+#endif
+
+#define AuOpt_Def	(AuOpt_XINO \
+			 | AuOpt_UDBA_REVAL \
+			 | AuOpt_PLINK \
+			 /* | AuOpt_DIRPERM1 */ \
+			 | AuOpt_WARN_PERM)
+#define AuOptMask_UDBA	(AuOpt_UDBA_NONE \
+			 | AuOpt_UDBA_REVAL \
+			 | AuOpt_UDBA_HNOTIFY)
+
+#define au_opt_test(flags, name)	(flags & AuOpt_##name)
+#define au_opt_set(flags, name) do { \
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(AuOpt_##name & AuOptMask_UDBA); \
+	((flags) |= AuOpt_##name); \
+} while (0)
+#define au_opt_set_udba(flags, name) do { \
+	(flags) &= ~AuOptMask_UDBA; \
+	((flags) |= AuOpt_##name); \
+} while (0)
+#define au_opt_clr(flags, name) do { \
+	((flags) &= ~AuOpt_##name); \
+} while (0)
+
+static inline unsigned int au_opts_plink(unsigned int mntflags)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
+	return mntflags;
+#else
+	return mntflags & ~AuOpt_PLINK;
+#endif
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* policies to select one among multiple writable branches */
+enum {
+	AuWbrCreate_TDP,	/* top down parent */
+	AuWbrCreate_RR,		/* round robin */
+	AuWbrCreate_MFS,	/* most free space */
+	AuWbrCreate_MFSV,	/* mfs with seconds */
+	AuWbrCreate_MFSRR,	/* mfs then rr */
+	AuWbrCreate_MFSRRV,	/* mfs then rr with seconds */
+	AuWbrCreate_PMFS,	/* parent and mfs */
+	AuWbrCreate_PMFSV,	/* parent and mfs with seconds */
+	AuWbrCreate_PMFSRR,	/* parent, mfs and round-robin */
+	AuWbrCreate_PMFSRRV,	/* plus seconds */
+
+	AuWbrCreate_Def = AuWbrCreate_TDP
+};
+
+enum {
+	AuWbrCopyup_TDP,	/* top down parent */
+	AuWbrCopyup_BUP,	/* bottom up parent */
+	AuWbrCopyup_BU,		/* bottom up */
+
+	AuWbrCopyup_Def = AuWbrCopyup_TDP
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_opt_add {
+	aufs_bindex_t	bindex;
+	char		*pathname;
+	int		perm;
+	struct path	path;
+};
+
+struct au_opt_del {
+	char		*pathname;
+	struct path	h_path;
+};
+
+struct au_opt_mod {
+	char		*path;
+	int		perm;
+	struct dentry	*h_root;
+};
+
+struct au_opt_xino {
+	char		*path;
+	struct file	*file;
+};
+
+struct au_opt_xino_itrunc {
+	aufs_bindex_t	bindex;
+};
+
+struct au_opt_wbr_create {
+	int			wbr_create;
+	int			mfs_second;
+	unsigned long long	mfsrr_watermark;
+};
+
+struct au_opt {
+	int type;
+	union {
+		struct au_opt_xino	xino;
+		struct au_opt_xino_itrunc xino_itrunc;
+		struct au_opt_add	add;
+		struct au_opt_del	del;
+		struct au_opt_mod	mod;
+		int			dirwh;
+		int			rdcache;
+		unsigned int		rdblk;
+		unsigned int		rdhash;
+		int			udba;
+		struct au_opt_wbr_create wbr_create;
+		int			wbr_copyup;
+	};
+};
+
+/* opts flags */
+#define AuOpts_REMOUNT		1
+#define AuOpts_REFRESH		(1 << 1)
+#define AuOpts_TRUNC_XIB	(1 << 2)
+#define AuOpts_REFRESH_DYAOP	(1 << 3)
+#define au_ftest_opts(flags, name)	((flags) & AuOpts_##name)
+#define au_fset_opts(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuOpts_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_opts(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuOpts_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_opts {
+	struct au_opt	*opt;
+	int		max_opt;
+
+	unsigned int	given_udba;
+	unsigned int	flags;
+	unsigned long	sb_flags;
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+char *au_optstr_br_perm(int brperm);
+const char *au_optstr_udba(int udba);
+const char *au_optstr_wbr_copyup(int wbr_copyup);
+const char *au_optstr_wbr_create(int wbr_create);
+
+void au_opts_free(struct au_opts *opts);
+int au_opts_parse(struct super_block *sb, char *str, struct au_opts *opts);
+int au_opts_verify(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long sb_flags,
+		   unsigned int pending);
+int au_opts_mount(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opts *opts);
+int au_opts_remount(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opts *opts);
+
+unsigned int au_opt_udba(struct super_block *sb);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_OPTS_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/plink.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/plink.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/plink.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/plink.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,519 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * pseudo-link
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/*
+ * the pseudo-link maintenance mode.
+ * during a user process maintains the pseudo-links,
+ * prohibit adding a new plink and branch manipulation.
+ *
+ * Flags
+ * NOPLM:
+ *	For entry functions which will handle plink, and i_mutex is already held
+ *	in VFS.
+ *	They cannot wait and should return an error at once.
+ *	Callers has to check the error.
+ * NOPLMW:
+ *	For entry functions which will handle plink, but i_mutex is not held
+ *	in VFS.
+ *	They can wait the plink maintenance mode to finish.
+ *
+ * They behave like F_SETLK and F_SETLKW.
+ * If the caller never handle plink, then both flags are unnecessary.
+ */
+
+int au_plink_maint(struct super_block *sb, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	pid_t pid, ppid;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbi;
+
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK))
+		goto out;
+
+	sbi = au_sbi(sb);
+	pid = sbi->si_plink_maint_pid;
+	if (!pid || pid == current->pid)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* todo: it highly depends upon /sbin/mount.aufs */
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	ppid = task_pid_vnr(rcu_dereference(current->real_parent));
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+	if (pid == ppid)
+		goto out;
+
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, NOPLMW)) {
+		/* if there is no i_mutex lock in VFS, we don't need to wait */
+		/* AuDebugOn(!lockdep_depth(current)); */
+		while (sbi->si_plink_maint_pid) {
+			si_read_unlock(sb);
+			/* gave up wake_up_bit() */
+			wait_event(sbi->si_plink_wq, !sbi->si_plink_maint_pid);
+
+			if (au_ftest_lock(flags, FLUSH))
+				au_nwt_flush(&sbi->si_nowait);
+			si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+		}
+	} else if (au_ftest_lock(flags, NOPLM)) {
+		AuDbg("ppid %d, pid %d\n", ppid, pid);
+		err = -EAGAIN;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_plink_maint_leave(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	spin_lock(&sbinfo->si_plink_maint_lock);
+	sbinfo->si_plink_maint_pid = 0;
+	spin_unlock(&sbinfo->si_plink_maint_lock);
+	wake_up_all(&sbinfo->si_plink_wq);
+}
+
+int au_plink_maint_enter(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	/* make sure i am the only one in this fs */
+	si_write_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK)) {
+		spin_lock(&sbinfo->si_plink_maint_lock);
+		if (!sbinfo->si_plink_maint_pid)
+			sbinfo->si_plink_maint_pid = current->pid;
+		else
+			err = -EBUSY;
+		spin_unlock(&sbinfo->si_plink_maint_lock);
+	}
+	si_write_unlock(sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+void au_plink_list(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct hlist_head *plink_hlist;
+	struct pseudo_link *plink;
+
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK));
+	AuDebugOn(au_plink_maint(sb, AuLock_NOPLM));
+
+	for (i = 0; i < AuPlink_NHASH; i++) {
+		plink_hlist = &sbinfo->si_plink[i].head;
+		rcu_read_lock();
+		hlist_for_each_entry_rcu(plink, plink_hlist, hlist)
+			AuDbg("%lu\n", plink->inode->i_ino);
+		rcu_read_unlock();
+	}
+}
+#endif
+
+/* is the inode pseudo-linked? */
+int au_plink_test(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int found, i;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct hlist_head *plink_hlist;
+	struct pseudo_link *plink;
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(inode->i_sb);
+	AuRwMustAnyLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(inode->i_sb), PLINK));
+	AuDebugOn(au_plink_maint(inode->i_sb, AuLock_NOPLM));
+
+	found = 0;
+	i = au_plink_hash(inode->i_ino);
+	plink_hlist = &sbinfo->si_plink[i].head;
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	hlist_for_each_entry_rcu(plink, plink_hlist, hlist)
+		if (plink->inode == inode) {
+			found = 1;
+			break;
+		}
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+	return found;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * generate a name for plink.
+ * the file will be stored under AUFS_WH_PLINKDIR.
+ */
+/* 20 is max digits length of ulong 64 */
+#define PLINK_NAME_LEN	((20 + 1) * 2)
+
+static int plink_name(char *name, int len, struct inode *inode,
+		      aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	int rlen;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	h_inode = au_h_iptr(inode, bindex);
+	rlen = snprintf(name, len, "%lu.%lu", inode->i_ino, h_inode->i_ino);
+	return rlen;
+}
+
+struct au_do_plink_lkup_args {
+	struct dentry **errp;
+	struct qstr *tgtname;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+};
+
+static struct dentry *au_do_plink_lkup(struct qstr *tgtname,
+				       struct dentry *h_parent,
+				       struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct mutex *h_mtx;
+
+	h_mtx = &h_parent->d_inode->i_mutex;
+	mutex_lock_nested(h_mtx, AuLsc_I_CHILD2);
+	h_dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(tgtname, h_parent);
+	mutex_unlock(h_mtx);
+	return h_dentry;
+}
+
+static void au_call_do_plink_lkup(void *args)
+{
+	struct au_do_plink_lkup_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = au_do_plink_lkup(a->tgtname, a->h_parent, a->br);
+}
+
+/* lookup the plink-ed @inode under the branch at @bindex */
+struct dentry *au_plink_lkup(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct dentry *h_dentry, *h_parent;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	int wkq_err;
+	char a[PLINK_NAME_LEN];
+	struct qstr tgtname = QSTR_INIT(a, 0);
+
+	AuDebugOn(au_plink_maint(inode->i_sb, AuLock_NOPLM));
+
+	br = au_sbr(inode->i_sb, bindex);
+	h_parent = br->br_wbr->wbr_plink;
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	tgtname.len = plink_name(a, sizeof(a), inode, bindex);
+
+	if (!uid_eq(current_fsuid(), GLOBAL_ROOT_UID)) {
+		struct au_do_plink_lkup_args args = {
+			.errp		= &h_dentry,
+			.tgtname	= &tgtname,
+			.h_parent	= h_parent,
+			.br		= br
+		};
+
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(au_call_do_plink_lkup, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			h_dentry = ERR_PTR(wkq_err);
+	} else
+		h_dentry = au_do_plink_lkup(&tgtname, h_parent, br);
+
+	return h_dentry;
+}
+
+/* create a pseudo-link */
+static int do_whplink(struct qstr *tgt, struct dentry *h_parent,
+		      struct dentry *h_dentry, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path = {
+		.mnt = au_br_mnt(br)
+	};
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&h_dir->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD2);
+again:
+	h_path.dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(tgt, h_parent);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_path.dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_path.dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	/* wh.plink dir is not monitored */
+	/* todo: is it really safe? */
+	if (h_path.dentry->d_inode
+	    && h_path.dentry->d_inode != h_dentry->d_inode) {
+		err = vfsub_unlink(h_dir, &h_path, /*force*/0);
+		dput(h_path.dentry);
+		h_path.dentry = NULL;
+		if (!err)
+			goto again;
+	}
+	if (!err && !h_path.dentry->d_inode)
+		err = vfsub_link(h_dentry, h_dir, &h_path);
+	dput(h_path.dentry);
+
+out:
+	mutex_unlock(&h_dir->i_mutex);
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct do_whplink_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct qstr *tgt;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+};
+
+static void call_do_whplink(void *args)
+{
+	struct do_whplink_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = do_whplink(a->tgt, a->h_parent, a->h_dentry, a->br);
+}
+
+static int whplink(struct dentry *h_dentry, struct inode *inode,
+		   aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err, wkq_err;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	char a[PLINK_NAME_LEN];
+	struct qstr tgtname = QSTR_INIT(a, 0);
+
+	wbr = au_sbr(inode->i_sb, bindex)->br_wbr;
+	h_parent = wbr->wbr_plink;
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	tgtname.len = plink_name(a, sizeof(a), inode, bindex);
+
+	/* always superio. */
+	if (!uid_eq(current_fsuid(), GLOBAL_ROOT_UID)) {
+		struct do_whplink_args args = {
+			.errp		= &err,
+			.tgt		= &tgtname,
+			.h_parent	= h_parent,
+			.h_dentry	= h_dentry,
+			.br		= br
+		};
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(call_do_whplink, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	} else
+		err = do_whplink(&tgtname, h_parent, h_dentry, br);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* free a single plink */
+static void do_put_plink(struct pseudo_link *plink, int do_del)
+{
+	if (do_del)
+		hlist_del(&plink->hlist);
+	iput(plink->inode);
+	kfree(plink);
+}
+
+static void do_put_plink_rcu(struct rcu_head *rcu)
+{
+	struct pseudo_link *plink;
+
+	plink = container_of(rcu, struct pseudo_link, rcu);
+	iput(plink->inode);
+	kfree(plink);
+}
+
+/*
+ * create a new pseudo-link for @h_dentry on @bindex.
+ * the linked inode is held in aufs @inode.
+ */
+void au_plink_append(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		     struct dentry *h_dentry)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct hlist_head *plink_hlist;
+	struct pseudo_link *plink, *tmp;
+	struct au_sphlhead *sphl;
+	int found, err, cnt, i;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK));
+	AuDebugOn(au_plink_maint(sb, AuLock_NOPLM));
+
+	found = au_plink_test(inode);
+	if (found)
+		return;
+
+	i = au_plink_hash(inode->i_ino);
+	sphl = sbinfo->si_plink + i;
+	plink_hlist = &sphl->head;
+	tmp = kmalloc(sizeof(*plink), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (tmp)
+		tmp->inode = au_igrab(inode);
+	else {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	spin_lock(&sphl->spin);
+	hlist_for_each_entry(plink, plink_hlist, hlist) {
+		if (plink->inode == inode) {
+			found = 1;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	if (!found)
+		hlist_add_head_rcu(&tmp->hlist, plink_hlist);
+	spin_unlock(&sphl->spin);
+	if (!found) {
+		cnt = au_sphl_count(sphl);
+#define msg "unexpectedly unblanced or too many pseudo-links"
+		if (cnt > AUFS_PLINK_WARN)
+			AuWarn1(msg ", %d\n", cnt);
+#undef msg
+		err = whplink(h_dentry, inode, bindex, au_sbr(sb, bindex));
+	} else {
+		do_put_plink(tmp, 0);
+		return;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		pr_warn("err %d, damaged pseudo link.\n", err);
+		if (tmp) {
+			au_sphl_del_rcu(&tmp->hlist, sphl);
+			call_rcu(&tmp->rcu, do_put_plink_rcu);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+/* free all plinks */
+void au_plink_put(struct super_block *sb, int verbose)
+{
+	int i, warned;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct hlist_head *plink_hlist;
+	struct hlist_node *tmp;
+	struct pseudo_link *plink;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK));
+	AuDebugOn(au_plink_maint(sb, AuLock_NOPLM));
+
+	/* no spin_lock since sbinfo is write-locked */
+	warned = 0;
+	for (i = 0; i < AuPlink_NHASH; i++) {
+		plink_hlist = &sbinfo->si_plink[i].head;
+		if (!warned && verbose && !hlist_empty(plink_hlist)) {
+			pr_warn("pseudo-link is not flushed");
+			warned = 1;
+		}
+		hlist_for_each_entry_safe(plink, tmp, plink_hlist, hlist)
+			do_put_plink(plink, 0);
+		INIT_HLIST_HEAD(plink_hlist);
+	}
+}
+
+void au_plink_clean(struct super_block *sb, int verbose)
+{
+	struct dentry *root;
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	aufs_write_lock(root);
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK))
+		au_plink_put(sb, verbose);
+	aufs_write_unlock(root);
+}
+
+static int au_plink_do_half_refresh(struct inode *inode, aufs_bindex_t br_id)
+{
+	int do_put;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart, bend, bindex;
+
+	do_put = 0;
+	bstart = au_ibstart(inode);
+	bend = au_ibend(inode);
+	if (bstart >= 0) {
+		for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			if (!au_h_iptr(inode, bindex)
+			    || au_ii_br_id(inode, bindex) != br_id)
+				continue;
+			au_set_h_iptr(inode, bindex, NULL, 0);
+			do_put = 1;
+			break;
+		}
+		if (do_put)
+			for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+				if (au_h_iptr(inode, bindex)) {
+					do_put = 0;
+					break;
+				}
+	} else
+		do_put = 1;
+
+	return do_put;
+}
+
+/* free the plinks on a branch specified by @br_id */
+void au_plink_half_refresh(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t br_id)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct hlist_head *plink_hlist;
+	struct hlist_node *tmp;
+	struct pseudo_link *plink;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	int i, do_put;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	AuDebugOn(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK));
+	AuDebugOn(au_plink_maint(sb, AuLock_NOPLM));
+
+	/* no spin_lock since sbinfo is write-locked */
+	for (i = 0; i < AuPlink_NHASH; i++) {
+		plink_hlist = &sbinfo->si_plink[i].head;
+		hlist_for_each_entry_safe(plink, tmp, plink_hlist, hlist) {
+			inode = au_igrab(plink->inode);
+			ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+			do_put = au_plink_do_half_refresh(inode, br_id);
+			if (do_put)
+				do_put_plink(plink, 1);
+			ii_write_unlock(inode);
+			iput(inode);
+		}
+	}
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/poll.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/poll.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/poll.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/poll.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * poll operation
+ * There is only one filesystem which implements ->poll operation, currently.
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+unsigned int aufs_poll(struct file *file, poll_table *wait)
+{
+	unsigned int mask;
+	int err;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	/* We should pretend an error happened. */
+	mask = POLLERR /* | POLLIN | POLLOUT */;
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	err = au_reval_and_lock_fdi(file, au_reopen_nondir, /*wlock*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* it is not an error if h_file has no operation */
+	mask = DEFAULT_POLLMASK;
+	h_file = au_hf_top(file);
+	if (h_file->f_op && h_file->f_op->poll)
+		mask = h_file->f_op->poll(h_file, wait);
+
+	di_read_unlock(dentry, AuLock_IR);
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+
+out:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	AuTraceErr((int)mask);
+	return mask;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/procfs.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/procfs.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/procfs.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/procfs.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,169 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2010-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * procfs interfaces
+ */
+
+#include <linux/proc_fs.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+static int au_procfs_plm_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	sbinfo = file->private_data;
+	if (sbinfo) {
+		au_plink_maint_leave(sbinfo);
+		kobject_put(&sbinfo->si_kobj);
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void au_procfs_plm_write_clean(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	sbinfo = file->private_data;
+	if (sbinfo)
+		au_plink_clean(sbinfo->si_sb, /*verbose*/0);
+}
+
+static int au_procfs_plm_write_si(struct file *file, unsigned long id)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	err = -EBUSY;
+	if (unlikely(file->private_data))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = NULL;
+	/* don't use au_sbilist_lock() here */
+	spin_lock(&au_sbilist.spin);
+	list_for_each_entry(sbinfo, &au_sbilist.head, si_list)
+		if (id == sysaufs_si_id(sbinfo)) {
+			kobject_get(&sbinfo->si_kobj);
+			sb = sbinfo->si_sb;
+			break;
+		}
+	spin_unlock(&au_sbilist.spin);
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (unlikely(!sb))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_plink_maint_enter(sb);
+	if (!err)
+		/* keep kobject_get() */
+		file->private_data = sbinfo;
+	else
+		kobject_put(&sbinfo->si_kobj);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Accept a valid "si=xxxx" only.
+ * Once it is accepted successfully, accept "clean" too.
+ */
+static ssize_t au_procfs_plm_write(struct file *file, const char __user *ubuf,
+				   size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	unsigned long id;
+	/* last newline is allowed */
+	char buf[3 + sizeof(unsigned long) * 2 + 1];
+
+	err = -EACCES;
+	if (unlikely(!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (unlikely(count > sizeof(buf)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = copy_from_user(buf, ubuf, count);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	buf[count] = 0;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	if (!strcmp("clean", buf)) {
+		au_procfs_plm_write_clean(file);
+		goto out_success;
+	} else if (unlikely(strncmp("si=", buf, 3)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = kstrtoul(buf + 3, 16, &id);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_procfs_plm_write_si(file, id);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+out_success:
+	err = count; /* success */
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations au_procfs_plm_fop = {
+	.write		= au_procfs_plm_write,
+	.release	= au_procfs_plm_release,
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct proc_dir_entry *au_procfs_dir;
+
+void au_procfs_fin(void)
+{
+	remove_proc_entry(AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_NAME, au_procfs_dir);
+	remove_proc_entry(AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_DIR, NULL);
+}
+
+int __init au_procfs_init(void)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct proc_dir_entry *entry;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	au_procfs_dir = proc_mkdir(AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_DIR, NULL);
+	if (unlikely(!au_procfs_dir))
+		goto out;
+
+	entry = proc_create(AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_NAME, S_IFREG | S_IWUSR,
+			    au_procfs_dir, &au_procfs_plm_fop);
+	if (unlikely(!entry))
+		goto out_dir;
+
+	err = 0;
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+
+out_dir:
+	remove_proc_entry(AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_DIR, NULL);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/rdu.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/rdu.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/rdu.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/rdu.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,388 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * readdir in userspace.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/compat.h>
+#include <linux/fs_stack.h>
+#include <linux/security.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* bits for struct aufs_rdu.flags */
+#define	AuRdu_CALLED	1
+#define	AuRdu_CONT	(1 << 1)
+#define	AuRdu_FULL	(1 << 2)
+#define au_ftest_rdu(flags, name)	((flags) & AuRdu_##name)
+#define au_fset_rdu(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuRdu_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_rdu(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuRdu_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct au_rdu_arg {
+	struct dir_context		ctx;
+	struct aufs_rdu			*rdu;
+	union au_rdu_ent_ul		ent;
+	unsigned long			end;
+
+	struct super_block		*sb;
+	int				err;
+};
+
+static int au_rdu_fill(struct dir_context *ctx, const char *name, int nlen,
+		       loff_t offset, u64 h_ino, unsigned int d_type)
+{
+	int err, len;
+	struct au_rdu_arg *arg = container_of(ctx, struct au_rdu_arg, ctx);
+	struct aufs_rdu *rdu = arg->rdu;
+	struct au_rdu_ent ent;
+
+	err = 0;
+	arg->err = 0;
+	au_fset_rdu(rdu->cookie.flags, CALLED);
+	len = au_rdu_len(nlen);
+	if (arg->ent.ul + len  < arg->end) {
+		ent.ino = h_ino;
+		ent.bindex = rdu->cookie.bindex;
+		ent.type = d_type;
+		ent.nlen = nlen;
+		if (unlikely(nlen > AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN))
+			ent.type = DT_UNKNOWN;
+
+		/* unnecessary to support mmap_sem since this is a dir */
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		if (copy_to_user(arg->ent.e, &ent, sizeof(ent)))
+			goto out;
+		if (copy_to_user(arg->ent.e->name, name, nlen))
+			goto out;
+		/* the terminating NULL */
+		if (__put_user(0, arg->ent.e->name + nlen))
+			goto out;
+		err = 0;
+		/* AuDbg("%p, %.*s\n", arg->ent.p, nlen, name); */
+		arg->ent.ul += len;
+		rdu->rent++;
+	} else {
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		au_fset_rdu(rdu->cookie.flags, FULL);
+		rdu->full = 1;
+		rdu->tail = arg->ent;
+	}
+
+out:
+	/* AuTraceErr(err); */
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_rdu_do(struct file *h_file, struct au_rdu_arg *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	loff_t offset;
+	struct au_rdu_cookie *cookie = &arg->rdu->cookie;
+
+	/* we don't have to care (FMODE_32BITHASH | FMODE_64BITHASH) for ext4 */
+	offset = vfsub_llseek(h_file, cookie->h_pos, SEEK_SET);
+	err = offset;
+	if (unlikely(offset != cookie->h_pos))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	do {
+		arg->err = 0;
+		au_fclr_rdu(cookie->flags, CALLED);
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+		err = vfsub_iterate_dir(h_file, &arg->ctx);
+		if (err >= 0)
+			err = arg->err;
+	} while (!err
+		 && au_ftest_rdu(cookie->flags, CALLED)
+		 && !au_ftest_rdu(cookie->flags, FULL));
+	cookie->h_pos = h_file->f_pos;
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_rdu(struct file *file, struct aufs_rdu *rdu)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+	struct au_rdu_arg arg = {
+		.ctx = {
+			.actor = au_diractor(au_rdu_fill)
+		}
+	};
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct file *h_file;
+	struct au_rdu_cookie *cookie = &rdu->cookie;
+
+	err = !access_ok(VERIFY_WRITE, rdu->ent.e, rdu->sz);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	rdu->rent = 0;
+	rdu->tail = rdu->ent;
+	rdu->full = 0;
+	arg.rdu = rdu;
+	arg.ent = rdu->ent;
+	arg.end = arg.ent.ul;
+	arg.end += rdu->sz;
+
+	err = -ENOTDIR;
+	if (unlikely(!file->f_op || !file->f_op->iterate))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = security_file_permission(file, MAY_READ);
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	dentry = file->f_dentry;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+#if 1
+	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
+#else
+	err = mutex_lock_killable(&inode->i_mutex);
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+#endif
+
+	arg.sb = inode->i_sb;
+	err = si_read_lock(arg.sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_mtx;
+	err = au_alive_dir(dentry);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_si;
+	/* todo: reval? */
+	fi_read_lock(file);
+
+	err = -EAGAIN;
+	if (unlikely(au_ftest_rdu(cookie->flags, CONT)
+		     && cookie->generation != au_figen(file)))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!rdu->blk) {
+		rdu->blk = au_sbi(arg.sb)->si_rdblk;
+		if (!rdu->blk)
+			rdu->blk = au_dir_size(file, /*dentry*/NULL);
+	}
+	bend = au_fbstart(file);
+	if (cookie->bindex < bend)
+		cookie->bindex = bend;
+	bend = au_fbend_dir(file);
+	/* AuDbg("b%d, b%d\n", cookie->bindex, bend); */
+	for (; !err && cookie->bindex <= bend;
+	     cookie->bindex++, cookie->h_pos = 0) {
+		h_file = au_hf_dir(file, cookie->bindex);
+		if (!h_file)
+			continue;
+
+		au_fclr_rdu(cookie->flags, FULL);
+		err = au_rdu_do(h_file, &arg);
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		if (unlikely(au_ftest_rdu(cookie->flags, FULL) || err))
+			break;
+	}
+	AuDbg("rent %llu\n", rdu->rent);
+
+	if (!err && !au_ftest_rdu(cookie->flags, CONT)) {
+		rdu->shwh = !!au_opt_test(au_sbi(arg.sb)->si_mntflags, SHWH);
+		au_fset_rdu(cookie->flags, CONT);
+		cookie->generation = au_figen(file);
+	}
+
+	ii_read_lock_child(inode);
+	fsstack_copy_attr_atime(inode, au_h_iptr(inode, au_ibstart(inode)));
+	ii_read_unlock(inode);
+
+out_unlock:
+	fi_read_unlock(file);
+out_si:
+	si_read_unlock(arg.sb);
+out_mtx:
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_rdu_ino(struct file *file, struct aufs_rdu *rdu)
+{
+	int err;
+	ino_t ino;
+	unsigned long long nent;
+	union au_rdu_ent_ul *u;
+	struct au_rdu_ent ent;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	err = 0;
+	nent = rdu->nent;
+	u = &rdu->ent;
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH);
+	while (nent-- > 0) {
+		/* unnecessary to support mmap_sem since this is a dir */
+		err = copy_from_user(&ent, u->e, sizeof(ent));
+		if (!err)
+			err = !access_ok(VERIFY_WRITE, &u->e->ino, sizeof(ino));
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			err = -EFAULT;
+			AuTraceErr(err);
+			break;
+		}
+
+		/* AuDbg("b%d, i%llu\n", ent.bindex, ent.ino); */
+		if (!ent.wh)
+			err = au_ino(sb, ent.bindex, ent.ino, ent.type, &ino);
+		else
+			err = au_wh_ino(sb, ent.bindex, ent.ino, ent.type,
+					&ino);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			AuTraceErr(err);
+			break;
+		}
+
+		err = __put_user(ino, &u->e->ino);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			err = -EFAULT;
+			AuTraceErr(err);
+			break;
+		}
+		u->ul += au_rdu_len(ent.nlen);
+	}
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_rdu_verify(struct aufs_rdu *rdu)
+{
+	AuDbg("rdu{%llu, %p, %u | %u | %llu, %u, %u | "
+	      "%llu, b%d, 0x%x, g%u}\n",
+	      rdu->sz, rdu->ent.e, rdu->verify[AufsCtlRduV_SZ],
+	      rdu->blk,
+	      rdu->rent, rdu->shwh, rdu->full,
+	      rdu->cookie.h_pos, rdu->cookie.bindex, rdu->cookie.flags,
+	      rdu->cookie.generation);
+
+	if (rdu->verify[AufsCtlRduV_SZ] == sizeof(*rdu))
+		return 0;
+
+	AuDbg("%u:%u\n",
+	      rdu->verify[AufsCtlRduV_SZ], (unsigned int)sizeof(*rdu));
+	return -EINVAL;
+}
+
+long au_rdu_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	long err, e;
+	struct aufs_rdu rdu;
+	void __user *p = (void __user *)arg;
+
+	err = copy_from_user(&rdu, p, sizeof(rdu));
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	err = au_rdu_verify(&rdu);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	switch (cmd) {
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU:
+		err = au_rdu(file, &rdu);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			break;
+
+		e = copy_to_user(p, &rdu, sizeof(rdu));
+		if (unlikely(e)) {
+			err = -EFAULT;
+			AuTraceErr(err);
+		}
+		break;
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU_INO:
+		err = au_rdu_ino(file, &rdu);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		/* err = -ENOTTY; */
+		err = -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+long au_rdu_compat_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	long err, e;
+	struct aufs_rdu rdu;
+	void __user *p = compat_ptr(arg);
+
+	/* todo: get_user()? */
+	err = copy_from_user(&rdu, p, sizeof(rdu));
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		err = -EFAULT;
+		AuTraceErr(err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	rdu.ent.e = compat_ptr(rdu.ent.ul);
+	err = au_rdu_verify(&rdu);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	switch (cmd) {
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU:
+		err = au_rdu(file, &rdu);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			break;
+
+		rdu.ent.ul = ptr_to_compat(rdu.ent.e);
+		rdu.tail.ul = ptr_to_compat(rdu.tail.e);
+		e = copy_to_user(p, &rdu, sizeof(rdu));
+		if (unlikely(e)) {
+			err = -EFAULT;
+			AuTraceErr(err);
+		}
+		break;
+	case AUFS_CTL_RDU_INO:
+		err = au_rdu_ino(file, &rdu);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		/* err = -ENOTTY; */
+		err = -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+#endif
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/rwsem.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/rwsem.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/rwsem.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/rwsem.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,187 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * simple read-write semaphore wrappers
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_RWSEM_H__
+#define __AUFS_RWSEM_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include "debug.h"
+
+struct au_rwsem {
+	struct rw_semaphore	rwsem;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+	/* just for debugging, not almighty counter */
+	atomic_t		rcnt, wcnt;
+#endif
+};
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG
+#define AuDbgCntInit(rw) do { \
+	atomic_set(&(rw)->rcnt, 0); \
+	atomic_set(&(rw)->wcnt, 0); \
+	smp_mb(); /* atomic set */ \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuDbgRcntInc(rw)	atomic_inc(&(rw)->rcnt)
+#define AuDbgRcntDec(rw)	WARN_ON(atomic_dec_return(&(rw)->rcnt) < 0)
+#define AuDbgWcntInc(rw)	atomic_inc(&(rw)->wcnt)
+#define AuDbgWcntDec(rw)	WARN_ON(atomic_dec_return(&(rw)->wcnt) < 0)
+#else
+#define AuDbgCntInit(rw)	do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgRcntInc(rw)	do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgRcntDec(rw)	do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgWcntInc(rw)	do {} while (0)
+#define AuDbgWcntDec(rw)	do {} while (0)
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_DEBUG */
+
+/* to debug easier, do not make them inlined functions */
+#define AuRwMustNoWaiters(rw)	AuDebugOn(!list_empty(&(rw)->rwsem.wait_list))
+/* rwsem_is_locked() is unusable */
+#define AuRwMustReadLock(rw)	AuDebugOn(atomic_read(&(rw)->rcnt) <= 0)
+#define AuRwMustWriteLock(rw)	AuDebugOn(atomic_read(&(rw)->wcnt) <= 0)
+#define AuRwMustAnyLock(rw)	AuDebugOn(atomic_read(&(rw)->rcnt) <= 0 \
+					&& atomic_read(&(rw)->wcnt) <= 0)
+#define AuRwDestroy(rw)		AuDebugOn(atomic_read(&(rw)->rcnt) \
+					|| atomic_read(&(rw)->wcnt))
+
+#define au_rw_class(rw, key)	lockdep_set_class(&(rw)->rwsem, key)
+
+static inline void au_rw_init(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	AuDbgCntInit(rw);
+	init_rwsem(&rw->rwsem);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_init_wlock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	au_rw_init(rw);
+	down_write(&rw->rwsem);
+	AuDbgWcntInc(rw);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_init_wlock_nested(struct au_rwsem *rw,
+					   unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	au_rw_init(rw);
+	down_write_nested(&rw->rwsem, lsc);
+	AuDbgWcntInc(rw);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_read_lock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	down_read(&rw->rwsem);
+	AuDbgRcntInc(rw);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_read_lock_nested(struct au_rwsem *rw, unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	down_read_nested(&rw->rwsem, lsc);
+	AuDbgRcntInc(rw);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_read_unlock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	AuRwMustReadLock(rw);
+	AuDbgRcntDec(rw);
+	up_read(&rw->rwsem);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_dgrade_lock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(rw);
+	AuDbgRcntInc(rw);
+	AuDbgWcntDec(rw);
+	downgrade_write(&rw->rwsem);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_write_lock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	down_write(&rw->rwsem);
+	AuDbgWcntInc(rw);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_write_lock_nested(struct au_rwsem *rw,
+					   unsigned int lsc)
+{
+	down_write_nested(&rw->rwsem, lsc);
+	AuDbgWcntInc(rw);
+}
+
+static inline void au_rw_write_unlock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(rw);
+	AuDbgWcntDec(rw);
+	up_write(&rw->rwsem);
+}
+
+/* why is not _nested version defined */
+static inline int au_rw_read_trylock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	int ret = down_read_trylock(&rw->rwsem);
+	if (ret)
+		AuDbgRcntInc(rw);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static inline int au_rw_write_trylock(struct au_rwsem *rw)
+{
+	int ret = down_write_trylock(&rw->rwsem);
+	if (ret)
+		AuDbgWcntInc(rw);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+#undef AuDbgCntInit
+#undef AuDbgRcntInc
+#undef AuDbgRcntDec
+#undef AuDbgWcntInc
+#undef AuDbgWcntDec
+
+#define AuSimpleLockRwsemFuncs(prefix, param, rwsem) \
+static inline void prefix##_read_lock(param) \
+{ au_rw_read_lock(rwsem); } \
+static inline void prefix##_write_lock(param) \
+{ au_rw_write_lock(rwsem); } \
+static inline int prefix##_read_trylock(param) \
+{ return au_rw_read_trylock(rwsem); } \
+static inline int prefix##_write_trylock(param) \
+{ return au_rw_write_trylock(rwsem); }
+/* why is not _nested version defined */
+/* static inline void prefix##_read_trylock_nested(param, lsc)
+{ au_rw_read_trylock_nested(rwsem, lsc)); }
+static inline void prefix##_write_trylock_nestd(param, lsc)
+{ au_rw_write_trylock_nested(rwsem, lsc); } */
+
+#define AuSimpleUnlockRwsemFuncs(prefix, param, rwsem) \
+static inline void prefix##_read_unlock(param) \
+{ au_rw_read_unlock(rwsem); } \
+static inline void prefix##_write_unlock(param) \
+{ au_rw_write_unlock(rwsem); } \
+static inline void prefix##_downgrade_lock(param) \
+{ au_rw_dgrade_lock(rwsem); }
+
+#define AuSimpleRwsemFuncs(prefix, param, rwsem) \
+	AuSimpleLockRwsemFuncs(prefix, param, rwsem) \
+	AuSimpleUnlockRwsemFuncs(prefix, param, rwsem)
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_RWSEM_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sbinfo.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sbinfo.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sbinfo.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sbinfo.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,349 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * superblock private data
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/*
+ * they are necessary regardless sysfs is disabled.
+ */
+void au_si_free(struct kobject *kobj)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	char *locked __maybe_unused; /* debug only */
+
+	sbinfo = container_of(kobj, struct au_sbinfo, si_kobj);
+	for (i = 0; i < AuPlink_NHASH; i++)
+		AuDebugOn(!hlist_empty(&sbinfo->si_plink[i].head));
+	AuDebugOn(atomic_read(&sbinfo->si_nowait.nw_len));
+
+	au_rw_write_lock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+	au_br_free(sbinfo);
+	au_rw_write_unlock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	AuDebugOn(radix_tree_gang_lookup
+		  (&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree, (void **)&locked,
+		   /*first_index*/PID_MAX_DEFAULT - 1,
+		   /*max_items*/sizeof(locked)/sizeof(*locked)));
+
+	kfree(sbinfo->si_branch);
+	kfree(sbinfo->au_si_pid.bitmap);
+	mutex_destroy(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	AuRwDestroy(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	kfree(sbinfo);
+}
+
+int au_si_alloc(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err, i;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	static struct lock_class_key aufs_si;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	sbinfo = kzalloc(sizeof(*sbinfo), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!sbinfo))
+		goto out;
+
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(unsigned long) !=
+		     sizeof(*sbinfo->au_si_pid.bitmap));
+	sbinfo->au_si_pid.bitmap = kcalloc(BITS_TO_LONGS(PID_MAX_DEFAULT),
+					sizeof(*sbinfo->au_si_pid.bitmap),
+					GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!sbinfo->au_si_pid.bitmap))
+		goto out_sbinfo;
+
+	/* will be reallocated separately */
+	sbinfo->si_branch = kzalloc(sizeof(*sbinfo->si_branch), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!sbinfo->si_branch))
+		goto out_pidmap;
+
+	err = sysaufs_si_init(sbinfo);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_br;
+
+	au_nwt_init(&sbinfo->si_nowait);
+	au_rw_init_wlock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+	au_rw_class(&sbinfo->si_rwsem, &aufs_si);
+	spin_lock_init(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree_lock);
+	INIT_RADIX_TREE(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree, GFP_ATOMIC | __GFP_NOFAIL);
+
+	atomic_long_set(&sbinfo->si_ninodes, 0);
+	atomic_long_set(&sbinfo->si_nfiles, 0);
+
+	sbinfo->si_bend = -1;
+	sbinfo->si_last_br_id = AUFS_BRANCH_MAX / 2;
+
+	sbinfo->si_wbr_copyup = AuWbrCopyup_Def;
+	sbinfo->si_wbr_create = AuWbrCreate_Def;
+	sbinfo->si_wbr_copyup_ops = au_wbr_copyup_ops + sbinfo->si_wbr_copyup;
+	sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops = au_wbr_create_ops + sbinfo->si_wbr_create;
+
+	sbinfo->si_mntflags = au_opts_plink(AuOpt_Def);
+
+	sbinfo->si_xino_jiffy = jiffies;
+	sbinfo->si_xino_expire
+		= msecs_to_jiffies(AUFS_XINO_DEF_SEC * MSEC_PER_SEC);
+	mutex_init(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	sbinfo->si_xino_brid = -1;
+	/* leave si_xib_last_pindex and si_xib_next_bit */
+
+	sbinfo->si_rdcache = msecs_to_jiffies(AUFS_RDCACHE_DEF * MSEC_PER_SEC);
+	sbinfo->si_rdblk = AUFS_RDBLK_DEF;
+	sbinfo->si_rdhash = AUFS_RDHASH_DEF;
+	sbinfo->si_dirwh = AUFS_DIRWH_DEF;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < AuPlink_NHASH; i++)
+		au_sphl_init(sbinfo->si_plink + i);
+	init_waitqueue_head(&sbinfo->si_plink_wq);
+	spin_lock_init(&sbinfo->si_plink_maint_lock);
+
+	/* leave other members for sysaufs and si_mnt. */
+	sbinfo->si_sb = sb;
+	sb->s_fs_info = sbinfo;
+	si_pid_set(sb);
+	au_debug_sbinfo_init(sbinfo);
+	return 0; /* success */
+
+out_br:
+	kfree(sbinfo->si_branch);
+out_pidmap:
+	kfree(sbinfo->au_si_pid.bitmap);
+out_sbinfo:
+	kfree(sbinfo);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_sbr_realloc(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo, int nbr)
+{
+	int err, sz;
+	struct au_branch **brp;
+
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	sz = sizeof(*brp) * (sbinfo->si_bend + 1);
+	if (unlikely(!sz))
+		sz = sizeof(*brp);
+	brp = au_kzrealloc(sbinfo->si_branch, sz, sizeof(*brp) * nbr, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (brp) {
+		sbinfo->si_branch = brp;
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+unsigned int au_sigen_inc(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	unsigned int gen;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	gen = ++au_sbi(sb)->si_generation;
+	au_update_digen(sb->s_root);
+	au_update_iigen(sb->s_root->d_inode, /*half*/0);
+	sb->s_root->d_inode->i_version++;
+	return gen;
+}
+
+aufs_bindex_t au_new_br_id(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t br_id;
+	int i;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	for (i = 0; i <= AUFS_BRANCH_MAX; i++) {
+		br_id = ++sbinfo->si_last_br_id;
+		AuDebugOn(br_id < 0);
+		if (br_id && au_br_index(sb, br_id) < 0)
+			return br_id;
+	}
+
+	return -1;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* it is ok that new 'nwt' tasks are appended while we are sleeping */
+int si_read_lock(struct super_block *sb, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, FLUSH))
+		au_nwt_flush(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait);
+
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	err = au_plink_maint(sb, flags);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int si_write_lock(struct super_block *sb, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, FLUSH))
+		au_nwt_flush(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait);
+
+	si_noflush_write_lock(sb);
+	err = au_plink_maint(sb, flags);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		si_write_unlock(sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* dentry and super_block lock. call at entry point */
+int aufs_read_lock(struct dentry *dentry, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	err = si_read_lock(sb, flags);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, DW))
+		di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+	else
+		di_read_lock_child(dentry, flags);
+
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, GEN)) {
+		err = au_digen_test(dentry, au_sigen(sb));
+		AuDebugOn(!err && au_dbrange_test(dentry));
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			aufs_read_unlock(dentry, flags);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void aufs_read_unlock(struct dentry *dentry, int flags)
+{
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, DW))
+		di_write_unlock(dentry);
+	else
+		di_read_unlock(dentry, flags);
+	si_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+}
+
+void aufs_write_lock(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	si_write_lock(dentry->d_sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLMW);
+	di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+}
+
+void aufs_write_unlock(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	di_write_unlock(dentry);
+	si_write_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+}
+
+int aufs_read_and_write_lock2(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2, int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	sb = d1->d_sb;
+	err = si_read_lock(sb, flags);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	di_write_lock2_child(d1, d2, au_ftest_lock(flags, DIR));
+
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, GEN)) {
+		sigen = au_sigen(sb);
+		err = au_digen_test(d1, sigen);
+		AuDebugOn(!err && au_dbrange_test(d1));
+		if (!err) {
+			err = au_digen_test(d2, sigen);
+			AuDebugOn(!err && au_dbrange_test(d2));
+		}
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			aufs_read_and_write_unlock2(d1, d2);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void aufs_read_and_write_unlock2(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2)
+{
+	di_write_unlock2(d1, d2);
+	si_read_unlock(d1->d_sb);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int si_pid_test_slow(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	void *p;
+
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	p = radix_tree_lookup(&au_sbi(sb)->au_si_pid.tree, current->pid);
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+
+	return (long)!!p;
+}
+
+void si_pid_set_slow(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	AuDebugOn(si_pid_test_slow(sb));
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	err = radix_tree_preload(GFP_NOFS | __GFP_NOFAIL);
+	AuDebugOn(err);
+	spin_lock(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree_lock);
+	err = radix_tree_insert(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree, current->pid,
+				/*any valid ptr*/sb);
+	spin_unlock(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree_lock);
+	AuDebugOn(err);
+	radix_tree_preload_end();
+}
+
+void si_pid_clr_slow(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	void *p;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	AuDebugOn(!si_pid_test_slow(sb));
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	spin_lock(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree_lock);
+	p = radix_tree_delete(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree, current->pid);
+	spin_unlock(&sbinfo->au_si_pid.tree_lock);
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/spl.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/spl.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/spl.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/spl.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * simple list protected by a spinlock
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_SPL_H__
+#define __AUFS_SPL_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+struct au_splhead {
+	spinlock_t		spin;
+	struct list_head	head;
+};
+
+static inline void au_spl_init(struct au_splhead *spl)
+{
+	spin_lock_init(&spl->spin);
+	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&spl->head);
+}
+
+static inline void au_spl_add(struct list_head *list, struct au_splhead *spl)
+{
+	spin_lock(&spl->spin);
+	list_add(list, &spl->head);
+	spin_unlock(&spl->spin);
+}
+
+static inline void au_spl_del(struct list_head *list, struct au_splhead *spl)
+{
+	spin_lock(&spl->spin);
+	list_del(list);
+	spin_unlock(&spl->spin);
+}
+
+static inline void au_spl_del_rcu(struct list_head *list,
+				  struct au_splhead *spl)
+{
+	spin_lock(&spl->spin);
+	list_del_rcu(list);
+	spin_unlock(&spl->spin);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_sphlhead {
+	spinlock_t		spin;
+	struct hlist_head	head;
+};
+
+static inline void au_sphl_init(struct au_sphlhead *sphl)
+{
+	spin_lock_init(&sphl->spin);
+	INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&sphl->head);
+}
+
+static inline void au_sphl_add(struct hlist_node *hlist,
+			       struct au_sphlhead *sphl)
+{
+	spin_lock(&sphl->spin);
+	hlist_add_head(hlist, &sphl->head);
+	spin_unlock(&sphl->spin);
+}
+
+static inline void au_sphl_del(struct hlist_node *hlist,
+			       struct au_sphlhead *sphl)
+{
+	spin_lock(&sphl->spin);
+	hlist_del(hlist);
+	spin_unlock(&sphl->spin);
+}
+
+static inline void au_sphl_del_rcu(struct hlist_node *hlist,
+				   struct au_sphlhead *sphl)
+{
+	spin_lock(&sphl->spin);
+	hlist_del_rcu(hlist);
+	spin_unlock(&sphl->spin);
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long au_sphl_count(struct au_sphlhead *sphl)
+{
+	unsigned long cnt;
+	struct hlist_node *pos;
+
+	cnt = 0;
+	spin_lock(&sphl->spin);
+	hlist_for_each(pos, &sphl->head)
+		cnt++;
+	spin_unlock(&sphl->spin);
+	return cnt;
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_SPL_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/super.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/super.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/super.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/super.c	2014-01-01 22:02:58.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1004 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * mount and super_block operations
+ */
+
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/seq_file.h>
+#include <linux/statfs.h>
+#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
+#include <linux/writeback.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/*
+ * super_operations
+ */
+static struct inode *aufs_alloc_inode(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+	struct au_icntnr *c;
+
+	c = au_cache_alloc_icntnr();
+	if (c) {
+		au_icntnr_init(c);
+		c->vfs_inode.i_version = 1; /* sigen(sb); */
+		c->iinfo.ii_hinode = NULL;
+		return &c->vfs_inode;
+	}
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static void aufs_destroy_inode_cb(struct rcu_head *head)
+{
+	struct inode *inode = container_of(head, struct inode, i_rcu);
+
+	INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&inode->i_dentry);
+	au_cache_free_icntnr(container_of(inode, struct au_icntnr, vfs_inode));
+}
+
+static void aufs_destroy_inode(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	au_iinfo_fin(inode);
+	call_rcu(&inode->i_rcu, aufs_destroy_inode_cb);
+}
+
+struct inode *au_iget_locked(struct super_block *sb, ino_t ino)
+{
+	struct inode *inode;
+	int err;
+
+	inode = iget_locked(sb, ino);
+	if (unlikely(!inode)) {
+		inode = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (!(inode->i_state & I_NEW))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_xigen_new(inode);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_iinfo_init(inode);
+	if (!err)
+		inode->i_version++;
+	else {
+		iget_failed(inode);
+		inode = ERR_PTR(err);
+	}
+
+out:
+	/* never return NULL */
+	AuDebugOn(!inode);
+	AuTraceErrPtr(inode);
+	return inode;
+}
+
+/* lock free root dinfo */
+static int au_show_brs(struct seq_file *seq, struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct path path;
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	char *perm;
+
+	err = 0;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	hdp = au_di(sb->s_root)->di_hdentry;
+	for (bindex = 0; !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+		path.dentry = hdp[bindex].hd_dentry;
+		err = au_seq_path(seq, &path);
+		if (err > 0) {
+			perm = au_optstr_br_perm(br->br_perm);
+			if (perm) {
+				err = seq_printf(seq, "=%s", perm);
+				kfree(perm);
+				if (err == -1)
+					err = -E2BIG;
+			} else
+				err = -ENOMEM;
+		}
+		if (!err && bindex != bend)
+			err = seq_putc(seq, ':');
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_show_wbr_create(struct seq_file *m, int v,
+			       struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	const char *pat;
+
+	AuRwMustAnyLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	seq_puts(m, ",create=");
+	pat = au_optstr_wbr_create(v);
+	switch (v) {
+	case AuWbrCreate_TDP:
+	case AuWbrCreate_RR:
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFS:
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFS:
+		seq_puts(m, pat);
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSV:
+		seq_printf(m, /*pat*/"mfs:%lu",
+			   jiffies_to_msecs(sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfs_expire)
+			   / MSEC_PER_SEC);
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSV:
+		seq_printf(m, /*pat*/"pmfs:%lu",
+			   jiffies_to_msecs(sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfs_expire)
+			   / MSEC_PER_SEC);
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSRR:
+		seq_printf(m, /*pat*/"mfsrr:%llu",
+			   sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfsrr_watermark);
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_MFSRRV:
+		seq_printf(m, /*pat*/"mfsrr:%llu:%lu",
+			   sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfsrr_watermark,
+			   jiffies_to_msecs(sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfs_expire)
+			   / MSEC_PER_SEC);
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSRR:
+		seq_printf(m, /*pat*/"pmfsrr:%llu",
+			   sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfsrr_watermark);
+		break;
+	case AuWbrCreate_PMFSRRV:
+		seq_printf(m, /*pat*/"pmfsrr:%llu:%lu",
+			   sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfsrr_watermark,
+			   jiffies_to_msecs(sbinfo->si_wbr_mfs.mfs_expire)
+			   / MSEC_PER_SEC);
+		break;
+	}
+}
+
+static int au_show_xino(struct seq_file *seq, struct super_block *sb)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
+	return 0;
+#else
+	int err;
+	const int len = sizeof(AUFS_XINO_FNAME) - 1;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, brid;
+	struct qstr *name;
+	struct file *f;
+	struct dentry *d, *h_root;
+	struct au_hdentry *hdp;
+
+	AuRwMustAnyLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem);
+
+	err = 0;
+	f = au_sbi(sb)->si_xib;
+	if (!f)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* stop printing the default xino path on the first writable branch */
+	h_root = NULL;
+	brid = au_xino_brid(sb);
+	if (brid >= 0) {
+		bindex = au_br_index(sb, brid);
+		hdp = au_di(sb->s_root)->di_hdentry;
+		h_root = hdp[0 + bindex].hd_dentry;
+	}
+	d = f->f_dentry;
+	name = &d->d_name;
+	/* safe ->d_parent because the file is unlinked */
+	if (d->d_parent == h_root
+	    && name->len == len
+	    && !memcmp(name->name, AUFS_XINO_FNAME, len))
+		goto out;
+
+	seq_puts(seq, ",xino=");
+	err = au_xino_path(seq, f);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+#endif
+}
+
+/* seq_file will re-call me in case of too long string */
+static int aufs_show_options(struct seq_file *m, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int mnt_flags, v;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+#define AuBool(name, str) do { \
+	v = au_opt_test(mnt_flags, name); \
+	if (v != au_opt_test(AuOpt_Def, name)) \
+		seq_printf(m, ",%s" #str, v ? "" : "no"); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuStr(name, str) do { \
+	v = mnt_flags & AuOptMask_##name; \
+	if (v != (AuOpt_Def & AuOptMask_##name)) \
+		seq_printf(m, "," #str "=%s", au_optstr_##str(v)); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define AuUInt(name, str, val) do { \
+	if (val != AUFS_##name##_DEF) \
+		seq_printf(m, "," #str "=%u", val); \
+} while (0)
+
+	/* lock free root dinfo */
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	seq_printf(m, ",si=%lx", sysaufs_si_id(sbinfo));
+
+	mnt_flags = au_mntflags(sb);
+	if (au_opt_test(mnt_flags, XINO)) {
+		err = au_show_xino(m, sb);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	} else
+		seq_puts(m, ",noxino");
+
+	AuBool(TRUNC_XINO, trunc_xino);
+	AuStr(UDBA, udba);
+	AuBool(SHWH, shwh);
+	AuBool(PLINK, plink);
+	AuBool(DIO, dio);
+	/* AuBool(DIRPERM1, dirperm1); */
+	/* AuBool(REFROF, refrof); */
+
+	v = sbinfo->si_wbr_create;
+	if (v != AuWbrCreate_Def)
+		au_show_wbr_create(m, v, sbinfo);
+
+	v = sbinfo->si_wbr_copyup;
+	if (v != AuWbrCopyup_Def)
+		seq_printf(m, ",cpup=%s", au_optstr_wbr_copyup(v));
+
+	v = au_opt_test(mnt_flags, ALWAYS_DIROPQ);
+	if (v != au_opt_test(AuOpt_Def, ALWAYS_DIROPQ))
+		seq_printf(m, ",diropq=%c", v ? 'a' : 'w');
+
+	AuUInt(DIRWH, dirwh, sbinfo->si_dirwh);
+
+	v = jiffies_to_msecs(sbinfo->si_rdcache) / MSEC_PER_SEC;
+	AuUInt(RDCACHE, rdcache, v);
+
+	AuUInt(RDBLK, rdblk, sbinfo->si_rdblk);
+	AuUInt(RDHASH, rdhash, sbinfo->si_rdhash);
+
+	AuBool(SUM, sum);
+	/* AuBool(SUM_W, wsum); */
+	AuBool(WARN_PERM, warn_perm);
+	AuBool(VERBOSE, verbose);
+
+out:
+	/* be sure to print "br:" last */
+	if (!sysaufs_brs) {
+		seq_puts(m, ",br:");
+		au_show_brs(m, sb);
+	}
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	return 0;
+
+#undef AuBool
+#undef AuStr
+#undef AuUInt
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* sum mode which returns the summation for statfs(2) */
+
+static u64 au_add_till_max(u64 a, u64 b)
+{
+	u64 old;
+
+	old = a;
+	a += b;
+	if (old <= a)
+		return a;
+	return ULLONG_MAX;
+}
+
+static u64 au_mul_till_max(u64 a, long mul)
+{
+	u64 old;
+
+	old = a;
+	a *= mul;
+	if (old <= a)
+		return a;
+	return ULLONG_MAX;
+}
+
+static int au_statfs_sum(struct super_block *sb, struct kstatfs *buf)
+{
+	int err;
+	long bsize, factor;
+	u64 blocks, bfree, bavail, files, ffree;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex, i;
+	unsigned char shared;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+
+	err = 0;
+	bsize = LONG_MAX;
+	files = 0;
+	ffree = 0;
+	blocks = 0;
+	bfree = 0;
+	bavail = 0;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, bindex);
+		h_sb = h_path.mnt->mnt_sb;
+		shared = 0;
+		for (i = 0; !shared && i < bindex; i++)
+			shared = (au_sbr_sb(sb, i) == h_sb);
+		if (shared)
+			continue;
+
+		/* sb->s_root for NFS is unreliable */
+		h_path.dentry = h_path.mnt->mnt_root;
+		err = vfs_statfs(&h_path, buf);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+
+		if (bsize > buf->f_bsize) {
+			/*
+			 * we will reduce bsize, so we have to expand blocks
+			 * etc. to match them again
+			 */
+			factor = (bsize / buf->f_bsize);
+			blocks = au_mul_till_max(blocks, factor);
+			bfree = au_mul_till_max(bfree, factor);
+			bavail = au_mul_till_max(bavail, factor);
+			bsize = buf->f_bsize;
+		}
+
+		factor = (buf->f_bsize / bsize);
+		blocks = au_add_till_max(blocks,
+				au_mul_till_max(buf->f_blocks, factor));
+		bfree = au_add_till_max(bfree,
+				au_mul_till_max(buf->f_bfree, factor));
+		bavail = au_add_till_max(bavail,
+				au_mul_till_max(buf->f_bavail, factor));
+		files = au_add_till_max(files, buf->f_files);
+		ffree = au_add_till_max(ffree, buf->f_ffree);
+	}
+
+	buf->f_bsize = bsize;
+	buf->f_blocks = blocks;
+	buf->f_bfree = bfree;
+	buf->f_bavail = bavail;
+	buf->f_files = files;
+	buf->f_ffree = ffree;
+	buf->f_frsize = 0;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_statfs(struct dentry *dentry, struct kstatfs *buf)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	/* lock free root dinfo */
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	if (!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), SUM)) {
+		/* sb->s_root for NFS is unreliable */
+		h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(sb, 0);
+		h_path.dentry = h_path.mnt->mnt_root;
+		err = vfs_statfs(&h_path, buf);
+	} else
+		err = au_statfs_sum(sb, buf);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	if (!err) {
+		buf->f_type = AUFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+		buf->f_namelen = AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN;
+		memset(&buf->f_fsid, 0, sizeof(buf->f_fsid));
+	}
+	/* buf->f_bsize = buf->f_blocks = buf->f_bfree = buf->f_bavail = -1; */
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int aufs_sync_fs(struct super_block *sb, int wait)
+{
+	int err, e;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+
+	err = 0;
+	si_noflush_read_lock(sb);
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		if (!au_br_writable(br->br_perm))
+			continue;
+
+		h_sb = au_sbr_sb(sb, bindex);
+		if (h_sb->s_op->sync_fs) {
+			e = h_sb->s_op->sync_fs(h_sb, wait);
+			if (unlikely(e && !err))
+				err = e;
+			/* go on even if an error happens */
+		}
+	}
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* final actions when unmounting a file system */
+static void aufs_put_super(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	if (!sbinfo)
+		return;
+
+	dbgaufs_si_fin(sbinfo);
+	kobject_put(&sbinfo->si_kobj);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_array_free(void *array)
+{
+	if (array) {
+		if (!is_vmalloc_addr(array))
+			kfree(array);
+		else
+			vfree(array);
+	}
+}
+
+void *au_array_alloc(unsigned long long *hint, au_arraycb_t cb, void *arg)
+{
+	void *array;
+	unsigned long long n;
+
+	array = NULL;
+	n = 0;
+	if (!*hint)
+		goto out;
+
+	if (*hint > ULLONG_MAX / sizeof(array)) {
+		array = ERR_PTR(-EMFILE);
+		pr_err("hint %llu\n", *hint);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	array = kmalloc(sizeof(array) * *hint, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!array))
+		array = vmalloc(sizeof(array) * *hint);
+	if (unlikely(!array)) {
+		array = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	n = cb(array, *hint, arg);
+	AuDebugOn(n > *hint);
+
+out:
+	*hint = n;
+	return array;
+}
+
+static unsigned long long au_iarray_cb(void *a,
+				       unsigned long long max __maybe_unused,
+				       void *arg)
+{
+	unsigned long long n;
+	struct inode **p, *inode;
+	struct list_head *head;
+
+	n = 0;
+	p = a;
+	head = arg;
+	spin_lock(&inode_sb_list_lock);
+	list_for_each_entry(inode, head, i_sb_list) {
+		if (!is_bad_inode(inode)
+		    && au_ii(inode)->ii_bstart >= 0) {
+			spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
+			if (atomic_read(&inode->i_count)) {
+				au_igrab(inode);
+				*p++ = inode;
+				n++;
+				AuDebugOn(n > max);
+			}
+			spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
+		}
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&inode_sb_list_lock);
+
+	return n;
+}
+
+struct inode **au_iarray_alloc(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long long *max)
+{
+	*max = atomic_long_read(&au_sbi(sb)->si_ninodes);
+	return au_array_alloc(max, au_iarray_cb, &sb->s_inodes);
+}
+
+void au_iarray_free(struct inode **a, unsigned long long max)
+{
+	unsigned long long ull;
+
+	for (ull = 0; ull < max; ull++)
+		iput(a[ull]);
+	au_array_free(a);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * refresh dentry and inode at remount time.
+ */
+/* todo: consolidate with simple_reval_dpath() and au_reval_for_attr() */
+static int au_do_refresh(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int dir_flags,
+		      struct dentry *parent)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	di_write_lock_child(dentry);
+	di_read_lock_parent(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	err = au_refresh_dentry(dentry, parent);
+	if (!err && dir_flags)
+		au_hn_reset(dentry->d_inode, dir_flags);
+	di_read_unlock(parent, AuLock_IR);
+	di_write_unlock(dentry);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_do_refresh_d(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int sigen,
+			   struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo,
+			   const unsigned int dir_flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct inode *inode;
+
+	err = 0;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	if (!au_digen_test(parent, sigen) && au_digen_test(dentry, sigen)) {
+		inode = dentry->d_inode;
+		if (inode) {
+			if (!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
+				err = au_do_refresh(dentry, /*dir_flags*/0,
+						 parent);
+			else {
+				err = au_do_refresh(dentry, dir_flags, parent);
+				if (unlikely(err))
+					au_fset_si(sbinfo, FAILED_REFRESH_DIR);
+			}
+		} else
+			err = au_do_refresh(dentry, /*dir_flags*/0, parent);
+		AuDbgDentry(dentry);
+	}
+	dput(parent);
+
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_refresh_d(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err, i, j, ndentry, e;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+	struct au_dcsub_pages dpages;
+	struct au_dpage *dpage;
+	struct dentry **dentries, *d;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct dentry *root = sb->s_root;
+	const unsigned int dir_flags = au_hi_flags(root->d_inode, /*isdir*/1);
+
+	err = au_dpages_init(&dpages, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_dcsub_pages(&dpages, root, NULL, NULL);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_dpages;
+
+	sigen = au_sigen(sb);
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	for (i = 0; i < dpages.ndpage; i++) {
+		dpage = dpages.dpages + i;
+		dentries = dpage->dentries;
+		ndentry = dpage->ndentry;
+		for (j = 0; j < ndentry; j++) {
+			d = dentries[j];
+			e = au_do_refresh_d(d, sigen, sbinfo, dir_flags);
+			if (unlikely(e && !err))
+				err = e;
+			/* go on even err */
+		}
+	}
+
+out_dpages:
+	au_dpages_free(&dpages);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_refresh_i(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err, e;
+	unsigned int sigen;
+	unsigned long long max, ull;
+	struct inode *inode, **array;
+
+	array = au_iarray_alloc(sb, &max);
+	err = PTR_ERR(array);
+	if (IS_ERR(array))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sigen = au_sigen(sb);
+	for (ull = 0; ull < max; ull++) {
+		inode = array[ull];
+		if (au_iigen(inode, NULL) != sigen) {
+			ii_write_lock_child(inode);
+			e = au_refresh_hinode_self(inode);
+			ii_write_unlock(inode);
+			if (unlikely(e)) {
+				pr_err("error %d, i%lu\n", e, inode->i_ino);
+				if (!err)
+					err = e;
+				/* go on even if err */
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	au_iarray_free(array, max);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void au_remount_refresh(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err, e;
+	unsigned int udba;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	au_sigen_inc(sb);
+	au_fclr_si(au_sbi(sb), FAILED_REFRESH_DIR);
+
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	DiMustNoWaiters(root);
+	inode = root->d_inode;
+	IiMustNoWaiters(inode);
+
+	udba = au_opt_udba(sb);
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		err = au_hnotify_reset_br(udba, br, br->br_perm);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			AuIOErr("hnotify failed on br %d, %d, ignored\n",
+				bindex, err);
+		/* go on even if err */
+	}
+	au_hn_reset(inode, au_hi_flags(inode, /*isdir*/1));
+
+	di_write_unlock(root);
+	err = au_refresh_d(sb);
+	e = au_refresh_i(sb);
+	if (unlikely(e && !err))
+		err = e;
+	/* aufs_write_lock() calls ..._child() */
+	di_write_lock_child(root);
+
+	au_cpup_attr_all(inode, /*force*/1);
+
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		AuIOErr("refresh failed, ignored, %d\n", err);
+}
+
+/* stop extra interpretation of errno in mount(8), and strange error messages */
+static int cvt_err(int err)
+{
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+
+	switch (err) {
+	case -ENOENT:
+	case -ENOTDIR:
+	case -EEXIST:
+	case -EIO:
+		err = -EINVAL;
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_remount_fs(struct super_block *sb, int *flags, char *data)
+{
+	int err, do_dx;
+	unsigned int mntflags;
+	struct au_opts opts;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	err = 0;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	if (!data || !*data) {
+		err = si_write_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+		if (!err) {
+			di_write_lock_child(root);
+			err = au_opts_verify(sb, *flags, /*pending*/0);
+			aufs_write_unlock(root);
+		}
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	memset(&opts, 0, sizeof(opts));
+	opts.opt = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!opts.opt))
+		goto out;
+	opts.max_opt = PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(*opts.opt);
+	opts.flags = AuOpts_REMOUNT;
+	opts.sb_flags = *flags;
+
+	/* parse it before aufs lock */
+	err = au_opts_parse(sb, data, &opts);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_opts;
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	inode = root->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	err = si_write_lock(sb, AuLock_FLUSH | AuLock_NOPLM);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_mtx;
+	di_write_lock_child(root);
+
+	/* au_opts_remount() may return an error */
+	err = au_opts_remount(sb, &opts);
+	au_opts_free(&opts);
+
+	if (au_ftest_opts(opts.flags, REFRESH))
+		au_remount_refresh(sb);
+
+	if (au_ftest_opts(opts.flags, REFRESH_DYAOP)) {
+		mntflags = au_mntflags(sb);
+		do_dx = !!au_opt_test(mntflags, DIO);
+		au_dy_arefresh(do_dx);
+	}
+
+	aufs_write_unlock(root);
+
+out_mtx:
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+out_opts:
+	free_page((unsigned long)opts.opt);
+out:
+	err = cvt_err(err);
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static const struct super_operations aufs_sop = {
+	.alloc_inode	= aufs_alloc_inode,
+	.destroy_inode	= aufs_destroy_inode,
+	/* always deleting, no clearing */
+	.drop_inode	= generic_delete_inode,
+	.show_options	= aufs_show_options,
+	.statfs		= aufs_statfs,
+	.put_super	= aufs_put_super,
+	.sync_fs	= aufs_sync_fs,
+	.remount_fs	= aufs_remount_fs,
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_BDEV_LOOP
+	.real_loop	= aufs_real_loop
+#endif
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int alloc_root(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct dentry *root;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	inode = au_iget_locked(sb, AUFS_ROOT_INO);
+	err = PTR_ERR(inode);
+	if (IS_ERR(inode))
+		goto out;
+
+	inode->i_op = &aufs_dir_iop;
+	inode->i_fop = &aufs_dir_fop;
+	inode->i_mode = S_IFDIR;
+	set_nlink(inode, 2);
+	unlock_new_inode(inode);
+
+	root = d_make_root(inode);
+	if (unlikely(!root))
+		goto out;
+	err = PTR_ERR(root);
+	if (IS_ERR(root))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = au_di_init(root);
+	if (!err) {
+		sb->s_root = root;
+		return 0; /* success */
+	}
+	dput(root);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int aufs_fill_super(struct super_block *sb, void *raw_data,
+			   int silent __maybe_unused)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_opts opts;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	char *arg = raw_data;
+
+	if (unlikely(!arg || !*arg)) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		pr_err("no arg\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	memset(&opts, 0, sizeof(opts));
+	opts.opt = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!opts.opt))
+		goto out;
+	opts.max_opt = PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(*opts.opt);
+	opts.sb_flags = sb->s_flags;
+
+	err = au_si_alloc(sb);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_opts;
+
+	/* all timestamps always follow the ones on the branch */
+	sb->s_flags |= MS_NOATIME | MS_NODIRATIME;
+	sb->s_op = &aufs_sop;
+	sb->s_d_op = &aufs_dop;
+	sb->s_magic = AUFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+	sb->s_maxbytes = 0;
+	au_export_init(sb);
+
+	err = alloc_root(sb);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		si_write_unlock(sb);
+		goto out_info;
+	}
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	inode = root->d_inode;
+
+	/*
+	 * actually we can parse options regardless aufs lock here.
+	 * but at remount time, parsing must be done before aufs lock.
+	 * so we follow the same rule.
+	 */
+	ii_write_lock_parent(inode);
+	aufs_write_unlock(root);
+	err = au_opts_parse(sb, arg, &opts);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_root;
+
+	/* lock vfs_inode first, then aufs. */
+	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	aufs_write_lock(root);
+	err = au_opts_mount(sb, &opts);
+	au_opts_free(&opts);
+	aufs_write_unlock(root);
+	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
+	if (!err)
+		goto out_opts; /* success */
+
+out_root:
+	dput(root);
+	sb->s_root = NULL;
+out_info:
+	dbgaufs_si_fin(au_sbi(sb));
+	kobject_put(&au_sbi(sb)->si_kobj);
+	sb->s_fs_info = NULL;
+out_opts:
+	free_page((unsigned long)opts.opt);
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	err = cvt_err(err);
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct dentry *aufs_mount(struct file_system_type *fs_type, int flags,
+				 const char *dev_name __maybe_unused,
+				 void *raw_data)
+{
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	/* all timestamps always follow the ones on the branch */
+	/* mnt->mnt_flags |= MNT_NOATIME | MNT_NODIRATIME; */
+	root = mount_nodev(fs_type, flags, raw_data, aufs_fill_super);
+	if (IS_ERR(root))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = root->d_sb;
+	si_write_lock(sb, !AuLock_FLUSH);
+	sysaufs_brs_add(sb, 0);
+	si_write_unlock(sb);
+	au_sbilist_add(sb);
+
+out:
+	return root;
+}
+
+static void aufs_kill_sb(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	if (sbinfo) {
+		au_sbilist_del(sb);
+		aufs_write_lock(sb->s_root);
+		if (sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops->fin)
+			sbinfo->si_wbr_create_ops->fin(sb);
+		if (au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, UDBA_HNOTIFY)) {
+			au_opt_set_udba(sbinfo->si_mntflags, UDBA_NONE);
+			au_remount_refresh(sb);
+		}
+		if (au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, PLINK))
+			au_plink_put(sb, /*verbose*/1);
+		au_xino_clr(sb);
+		sbinfo->si_sb = NULL;
+		aufs_write_unlock(sb->s_root);
+		au_nwt_flush(&sbinfo->si_nowait);
+	}
+	generic_shutdown_super(sb);
+}
+
+struct file_system_type aufs_fs_type = {
+	.name		= AUFS_FSTYPE,
+	/* a race between rename and others */
+	.fs_flags	= FS_RENAME_DOES_D_MOVE,
+	.mount		= aufs_mount,
+	.kill_sb	= aufs_kill_sb,
+	/* no need to __module_get() and module_put(). */
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/super.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/super.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/super.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/super.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,567 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * super_block operations
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_SUPER_H__
+#define __AUFS_SUPER_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include "rwsem.h"
+#include "spl.h"
+#include "wkq.h"
+
+typedef ssize_t (*au_readf_t)(struct file *, char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
+typedef ssize_t (*au_writef_t)(struct file *, const char __user *, size_t,
+			       loff_t *);
+
+/* policies to select one among multiple writable branches */
+struct au_wbr_copyup_operations {
+	int (*copyup)(struct dentry *dentry);
+};
+
+#define AuWbr_DIR	1		/* target is a dir */
+#define AuWbr_PARENT	(1 << 1)	/* always require a parent */
+
+#define au_ftest_wbr(flags, name)	((flags) & AuWbr_##name)
+#define au_fset_wbr(flags, name)	{ (flags) |= AuWbr_##name; }
+#define au_fclr_wbr(flags, name)	{ (flags) &= ~AuWbr_##name; }
+
+struct au_wbr_create_operations {
+	int (*create)(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags);
+	int (*init)(struct super_block *sb);
+	int (*fin)(struct super_block *sb);
+};
+
+struct au_wbr_mfs {
+	struct mutex	mfs_lock; /* protect this structure */
+	unsigned long	mfs_jiffy;
+	unsigned long	mfs_expire;
+	aufs_bindex_t	mfs_bindex;
+
+	unsigned long long	mfsrr_bytes;
+	unsigned long long	mfsrr_watermark;
+};
+
+struct pseudo_link {
+	union {
+		struct hlist_node hlist;
+		struct rcu_head rcu;
+	};
+	struct inode *inode;
+};
+
+#define AuPlink_NHASH 100
+static inline int au_plink_hash(ino_t ino)
+{
+	return ino % AuPlink_NHASH;
+}
+
+struct au_branch;
+struct au_sbinfo {
+	/* nowait tasks in the system-wide workqueue */
+	struct au_nowait_tasks	si_nowait;
+
+	/*
+	 * tried sb->s_umount, but failed due to the dependecy between i_mutex.
+	 * rwsem for au_sbinfo is necessary.
+	 */
+	struct au_rwsem		si_rwsem;
+
+	/* prevent recursive locking in deleting inode */
+	struct {
+		unsigned long		*bitmap;
+		spinlock_t		tree_lock;
+		struct radix_tree_root	tree;
+	} au_si_pid;
+
+	/*
+	 * dirty approach to protect sb->sb_inodes and ->s_files from remount.
+	 */
+	atomic_long_t		si_ninodes, si_nfiles;
+
+	/* branch management */
+	unsigned int		si_generation;
+
+	/* see above flags */
+	unsigned char		au_si_status;
+
+	aufs_bindex_t		si_bend;
+
+	/* dirty trick to keep br_id plus */
+	unsigned int		si_last_br_id :
+				sizeof(aufs_bindex_t) * BITS_PER_BYTE - 1;
+	struct au_branch	**si_branch;
+
+	/* policy to select a writable branch */
+	unsigned char		si_wbr_copyup;
+	unsigned char		si_wbr_create;
+	struct au_wbr_copyup_operations *si_wbr_copyup_ops;
+	struct au_wbr_create_operations *si_wbr_create_ops;
+
+	/* round robin */
+	atomic_t		si_wbr_rr_next;
+
+	/* most free space */
+	struct au_wbr_mfs	si_wbr_mfs;
+
+	/* mount flags */
+	/* include/asm-ia64/siginfo.h defines a macro named si_flags */
+	unsigned int		si_mntflags;
+
+	/* external inode number (bitmap and translation table) */
+	au_readf_t		si_xread;
+	au_writef_t		si_xwrite;
+	struct file		*si_xib;
+	struct mutex		si_xib_mtx; /* protect xib members */
+	unsigned long		*si_xib_buf;
+	unsigned long		si_xib_last_pindex;
+	int			si_xib_next_bit;
+	aufs_bindex_t		si_xino_brid;
+	unsigned long		si_xino_jiffy;
+	unsigned long		si_xino_expire;
+	/* reserved for future use */
+	/* unsigned long long	si_xib_limit; */	/* Max xib file size */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT
+	/* i_generation */
+	struct file		*si_xigen;
+	atomic_t		si_xigen_next;
+#endif
+
+	/* vdir parameters */
+	unsigned long		si_rdcache;	/* max cache time in jiffies */
+	unsigned int		si_rdblk;	/* deblk size */
+	unsigned int		si_rdhash;	/* hash size */
+
+	/*
+	 * If the number of whiteouts are larger than si_dirwh, leave all of
+	 * them after au_whtmp_ren to reduce the cost of rmdir(2).
+	 * future fsck.aufs or kernel thread will remove them later.
+	 * Otherwise, remove all whiteouts and the dir in rmdir(2).
+	 */
+	unsigned int		si_dirwh;
+
+	/*
+	 * rename(2) a directory with all children.
+	 */
+	/* reserved for future use */
+	/* int			si_rendir; */
+
+	/* pseudo_link list */
+	struct au_sphlhead	si_plink[AuPlink_NHASH];
+	wait_queue_head_t	si_plink_wq;
+	spinlock_t		si_plink_maint_lock;
+	pid_t			si_plink_maint_pid;
+
+	/*
+	 * sysfs and lifetime management.
+	 * this is not a small structure and it may be a waste of memory in case
+	 * of sysfs is disabled, particulary when many aufs-es are mounted.
+	 * but using sysfs is majority.
+	 */
+	struct kobject		si_kobj;
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
+	struct dentry		 *si_dbgaufs;
+	struct dentry		 *si_dbgaufs_plink;
+	struct dentry		 *si_dbgaufs_xib;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT
+	struct dentry		 *si_dbgaufs_xigen;
+#endif
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SBILIST
+	struct list_head	si_list;
+#endif
+
+	/* dirty, necessary for unmounting, sysfs and sysrq */
+	struct super_block	*si_sb;
+};
+
+/* sbinfo status flags */
+/*
+ * set true when refresh_dirs() failed at remount time.
+ * then try refreshing dirs at access time again.
+ * if it is false, refreshing dirs at access time is unnecesary
+ */
+#define AuSi_FAILED_REFRESH_DIR	1
+static inline unsigned char au_do_ftest_si(struct au_sbinfo *sbi,
+					   unsigned int flag)
+{
+	AuRwMustAnyLock(&sbi->si_rwsem);
+	return sbi->au_si_status & flag;
+}
+#define au_ftest_si(sbinfo, name)	au_do_ftest_si(sbinfo, AuSi_##name)
+#define au_fset_si(sbinfo, name) do { \
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&(sbinfo)->si_rwsem); \
+	(sbinfo)->au_si_status |= AuSi_##name; \
+} while (0)
+#define au_fclr_si(sbinfo, name) do { \
+	AuRwMustWriteLock(&(sbinfo)->si_rwsem); \
+	(sbinfo)->au_si_status &= ~AuSi_##name; \
+} while (0)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* policy to select one among writable branches */
+#define AuWbrCopyup(sbinfo, ...) \
+	((sbinfo)->si_wbr_copyup_ops->copyup(__VA_ARGS__))
+#define AuWbrCreate(sbinfo, ...) \
+	((sbinfo)->si_wbr_create_ops->create(__VA_ARGS__))
+
+/* flags for si_read_lock()/aufs_read_lock()/di_read_lock() */
+#define AuLock_DW		1		/* write-lock dentry */
+#define AuLock_IR		(1 << 1)	/* read-lock inode */
+#define AuLock_IW		(1 << 2)	/* write-lock inode */
+#define AuLock_FLUSH		(1 << 3)	/* wait for 'nowait' tasks */
+#define AuLock_DIR		(1 << 4)	/* target is a dir */
+#define AuLock_NOPLM		(1 << 5)	/* return err in plm mode */
+#define AuLock_NOPLMW		(1 << 6)	/* wait for plm mode ends */
+#define AuLock_GEN		(1 << 7)	/* test digen/iigen */
+#define au_ftest_lock(flags, name)	((flags) & AuLock_##name)
+#define au_fset_lock(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuLock_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_lock(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuLock_##name; } while (0)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* super.c */
+extern struct file_system_type aufs_fs_type;
+struct inode *au_iget_locked(struct super_block *sb, ino_t ino);
+typedef unsigned long long (*au_arraycb_t)(void *array, unsigned long long max,
+					   void *arg);
+void au_array_free(void *array);
+void *au_array_alloc(unsigned long long *hint, au_arraycb_t cb, void *arg);
+struct inode **au_iarray_alloc(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long long *max);
+void au_iarray_free(struct inode **a, unsigned long long max);
+
+/* sbinfo.c */
+void au_si_free(struct kobject *kobj);
+int au_si_alloc(struct super_block *sb);
+int au_sbr_realloc(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo, int nbr);
+
+unsigned int au_sigen_inc(struct super_block *sb);
+aufs_bindex_t au_new_br_id(struct super_block *sb);
+
+int si_read_lock(struct super_block *sb, int flags);
+int si_write_lock(struct super_block *sb, int flags);
+int aufs_read_lock(struct dentry *dentry, int flags);
+void aufs_read_unlock(struct dentry *dentry, int flags);
+void aufs_write_lock(struct dentry *dentry);
+void aufs_write_unlock(struct dentry *dentry);
+int aufs_read_and_write_lock2(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2, int flags);
+void aufs_read_and_write_unlock2(struct dentry *d1, struct dentry *d2);
+
+int si_pid_test_slow(struct super_block *sb);
+void si_pid_set_slow(struct super_block *sb);
+void si_pid_clr_slow(struct super_block *sb);
+
+/* wbr_policy.c */
+extern struct au_wbr_copyup_operations au_wbr_copyup_ops[];
+extern struct au_wbr_create_operations au_wbr_create_ops[];
+int au_cpdown_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst);
+int au_wbr_nonopq(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+
+/* mvdown.c */
+int au_mvdown(struct dentry *dentry, struct aufs_mvdown __user *arg);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline struct au_sbinfo *au_sbi(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return sb->s_fs_info;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT
+int au_test_nfsd(void);
+void au_export_init(struct super_block *sb);
+void au_xigen_inc(struct inode *inode);
+int au_xigen_new(struct inode *inode);
+int au_xigen_set(struct super_block *sb, struct file *base);
+void au_xigen_clr(struct super_block *sb);
+
+static inline int au_busy_or_stale(void)
+{
+	if (!au_test_nfsd())
+		return -EBUSY;
+	return -ESTALE;
+}
+#else
+AuStubInt0(au_test_nfsd, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_export_init, struct super_block *sb)
+AuStubVoid(au_xigen_inc, struct inode *inode)
+AuStubInt0(au_xigen_new, struct inode *inode)
+AuStubInt0(au_xigen_set, struct super_block *sb, struct file *base)
+AuStubVoid(au_xigen_clr, struct super_block *sb)
+static inline int au_busy_or_stale(void)
+{
+	return -EBUSY;
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT */
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SBILIST
+/* module.c */
+extern struct au_splhead au_sbilist;
+
+static inline void au_sbilist_init(void)
+{
+	au_spl_init(&au_sbilist);
+}
+
+static inline void au_sbilist_add(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	au_spl_add(&au_sbi(sb)->si_list, &au_sbilist);
+}
+
+static inline void au_sbilist_del(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	au_spl_del(&au_sbi(sb)->si_list, &au_sbilist);
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_MAGIC_SYSRQ
+static inline void au_sbilist_lock(void)
+{
+	spin_lock(&au_sbilist.spin);
+}
+
+static inline void au_sbilist_unlock(void)
+{
+	spin_unlock(&au_sbilist.spin);
+}
+#define AuGFP_SBILIST	GFP_ATOMIC
+#else
+AuStubVoid(au_sbilist_lock, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_sbilist_unlock, void)
+#define AuGFP_SBILIST	GFP_NOFS
+#endif /* CONFIG_AUFS_MAGIC_SYSRQ */
+#else
+AuStubVoid(au_sbilist_init, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_sbilist_add, struct super_block*)
+AuStubVoid(au_sbilist_del, struct super_block*)
+AuStubVoid(au_sbilist_lock, void)
+AuStubVoid(au_sbilist_unlock, void)
+#define AuGFP_SBILIST	GFP_NOFS
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline void dbgaufs_si_null(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	/*
+	 * This function is a dynamic '__init' fucntion actually,
+	 * so the tiny check for si_rwsem is unnecessary.
+	 */
+	/* AuRwMustWriteLock(&sbinfo->si_rwsem); */
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs = NULL;
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_plink = NULL;
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_xib = NULL;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_EXPORT
+	sbinfo->si_dbgaufs_xigen = NULL;
+#endif
+#endif
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline pid_t si_pid_bit(void)
+{
+	/* the origin of pid is 1, but the bitmap's is 0 */
+	return current->pid - 1;
+}
+
+static inline int si_pid_test(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	pid_t bit = si_pid_bit();
+	if (bit < PID_MAX_DEFAULT)
+		return test_bit(bit, au_sbi(sb)->au_si_pid.bitmap);
+	else
+		return si_pid_test_slow(sb);
+}
+
+static inline void si_pid_set(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	pid_t bit = si_pid_bit();
+	if (bit < PID_MAX_DEFAULT) {
+		AuDebugOn(test_bit(bit, au_sbi(sb)->au_si_pid.bitmap));
+		set_bit(bit, au_sbi(sb)->au_si_pid.bitmap);
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+	} else
+		si_pid_set_slow(sb);
+}
+
+static inline void si_pid_clr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	pid_t bit = si_pid_bit();
+	if (bit < PID_MAX_DEFAULT) {
+		AuDebugOn(!test_bit(bit, au_sbi(sb)->au_si_pid.bitmap));
+		clear_bit(bit, au_sbi(sb)->au_si_pid.bitmap);
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+	} else
+		si_pid_clr_slow(sb);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* lock superblock. mainly for entry point functions */
+/*
+ * __si_read_lock, __si_write_lock,
+ * __si_read_unlock, __si_write_unlock, __si_downgrade_lock
+ */
+AuSimpleRwsemFuncs(__si, struct super_block *sb, &au_sbi(sb)->si_rwsem);
+
+#define SiMustNoWaiters(sb)	AuRwMustNoWaiters(&au_sbi(sb)->si_rwsem)
+#define SiMustAnyLock(sb)	AuRwMustAnyLock(&au_sbi(sb)->si_rwsem)
+#define SiMustWriteLock(sb)	AuRwMustWriteLock(&au_sbi(sb)->si_rwsem)
+
+static inline void si_noflush_read_lock(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	__si_read_lock(sb);
+	si_pid_set(sb);
+}
+
+static inline int si_noflush_read_trylock(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int locked = __si_read_trylock(sb);
+	if (locked)
+		si_pid_set(sb);
+	return locked;
+}
+
+static inline void si_noflush_write_lock(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	__si_write_lock(sb);
+	si_pid_set(sb);
+}
+
+static inline int si_noflush_write_trylock(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int locked = __si_write_trylock(sb);
+	if (locked)
+		si_pid_set(sb);
+	return locked;
+}
+
+#if 0 /* unused */
+static inline int si_read_trylock(struct super_block *sb, int flags)
+{
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, FLUSH))
+		au_nwt_flush(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait);
+	return si_noflush_read_trylock(sb);
+}
+#endif
+
+static inline void si_read_unlock(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	si_pid_clr(sb);
+	__si_read_unlock(sb);
+}
+
+#if 0 /* unused */
+static inline int si_write_trylock(struct super_block *sb, int flags)
+{
+	if (au_ftest_lock(flags, FLUSH))
+		au_nwt_flush(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait);
+	return si_noflush_write_trylock(sb);
+}
+#endif
+
+static inline void si_write_unlock(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	si_pid_clr(sb);
+	__si_write_unlock(sb);
+}
+
+#if 0 /* unused */
+static inline void si_downgrade_lock(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	__si_downgrade_lock(sb);
+}
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_sbend(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+	return au_sbi(sb)->si_bend;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned int au_mntflags(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+	return au_sbi(sb)->si_mntflags;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned int au_sigen(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+	return au_sbi(sb)->si_generation;
+}
+
+static inline void au_ninodes_inc(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	atomic_long_inc(&au_sbi(sb)->si_ninodes);
+}
+
+static inline void au_ninodes_dec(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(!atomic_long_read(&au_sbi(sb)->si_ninodes));
+	atomic_long_dec(&au_sbi(sb)->si_ninodes);
+}
+
+static inline void au_nfiles_inc(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	atomic_long_inc(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nfiles);
+}
+
+static inline void au_nfiles_dec(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(!atomic_long_read(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nfiles));
+	atomic_long_dec(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nfiles);
+}
+
+static inline struct au_branch *au_sbr(struct super_block *sb,
+				       aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+	return au_sbi(sb)->si_branch[0 + bindex];
+}
+
+static inline void au_xino_brid_set(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t brid)
+{
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+	au_sbi(sb)->si_xino_brid = brid;
+}
+
+static inline aufs_bindex_t au_xino_brid(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+	return au_sbi(sb)->si_xino_brid;
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_SUPER_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysaufs.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysaufs.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysaufs.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysaufs.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,104 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * sysfs interface and lifetime management
+ * they are necessary regardless sysfs is disabled.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/random.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+unsigned long sysaufs_si_mask;
+struct kset *sysaufs_kset;
+
+#define AuSiAttr(_name) { \
+	.attr   = { .name = __stringify(_name), .mode = 0444 },	\
+	.show   = sysaufs_si_##_name,				\
+}
+
+static struct sysaufs_si_attr sysaufs_si_attr_xi_path = AuSiAttr(xi_path);
+struct attribute *sysaufs_si_attrs[] = {
+	&sysaufs_si_attr_xi_path.attr,
+	NULL,
+};
+
+static const struct sysfs_ops au_sbi_ops = {
+	.show   = sysaufs_si_show
+};
+
+static struct kobj_type au_sbi_ktype = {
+	.release	= au_si_free,
+	.sysfs_ops	= &au_sbi_ops,
+	.default_attrs	= sysaufs_si_attrs
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int sysaufs_si_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	sbinfo->si_kobj.kset = sysaufs_kset;
+	/* cf. sysaufs_name() */
+	err = kobject_init_and_add
+		(&sbinfo->si_kobj, &au_sbi_ktype, /*&sysaufs_kset->kobj*/NULL,
+		 SysaufsSiNamePrefix "%lx", sysaufs_si_id(sbinfo));
+
+	dbgaufs_si_null(sbinfo);
+	if (!err) {
+		err = dbgaufs_si_init(sbinfo);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			kobject_put(&sbinfo->si_kobj);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+void sysaufs_fin(void)
+{
+	dbgaufs_fin();
+	sysfs_remove_group(&sysaufs_kset->kobj, sysaufs_attr_group);
+	kset_unregister(sysaufs_kset);
+}
+
+int __init sysaufs_init(void)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	do {
+		get_random_bytes(&sysaufs_si_mask, sizeof(sysaufs_si_mask));
+	} while (!sysaufs_si_mask);
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	sysaufs_kset = kset_create_and_add(AUFS_NAME, NULL, fs_kobj);
+	if (unlikely(!sysaufs_kset))
+		goto out;
+	err = PTR_ERR(sysaufs_kset);
+	if (IS_ERR(sysaufs_kset))
+		goto out;
+	err = sysfs_create_group(&sysaufs_kset->kobj, sysaufs_attr_group);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		kset_unregister(sysaufs_kset);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = dbgaufs_init();
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		sysaufs_fin();
+out:
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysaufs.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysaufs.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysaufs.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysaufs.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,103 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * sysfs interface and mount lifetime management
+ */
+
+#ifndef __SYSAUFS_H__
+#define __SYSAUFS_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/sysfs.h>
+#include "module.h"
+
+struct super_block;
+struct au_sbinfo;
+
+struct sysaufs_si_attr {
+	struct attribute attr;
+	int (*show)(struct seq_file *seq, struct super_block *sb);
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* sysaufs.c */
+extern unsigned long sysaufs_si_mask;
+extern struct kset *sysaufs_kset;
+extern struct attribute *sysaufs_si_attrs[];
+int sysaufs_si_init(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo);
+int __init sysaufs_init(void);
+void sysaufs_fin(void);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* some people doesn't like to show a pointer in kernel */
+static inline unsigned long sysaufs_si_id(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo)
+{
+	return sysaufs_si_mask ^ (unsigned long)sbinfo;
+}
+
+#define SysaufsSiNamePrefix	"si_"
+#define SysaufsSiNameLen	(sizeof(SysaufsSiNamePrefix) + 16)
+static inline void sysaufs_name(struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo, char *name)
+{
+	snprintf(name, SysaufsSiNameLen, SysaufsSiNamePrefix "%lx",
+		 sysaufs_si_id(sbinfo));
+}
+
+struct au_branch;
+#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
+/* sysfs.c */
+extern struct attribute_group *sysaufs_attr_group;
+
+int sysaufs_si_xi_path(struct seq_file *seq, struct super_block *sb);
+ssize_t sysaufs_si_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct attribute *attr,
+			 char *buf);
+
+void sysaufs_br_init(struct au_branch *br);
+void sysaufs_brs_add(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+void sysaufs_brs_del(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex);
+
+#define sysaufs_brs_init()	do {} while (0)
+
+#else
+#define sysaufs_attr_group	NULL
+
+AuStubInt0(sysaufs_si_xi_path, struct seq_file *seq, struct super_block *sb)
+
+static inline
+ssize_t sysaufs_si_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct attribute *attr,
+			 char *buf)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+AuStubVoid(sysaufs_br_init, struct au_branch *br)
+AuStubVoid(sysaufs_brs_add, struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+AuStubVoid(sysaufs_brs_del, struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+
+static inline void sysaufs_brs_init(void)
+{
+	sysaufs_brs = 0;
+}
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_SYSFS */
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __SYSAUFS_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysfs.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysfs.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysfs.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysfs.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,296 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * sysfs interface
+ */
+
+#include <linux/seq_file.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_FS_MODULE
+/* this entry violates the "one line per file" policy of sysfs */
+static ssize_t config_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+			   char *buf)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	static char *conf =
+/* this file is generated at compiling */
+#include "conf.str"
+		;
+
+	err = snprintf(buf, PAGE_SIZE, conf);
+	if (unlikely(err >= PAGE_SIZE))
+		err = -EFBIG;
+	return err;
+}
+
+static struct kobj_attribute au_config_attr = __ATTR_RO(config);
+#endif
+
+static struct attribute *au_attr[] = {
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_FS_MODULE
+	&au_config_attr.attr,
+#endif
+	NULL,	/* need to NULL terminate the list of attributes */
+};
+
+static struct attribute_group sysaufs_attr_group_body = {
+	.attrs = au_attr
+};
+
+struct attribute_group *sysaufs_attr_group = &sysaufs_attr_group_body;
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int sysaufs_si_xi_path(struct seq_file *seq, struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO)) {
+		err = au_xino_path(seq, au_sbi(sb)->si_xib);
+		seq_putc(seq, '\n');
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * the lifetime of branch is independent from the entry under sysfs.
+ * sysfs handles the lifetime of the entry, and never call ->show() after it is
+ * unlinked.
+ */
+static int sysaufs_si_br(struct seq_file *seq, struct super_block *sb,
+			 aufs_bindex_t bindex, int idx)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path path;
+	struct dentry *root;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	char *perm;
+
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", bindex);
+
+	err = 0;
+	root = sb->s_root;
+	di_read_lock_parent(root, !AuLock_IR);
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+
+	switch (idx) {
+	case AuBrSysfs_BR:
+		path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+		path.dentry = au_h_dptr(root, bindex);
+		au_seq_path(seq, &path);
+		di_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+		perm = au_optstr_br_perm(br->br_perm);
+		if (perm) {
+			err = seq_printf(seq, "=%s\n", perm);
+			kfree(perm);
+			if (err == -1)
+				err = -E2BIG;
+		} else
+			err = -ENOMEM;
+		break;
+	case AuBrSysfs_BRID:
+		err = seq_printf(seq, "%d\n", br->br_id);
+		di_read_unlock(root, !AuLock_IR);
+		if (err == -1)
+			err = -E2BIG;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static struct seq_file *au_seq(char *p, ssize_t len)
+{
+	struct seq_file *seq;
+
+	seq = kzalloc(sizeof(*seq), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (seq) {
+		/* mutex_init(&seq.lock); */
+		seq->buf = p;
+		seq->size = len;
+		return seq; /* success */
+	}
+
+	seq = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+	return seq;
+}
+
+#define SysaufsBr_PREFIX	"br"
+#define SysaufsBrid_PREFIX	"brid"
+
+/* todo: file size may exceed PAGE_SIZE */
+ssize_t sysaufs_si_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct attribute *attr,
+			char *buf)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	int idx;
+	long l;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct seq_file *seq;
+	char *name;
+	struct attribute **cattr;
+
+	sbinfo = container_of(kobj, struct au_sbinfo, si_kobj);
+	sb = sbinfo->si_sb;
+
+	/*
+	 * prevent a race condition between sysfs and aufs.
+	 * for instance, sysfs_file_read() calls sysfs_get_active_two() which
+	 * prohibits maintaining the sysfs entries.
+	 * hew we acquire read lock after sysfs_get_active_two().
+	 * on the other hand, the remount process may maintain the sysfs/aufs
+	 * entries after acquiring write lock.
+	 * it can cause a deadlock.
+	 * simply we gave up processing read here.
+	 */
+	err = -EBUSY;
+	if (unlikely(!si_noflush_read_trylock(sb)))
+		goto out;
+
+	seq = au_seq(buf, PAGE_SIZE);
+	err = PTR_ERR(seq);
+	if (IS_ERR(seq))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	name = (void *)attr->name;
+	cattr = sysaufs_si_attrs;
+	while (*cattr) {
+		if (!strcmp(name, (*cattr)->name)) {
+			err = container_of(*cattr, struct sysaufs_si_attr, attr)
+				->show(seq, sb);
+			goto out_seq;
+		}
+		cattr++;
+	}
+
+	if (!strncmp(name, SysaufsBrid_PREFIX,
+		     sizeof(SysaufsBrid_PREFIX) - 1)) {
+		idx = AuBrSysfs_BRID;
+		name += sizeof(SysaufsBrid_PREFIX) - 1;
+	} else if (!strncmp(name, SysaufsBr_PREFIX,
+			    sizeof(SysaufsBr_PREFIX) - 1)) {
+		idx = AuBrSysfs_BR;
+		name += sizeof(SysaufsBr_PREFIX) - 1;
+	} else
+		  BUG();
+
+	err = kstrtol(name, 10, &l);
+	if (!err) {
+		bend = au_sbend(sb);
+		if (l <= bend)
+			err = sysaufs_si_br(seq, sb, (aufs_bindex_t)l, idx);
+		else
+			err = -ENOENT;
+	}
+
+out_seq:
+	if (!err) {
+		err = seq->count;
+		/* sysfs limit */
+		if (unlikely(err == PAGE_SIZE))
+			err = -EFBIG;
+	}
+	kfree(seq);
+out_unlock:
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void sysaufs_br_init(struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct au_brsysfs *br_sysfs;
+	struct attribute *attr;
+
+	br_sysfs = br->br_sysfs;
+	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(br->br_sysfs); i++) {
+		attr = &br_sysfs->attr;
+		sysfs_attr_init(attr);
+		attr->name = br_sysfs->name;
+		attr->mode = S_IRUGO;
+		br_sysfs++;
+	}
+}
+
+void sysaufs_brs_del(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct kobject *kobj;
+	struct au_brsysfs *br_sysfs;
+	int i;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+
+	dbgaufs_brs_del(sb, bindex);
+
+	if (!sysaufs_brs)
+		return;
+
+	kobj = &au_sbi(sb)->si_kobj;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		br_sysfs = br->br_sysfs;
+		for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(br->br_sysfs); i++) {
+			sysfs_remove_file(kobj, &br_sysfs->attr);
+			br_sysfs++;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+void sysaufs_brs_add(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	int err, i;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend;
+	struct kobject *kobj;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_brsysfs *br_sysfs;
+
+	dbgaufs_brs_add(sb, bindex);
+
+	if (!sysaufs_brs)
+		return;
+
+	kobj = &au_sbi(sb)->si_kobj;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		br_sysfs = br->br_sysfs;
+		snprintf(br_sysfs[AuBrSysfs_BR].name, sizeof(br_sysfs->name),
+			 SysaufsBr_PREFIX "%d", bindex);
+		snprintf(br_sysfs[AuBrSysfs_BRID].name, sizeof(br_sysfs->name),
+			 SysaufsBrid_PREFIX "%d", bindex);
+		for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(br->br_sysfs); i++) {
+			err = sysfs_create_file(kobj, &br_sysfs->attr);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				pr_warn("failed %s under sysfs(%d)\n",
+					br_sysfs->name, err);
+			br_sysfs++;
+		}
+	}
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysrq.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysrq.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/sysrq.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/sysrq.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * magic sysrq hanlder
+ */
+
+/* #include <linux/sysrq.h> */
+#include <linux/writeback.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void sysrq_sb(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	char *plevel;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct file *file;
+
+	plevel = au_plevel;
+	au_plevel = KERN_WARNING;
+
+	/* since we define pr_fmt, call printk directly */
+#define pr(str) printk(KERN_WARNING AUFS_NAME ": " str)
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	printk(KERN_WARNING "si=%lx\n", sysaufs_si_id(sbinfo));
+	pr("superblock\n");
+	au_dpri_sb(sb);
+
+#if 0
+	pr("root dentry\n");
+	au_dpri_dentry(sb->s_root);
+	pr("root inode\n");
+	au_dpri_inode(sb->s_root->d_inode);
+#endif
+
+#if 0
+	do {
+		int err, i, j, ndentry;
+		struct au_dcsub_pages dpages;
+		struct au_dpage *dpage;
+
+		err = au_dpages_init(&dpages, GFP_ATOMIC);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			break;
+		err = au_dcsub_pages(&dpages, sb->s_root, NULL, NULL);
+		if (!err)
+			for (i = 0; i < dpages.ndpage; i++) {
+				dpage = dpages.dpages + i;
+				ndentry = dpage->ndentry;
+				for (j = 0; j < ndentry; j++)
+					au_dpri_dentry(dpage->dentries[j]);
+			}
+		au_dpages_free(&dpages);
+	} while (0);
+#endif
+
+#if 1
+	{
+		struct inode *i;
+		pr("isolated inode\n");
+		spin_lock(&inode_sb_list_lock);
+		list_for_each_entry(i, &sb->s_inodes, i_sb_list) {
+			spin_lock(&i->i_lock);
+			if (1 || hlist_empty(&i->i_dentry))
+				au_dpri_inode(i);
+			spin_unlock(&i->i_lock);
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&inode_sb_list_lock);
+	}
+#endif
+	pr("files\n");
+	lg_global_lock(&files_lglock);
+	do_file_list_for_each_entry(sb, file) {
+		umode_t mode;
+		mode = file_inode(file)->i_mode;
+		if (!special_file(mode) || au_special_file(mode))
+			au_dpri_file(file);
+	} while_file_list_for_each_entry;
+	lg_global_unlock(&files_lglock);
+	pr("done\n");
+
+#undef pr
+	au_plevel = plevel;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* module parameter */
+static char *aufs_sysrq_key = "a";
+module_param_named(sysrq, aufs_sysrq_key, charp, S_IRUGO);
+MODULE_PARM_DESC(sysrq, "MagicSysRq key for " AUFS_NAME);
+
+static void au_sysrq(int key __maybe_unused)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	au_sbilist_lock();
+	list_for_each_entry(sbinfo, &au_sbilist.head, si_list)
+		sysrq_sb(sbinfo->si_sb);
+	au_sbilist_unlock();
+	lockdep_on();
+}
+
+static struct sysrq_key_op au_sysrq_op = {
+	.handler	= au_sysrq,
+	.help_msg	= "Aufs",
+	.action_msg	= "Aufs",
+	.enable_mask	= SYSRQ_ENABLE_DUMP
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int __init au_sysrq_init(void)
+{
+	int err;
+	char key;
+
+	err = -1;
+	key = *aufs_sysrq_key;
+	if ('a' <= key && key <= 'z')
+		err = register_sysrq_key(key, &au_sysrq_op);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		pr_err("err %d, sysrq=%c\n", err, key);
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_sysrq_fin(void)
+{
+	int err;
+	err = unregister_sysrq_key(*aufs_sysrq_key, &au_sysrq_op);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		pr_err("err %d (ignored)\n", err);
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/vdir.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/vdir.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/vdir.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/vdir.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,887 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * virtual or vertical directory
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+static unsigned int calc_size(int nlen)
+{
+	return ALIGN(sizeof(struct au_vdir_de) + nlen, sizeof(ino_t));
+}
+
+static int set_deblk_end(union au_vdir_deblk_p *p,
+			 union au_vdir_deblk_p *deblk_end)
+{
+	if (calc_size(0) <= deblk_end->deblk - p->deblk) {
+		p->de->de_str.len = 0;
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+		return 0;
+	}
+	return -1; /* error */
+}
+
+/* returns true or false */
+static int is_deblk_end(union au_vdir_deblk_p *p,
+			union au_vdir_deblk_p *deblk_end)
+{
+	if (calc_size(0) <= deblk_end->deblk - p->deblk)
+		return !p->de->de_str.len;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static unsigned char *last_deblk(struct au_vdir *vdir)
+{
+	return vdir->vd_deblk[vdir->vd_nblk - 1];
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* estimate the apropriate size for name hash table */
+unsigned int au_rdhash_est(loff_t sz)
+{
+	unsigned int n;
+
+	n = UINT_MAX;
+	sz >>= 10;
+	if (sz < n)
+		n = sz;
+	if (sz < AUFS_RDHASH_DEF)
+		n = AUFS_RDHASH_DEF;
+	/* pr_info("n %u\n", n); */
+	return n;
+}
+
+/*
+ * the allocated memory has to be freed by
+ * au_nhash_wh_free() or au_nhash_de_free().
+ */
+int au_nhash_alloc(struct au_nhash *nhash, unsigned int num_hash, gfp_t gfp)
+{
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	unsigned int u;
+
+	head = kmalloc(sizeof(*nhash->nh_head) * num_hash, gfp);
+	if (head) {
+		nhash->nh_num = num_hash;
+		nhash->nh_head = head;
+		for (u = 0; u < num_hash; u++)
+			INIT_HLIST_HEAD(head++);
+		return 0; /* success */
+	}
+
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+static void nhash_count(struct hlist_head *head)
+{
+#if 0
+	unsigned long n;
+	struct hlist_node *pos;
+
+	n = 0;
+	hlist_for_each(pos, head)
+		n++;
+	pr_info("%lu\n", n);
+#endif
+}
+
+static void au_nhash_wh_do_free(struct hlist_head *head)
+{
+	struct au_vdir_wh *pos;
+	struct hlist_node *node;
+
+	hlist_for_each_entry_safe(pos, node, head, wh_hash)
+		kfree(pos);
+}
+
+static void au_nhash_de_do_free(struct hlist_head *head)
+{
+	struct au_vdir_dehstr *pos;
+	struct hlist_node *node;
+
+	hlist_for_each_entry_safe(pos, node, head, hash)
+		au_cache_free_vdir_dehstr(pos);
+}
+
+static void au_nhash_do_free(struct au_nhash *nhash,
+			     void (*free)(struct hlist_head *head))
+{
+	unsigned int n;
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+
+	n = nhash->nh_num;
+	if (!n)
+		return;
+
+	head = nhash->nh_head;
+	while (n-- > 0) {
+		nhash_count(head);
+		free(head++);
+	}
+	kfree(nhash->nh_head);
+}
+
+void au_nhash_wh_free(struct au_nhash *whlist)
+{
+	au_nhash_do_free(whlist, au_nhash_wh_do_free);
+}
+
+static void au_nhash_de_free(struct au_nhash *delist)
+{
+	au_nhash_do_free(delist, au_nhash_de_do_free);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_nhash_test_longer_wh(struct au_nhash *whlist, aufs_bindex_t btgt,
+			    int limit)
+{
+	int num;
+	unsigned int u, n;
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	struct au_vdir_wh *pos;
+
+	num = 0;
+	n = whlist->nh_num;
+	head = whlist->nh_head;
+	for (u = 0; u < n; u++, head++)
+		hlist_for_each_entry(pos, head, wh_hash)
+			if (pos->wh_bindex == btgt && ++num > limit)
+				return 1;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static struct hlist_head *au_name_hash(struct au_nhash *nhash,
+				       unsigned char *name,
+				       unsigned int len)
+{
+	unsigned int v;
+	/* const unsigned int magic_bit = 12; */
+
+	AuDebugOn(!nhash->nh_num || !nhash->nh_head);
+
+	v = 0;
+	while (len--)
+		v += *name++;
+	/* v = hash_long(v, magic_bit); */
+	v %= nhash->nh_num;
+	return nhash->nh_head + v;
+}
+
+static int au_nhash_test_name(struct au_vdir_destr *str, const char *name,
+			      int nlen)
+{
+	return str->len == nlen && !memcmp(str->name, name, nlen);
+}
+
+/* returns found or not */
+int au_nhash_test_known_wh(struct au_nhash *whlist, char *name, int nlen)
+{
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	struct au_vdir_wh *pos;
+	struct au_vdir_destr *str;
+
+	head = au_name_hash(whlist, name, nlen);
+	hlist_for_each_entry(pos, head, wh_hash) {
+		str = &pos->wh_str;
+		AuDbg("%.*s\n", str->len, str->name);
+		if (au_nhash_test_name(str, name, nlen))
+			return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* returns found(true) or not */
+static int test_known(struct au_nhash *delist, char *name, int nlen)
+{
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	struct au_vdir_dehstr *pos;
+	struct au_vdir_destr *str;
+
+	head = au_name_hash(delist, name, nlen);
+	hlist_for_each_entry(pos, head, hash) {
+		str = pos->str;
+		AuDbg("%.*s\n", str->len, str->name);
+		if (au_nhash_test_name(str, name, nlen))
+			return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void au_shwh_init_wh(struct au_vdir_wh *wh, ino_t ino,
+			    unsigned char d_type)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+	wh->wh_ino = ino;
+	wh->wh_type = d_type;
+#endif
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_nhash_append_wh(struct au_nhash *whlist, char *name, int nlen, ino_t ino,
+		       unsigned int d_type, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		       unsigned char shwh)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_vdir_destr *str;
+	struct au_vdir_wh *wh;
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s\n", nlen, name);
+	AuDebugOn(!whlist->nh_num || !whlist->nh_head);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	wh = kmalloc(sizeof(*wh) + nlen, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!wh))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	wh->wh_bindex = bindex;
+	if (shwh)
+		au_shwh_init_wh(wh, ino, d_type);
+	str = &wh->wh_str;
+	str->len = nlen;
+	memcpy(str->name, name, nlen);
+	hlist_add_head(&wh->wh_hash, au_name_hash(whlist, name, nlen));
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int append_deblk(struct au_vdir *vdir)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long ul;
+	const unsigned int deblk_sz = vdir->vd_deblk_sz;
+	union au_vdir_deblk_p p, deblk_end;
+	unsigned char **o;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	o = krealloc(vdir->vd_deblk, sizeof(*o) * (vdir->vd_nblk + 1),
+		     GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!o))
+		goto out;
+
+	vdir->vd_deblk = o;
+	p.deblk = kmalloc(deblk_sz, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (p.deblk) {
+		ul = vdir->vd_nblk++;
+		vdir->vd_deblk[ul] = p.deblk;
+		vdir->vd_last.ul = ul;
+		vdir->vd_last.p.deblk = p.deblk;
+		deblk_end.deblk = p.deblk + deblk_sz;
+		err = set_deblk_end(&p, &deblk_end);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int append_de(struct au_vdir *vdir, char *name, int nlen, ino_t ino,
+		     unsigned int d_type, struct au_nhash *delist)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int sz;
+	const unsigned int deblk_sz = vdir->vd_deblk_sz;
+	union au_vdir_deblk_p p, *room, deblk_end;
+	struct au_vdir_dehstr *dehstr;
+
+	p.deblk = last_deblk(vdir);
+	deblk_end.deblk = p.deblk + deblk_sz;
+	room = &vdir->vd_last.p;
+	AuDebugOn(room->deblk < p.deblk || deblk_end.deblk <= room->deblk
+		  || !is_deblk_end(room, &deblk_end));
+
+	sz = calc_size(nlen);
+	if (unlikely(sz > deblk_end.deblk - room->deblk)) {
+		err = append_deblk(vdir);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+
+		p.deblk = last_deblk(vdir);
+		deblk_end.deblk = p.deblk + deblk_sz;
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+		AuDebugOn(room->deblk != p.deblk);
+	}
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	dehstr = au_cache_alloc_vdir_dehstr();
+	if (unlikely(!dehstr))
+		goto out;
+
+	dehstr->str = &room->de->de_str;
+	hlist_add_head(&dehstr->hash, au_name_hash(delist, name, nlen));
+	room->de->de_ino = ino;
+	room->de->de_type = d_type;
+	room->de->de_str.len = nlen;
+	memcpy(room->de->de_str.name, name, nlen);
+
+	err = 0;
+	room->deblk += sz;
+	if (unlikely(set_deblk_end(room, &deblk_end)))
+		err = append_deblk(vdir);
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_vdir_free(struct au_vdir *vdir)
+{
+	unsigned char **deblk;
+
+	deblk = vdir->vd_deblk;
+	while (vdir->vd_nblk--)
+		kfree(*deblk++);
+	kfree(vdir->vd_deblk);
+	au_cache_free_vdir(vdir);
+}
+
+static struct au_vdir *alloc_vdir(struct file *file)
+{
+	struct au_vdir *vdir;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	int err;
+
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	vdir = au_cache_alloc_vdir();
+	if (unlikely(!vdir))
+		goto out;
+
+	vdir->vd_deblk = kzalloc(sizeof(*vdir->vd_deblk), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!vdir->vd_deblk))
+		goto out_free;
+
+	vdir->vd_deblk_sz = au_sbi(sb)->si_rdblk;
+	if (!vdir->vd_deblk_sz) {
+		/* estimate the apropriate size for deblk */
+		vdir->vd_deblk_sz = au_dir_size(file, /*dentry*/NULL);
+		/* pr_info("vd_deblk_sz %u\n", vdir->vd_deblk_sz); */
+	}
+	vdir->vd_nblk = 0;
+	vdir->vd_version = 0;
+	vdir->vd_jiffy = 0;
+	err = append_deblk(vdir);
+	if (!err)
+		return vdir; /* success */
+
+	kfree(vdir->vd_deblk);
+
+out_free:
+	au_cache_free_vdir(vdir);
+out:
+	vdir = ERR_PTR(err);
+	return vdir;
+}
+
+static int reinit_vdir(struct au_vdir *vdir)
+{
+	int err;
+	union au_vdir_deblk_p p, deblk_end;
+
+	while (vdir->vd_nblk > 1) {
+		kfree(vdir->vd_deblk[vdir->vd_nblk - 1]);
+		/* vdir->vd_deblk[vdir->vd_nblk - 1] = NULL; */
+		vdir->vd_nblk--;
+	}
+	p.deblk = vdir->vd_deblk[0];
+	deblk_end.deblk = p.deblk + vdir->vd_deblk_sz;
+	err = set_deblk_end(&p, &deblk_end);
+	/* keep vd_dblk_sz */
+	vdir->vd_last.ul = 0;
+	vdir->vd_last.p.deblk = vdir->vd_deblk[0];
+	vdir->vd_version = 0;
+	vdir->vd_jiffy = 0;
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#define AuFillVdir_CALLED	1
+#define AuFillVdir_WHABLE	(1 << 1)
+#define AuFillVdir_SHWH		(1 << 2)
+#define au_ftest_fillvdir(flags, name)	((flags) & AuFillVdir_##name)
+#define au_fset_fillvdir(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuFillVdir_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_fillvdir(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuFillVdir_##name; } while (0)
+
+#ifndef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+#undef AuFillVdir_SHWH
+#define AuFillVdir_SHWH		0
+#endif
+
+struct fillvdir_arg {
+	struct dir_context	ctx;
+	struct file		*file;
+	struct au_vdir		*vdir;
+	struct au_nhash		delist;
+	struct au_nhash		whlist;
+	aufs_bindex_t		bindex;
+	unsigned int		flags;
+	int			err;
+};
+
+static int fillvdir(struct dir_context *ctx, const char *__name, int nlen,
+		    loff_t offset __maybe_unused, u64 h_ino,
+		    unsigned int d_type)
+{
+	struct fillvdir_arg *arg = container_of(ctx, struct fillvdir_arg, ctx);
+	char *name = (void *)__name;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	ino_t ino;
+	const unsigned char shwh = !!au_ftest_fillvdir(arg->flags, SHWH);
+
+	arg->err = 0;
+	sb = arg->file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	au_fset_fillvdir(arg->flags, CALLED);
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	if (nlen <= AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN
+	    || memcmp(name, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN)) {
+		if (test_known(&arg->delist, name, nlen)
+		    || au_nhash_test_known_wh(&arg->whlist, name, nlen))
+			goto out; /* already exists or whiteouted */
+
+		sb = arg->file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+		arg->err = au_ino(sb, arg->bindex, h_ino, d_type, &ino);
+		if (!arg->err) {
+			if (unlikely(nlen > AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN))
+				d_type = DT_UNKNOWN;
+			arg->err = append_de(arg->vdir, name, nlen, ino,
+					     d_type, &arg->delist);
+		}
+	} else if (au_ftest_fillvdir(arg->flags, WHABLE)) {
+		name += AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+		nlen -= AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+		if (au_nhash_test_known_wh(&arg->whlist, name, nlen))
+			goto out; /* already whiteouted */
+
+		if (shwh)
+			arg->err = au_wh_ino(sb, arg->bindex, h_ino, d_type,
+					     &ino);
+		if (!arg->err) {
+			if (nlen <= AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN + AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN)
+				d_type = DT_UNKNOWN;
+			arg->err = au_nhash_append_wh
+				(&arg->whlist, name, nlen, ino, d_type,
+				 arg->bindex, shwh);
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (!arg->err)
+		arg->vdir->vd_jiffy = jiffies;
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	AuTraceErr(arg->err);
+	return arg->err;
+}
+
+static int au_handle_shwh(struct super_block *sb, struct au_vdir *vdir,
+			  struct au_nhash *whlist, struct au_nhash *delist)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_SHWH
+	int err;
+	unsigned int nh, u;
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	struct au_vdir_wh *pos;
+	struct hlist_node *n;
+	char *p, *o;
+	struct au_vdir_destr *destr;
+
+	AuDebugOn(!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), SHWH));
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	o = p = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!p))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	nh = whlist->nh_num;
+	memcpy(p, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN);
+	p += AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+	for (u = 0; u < nh; u++) {
+		head = whlist->nh_head + u;
+		hlist_for_each_entry_safe(pos, n, head, wh_hash) {
+			destr = &pos->wh_str;
+			memcpy(p, destr->name, destr->len);
+			err = append_de(vdir, o, destr->len + AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN,
+					pos->wh_ino, pos->wh_type, delist);
+			if (unlikely(err))
+				break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	free_page((unsigned long)o);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+#else
+	return 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+static int au_do_read_vdir(struct fillvdir_arg *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int rdhash;
+	loff_t offset;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex, bstart;
+	unsigned char shwh;
+	struct file *hf, *file;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	file = arg->file;
+	sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	rdhash = au_sbi(sb)->si_rdhash;
+	if (!rdhash)
+		rdhash = au_rdhash_est(au_dir_size(file, /*dentry*/NULL));
+	err = au_nhash_alloc(&arg->delist, rdhash, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	err = au_nhash_alloc(&arg->whlist, rdhash, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_delist;
+
+	err = 0;
+	arg->flags = 0;
+	shwh = 0;
+	if (au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), SHWH)) {
+		shwh = 1;
+		au_fset_fillvdir(arg->flags, SHWH);
+	}
+	bstart = au_fbstart(file);
+	bend = au_fbend_dir(file);
+	for (bindex = bstart; !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		hf = au_hf_dir(file, bindex);
+		if (!hf)
+			continue;
+
+		offset = vfsub_llseek(hf, 0, SEEK_SET);
+		err = offset;
+		if (unlikely(offset))
+			break;
+
+		arg->bindex = bindex;
+		au_fclr_fillvdir(arg->flags, WHABLE);
+		if (shwh
+		    || (bindex != bend
+			&& au_br_whable(au_sbr_perm(sb, bindex))))
+			au_fset_fillvdir(arg->flags, WHABLE);
+		do {
+			arg->err = 0;
+			au_fclr_fillvdir(arg->flags, CALLED);
+			/* smp_mb(); */
+			err = vfsub_iterate_dir(hf, &arg->ctx);
+			if (err >= 0)
+				err = arg->err;
+		} while (!err && au_ftest_fillvdir(arg->flags, CALLED));
+
+		/*
+		 * dir_relax() may be good for concurrency, but aufs should not
+		 * use it since it will cause a lockdep problem.
+		 */
+	}
+
+	if (!err && shwh)
+		err = au_handle_shwh(sb, arg->vdir, &arg->whlist, &arg->delist);
+
+	au_nhash_wh_free(&arg->whlist);
+
+out_delist:
+	au_nhash_de_free(&arg->delist);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int read_vdir(struct file *file, int may_read)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long expire;
+	unsigned char do_read;
+	struct fillvdir_arg arg = {
+		.ctx = {
+			.actor = au_diractor(fillvdir)
+		}
+	};
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct au_vdir *vdir, *allocated;
+
+	err = 0;
+	inode = file_inode(file);
+	IMustLock(inode);
+	SiMustAnyLock(inode->i_sb);
+
+	allocated = NULL;
+	do_read = 0;
+	expire = au_sbi(inode->i_sb)->si_rdcache;
+	vdir = au_ivdir(inode);
+	if (!vdir) {
+		do_read = 1;
+		vdir = alloc_vdir(file);
+		err = PTR_ERR(vdir);
+		if (IS_ERR(vdir))
+			goto out;
+		err = 0;
+		allocated = vdir;
+	} else if (may_read
+		   && (inode->i_version != vdir->vd_version
+		       || time_after(jiffies, vdir->vd_jiffy + expire))) {
+		do_read = 1;
+		err = reinit_vdir(vdir);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!do_read)
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	arg.file = file;
+	arg.vdir = vdir;
+	err = au_do_read_vdir(&arg);
+	if (!err) {
+		/* file->f_pos = 0; */ /* todo: ctx->pos? */
+		vdir->vd_version = inode->i_version;
+		vdir->vd_last.ul = 0;
+		vdir->vd_last.p.deblk = vdir->vd_deblk[0];
+		if (allocated)
+			au_set_ivdir(inode, allocated);
+	} else if (allocated)
+		au_vdir_free(allocated);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int copy_vdir(struct au_vdir *tgt, struct au_vdir *src)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	unsigned long ul, n;
+	const unsigned int deblk_sz = src->vd_deblk_sz;
+
+	AuDebugOn(tgt->vd_nblk != 1);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	if (tgt->vd_nblk < src->vd_nblk) {
+		unsigned char **p;
+
+		p = krealloc(tgt->vd_deblk, sizeof(*p) * src->vd_nblk,
+			     GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(!p))
+			goto out;
+		tgt->vd_deblk = p;
+	}
+
+	if (tgt->vd_deblk_sz != deblk_sz) {
+		unsigned char *p;
+
+		tgt->vd_deblk_sz = deblk_sz;
+		p = krealloc(tgt->vd_deblk[0], deblk_sz, GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(!p))
+			goto out;
+		tgt->vd_deblk[0] = p;
+	}
+	memcpy(tgt->vd_deblk[0], src->vd_deblk[0], deblk_sz);
+	tgt->vd_version = src->vd_version;
+	tgt->vd_jiffy = src->vd_jiffy;
+
+	n = src->vd_nblk;
+	for (ul = 1; ul < n; ul++) {
+		tgt->vd_deblk[ul] = kmemdup(src->vd_deblk[ul], deblk_sz,
+					    GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(!tgt->vd_deblk[ul]))
+			goto out;
+		tgt->vd_nblk++;
+	}
+	tgt->vd_nblk = n;
+	tgt->vd_last.ul = tgt->vd_last.ul;
+	tgt->vd_last.p.deblk = tgt->vd_deblk[tgt->vd_last.ul];
+	tgt->vd_last.p.deblk += src->vd_last.p.deblk
+		- src->vd_deblk[src->vd_last.ul];
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	return 0; /* success */
+
+out:
+	rerr = reinit_vdir(tgt);
+	BUG_ON(rerr);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_vdir_init(struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct au_vdir *vdir_cache, *allocated;
+
+	/* test file->f_pos here instead of ctx->pos */
+	err = read_vdir(file, !file->f_pos);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	allocated = NULL;
+	vdir_cache = au_fvdir_cache(file);
+	if (!vdir_cache) {
+		vdir_cache = alloc_vdir(file);
+		err = PTR_ERR(vdir_cache);
+		if (IS_ERR(vdir_cache))
+			goto out;
+		allocated = vdir_cache;
+	} else if (!file->f_pos && vdir_cache->vd_version != file->f_version) {
+		/* test file->f_pos here instead of ctx->pos */
+		err = reinit_vdir(vdir_cache);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+	} else
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	inode = file_inode(file);
+	err = copy_vdir(vdir_cache, au_ivdir(inode));
+	if (!err) {
+		file->f_version = inode->i_version;
+		if (allocated)
+			au_set_fvdir_cache(file, allocated);
+	} else if (allocated)
+		au_vdir_free(allocated);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static loff_t calc_offset(struct au_vdir *vdir)
+{
+	loff_t offset;
+	union au_vdir_deblk_p p;
+
+	p.deblk = vdir->vd_deblk[vdir->vd_last.ul];
+	offset = vdir->vd_last.p.deblk - p.deblk;
+	offset += vdir->vd_deblk_sz * vdir->vd_last.ul;
+	return offset;
+}
+
+/* returns true or false */
+static int seek_vdir(struct file *file, struct dir_context *ctx)
+{
+	int valid;
+	unsigned int deblk_sz;
+	unsigned long ul, n;
+	loff_t offset;
+	union au_vdir_deblk_p p, deblk_end;
+	struct au_vdir *vdir_cache;
+
+	valid = 1;
+	vdir_cache = au_fvdir_cache(file);
+	offset = calc_offset(vdir_cache);
+	AuDbg("offset %lld\n", offset);
+	if (ctx->pos == offset)
+		goto out;
+
+	vdir_cache->vd_last.ul = 0;
+	vdir_cache->vd_last.p.deblk = vdir_cache->vd_deblk[0];
+	if (!ctx->pos)
+		goto out;
+
+	valid = 0;
+	deblk_sz = vdir_cache->vd_deblk_sz;
+	ul = div64_u64(ctx->pos, deblk_sz);
+	AuDbg("ul %lu\n", ul);
+	if (ul >= vdir_cache->vd_nblk)
+		goto out;
+
+	n = vdir_cache->vd_nblk;
+	for (; ul < n; ul++) {
+		p.deblk = vdir_cache->vd_deblk[ul];
+		deblk_end.deblk = p.deblk + deblk_sz;
+		offset = ul;
+		offset *= deblk_sz;
+		while (!is_deblk_end(&p, &deblk_end) && offset < ctx->pos) {
+			unsigned int l;
+
+			l = calc_size(p.de->de_str.len);
+			offset += l;
+			p.deblk += l;
+		}
+		if (!is_deblk_end(&p, &deblk_end)) {
+			valid = 1;
+			vdir_cache->vd_last.ul = ul;
+			vdir_cache->vd_last.p = p;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	AuTraceErr(!valid);
+	return valid;
+}
+
+int au_vdir_fill_de(struct file *file, struct dir_context *ctx)
+{
+	unsigned int l, deblk_sz;
+	union au_vdir_deblk_p deblk_end;
+	struct au_vdir *vdir_cache;
+	struct au_vdir_de *de;
+
+	vdir_cache = au_fvdir_cache(file);
+	if (!seek_vdir(file, ctx))
+		return 0;
+
+	deblk_sz = vdir_cache->vd_deblk_sz;
+	while (1) {
+		deblk_end.deblk = vdir_cache->vd_deblk[vdir_cache->vd_last.ul];
+		deblk_end.deblk += deblk_sz;
+		while (!is_deblk_end(&vdir_cache->vd_last.p, &deblk_end)) {
+			de = vdir_cache->vd_last.p.de;
+			AuDbg("%.*s, off%lld, i%lu, dt%d\n",
+			      de->de_str.len, de->de_str.name, ctx->pos,
+			      (unsigned long)de->de_ino, de->de_type);
+			if (unlikely(!dir_emit(ctx, de->de_str.name,
+					       de->de_str.len, de->de_ino,
+					       de->de_type))) {
+				/* todo: ignore the error caused by udba? */
+				/* return err; */
+				return 0;
+			}
+
+			l = calc_size(de->de_str.len);
+			vdir_cache->vd_last.p.deblk += l;
+			ctx->pos += l;
+		}
+		if (vdir_cache->vd_last.ul < vdir_cache->vd_nblk - 1) {
+			vdir_cache->vd_last.ul++;
+			vdir_cache->vd_last.p.deblk
+				= vdir_cache->vd_deblk[vdir_cache->vd_last.ul];
+			ctx->pos = deblk_sz * vdir_cache->vd_last.ul;
+			continue;
+		}
+		break;
+	}
+
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+	return 0;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/vfsub.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/vfsub.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/vfsub.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/vfsub.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,771 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * sub-routines for VFS
+ */
+
+#include <linux/ima.h>
+#include <linux/namei.h>
+#include <linux/security.h>
+#include <linux/splice.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+int vfsub_update_h_iattr(struct path *h_path, int *did)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct kstat st;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+
+	/* for remote fs, leave work for its getattr or d_revalidate */
+	/* for bad i_attr fs, handle them in aufs_getattr() */
+	/* still some fs may acquire i_mutex. we need to skip them */
+	err = 0;
+	if (!did)
+		did = &err;
+	h_sb = h_path->dentry->d_sb;
+	*did = (!au_test_fs_remote(h_sb) && au_test_fs_refresh_iattr(h_sb));
+	if (*did)
+		err = vfs_getattr(h_path, &st);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct file *vfsub_dentry_open(struct path *path, int flags)
+{
+	struct file *file;
+
+	file = dentry_open(path, flags /* | __FMODE_NONOTIFY */,
+			   current_cred());
+	if (!IS_ERR_OR_NULL(file)
+	    && (file->f_mode & (FMODE_READ | FMODE_WRITE)) == FMODE_READ)
+		i_readcount_inc(path->dentry->d_inode);
+
+	return file;
+}
+
+struct file *vfsub_filp_open(const char *path, int oflags, int mode)
+{
+	struct file *file;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	file = filp_open(path,
+			 oflags /* | __FMODE_NONOTIFY */,
+			 mode);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (IS_ERR(file))
+		goto out;
+	vfsub_update_h_iattr(&file->f_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+
+out:
+	return file;
+}
+
+int vfsub_kern_path(const char *name, unsigned int flags, struct path *path)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = kern_path(name, flags, path);
+	if (!err && path->dentry->d_inode)
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct dentry *vfsub_lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct dentry *parent,
+				    int len)
+{
+	struct path path = {
+		.mnt = NULL
+	};
+
+	/* VFS checks it too, but by WARN_ON_ONCE() */
+	IMustLock(parent->d_inode);
+
+	path.dentry = lookup_one_len(name, parent, len);
+	if (IS_ERR(path.dentry))
+		goto out;
+	if (path.dentry->d_inode)
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(path.dentry);
+	return path.dentry;
+}
+
+void vfsub_call_lkup_one(void *args)
+{
+	struct vfsub_lkup_one_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = vfsub_lkup_one(a->name, a->parent);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct dentry *vfsub_lock_rename(struct dentry *d1, struct au_hinode *hdir1,
+				 struct dentry *d2, struct au_hinode *hdir2)
+{
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	d = lock_rename(d1, d2);
+	lockdep_on();
+	au_hn_suspend(hdir1);
+	if (hdir1 != hdir2)
+		au_hn_suspend(hdir2);
+
+	return d;
+}
+
+void vfsub_unlock_rename(struct dentry *d1, struct au_hinode *hdir1,
+			 struct dentry *d2, struct au_hinode *hdir2)
+{
+	au_hn_resume(hdir1);
+	if (hdir1 != hdir2)
+		au_hn_resume(hdir2);
+	lockdep_off();
+	unlock_rename(d1, d2);
+	lockdep_on();
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int vfsub_create(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode, bool want_excl)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	d = path->dentry;
+	path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	err = security_path_mknod(path, d, mode, 0);
+	path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = vfs_create(dir, path->dentry, mode, want_excl);
+	if (!err) {
+		struct path tmp = *path;
+		int did;
+
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, &did);
+		if (did) {
+			tmp.dentry = path->dentry->d_parent;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+		}
+		/*ignore*/
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_symlink(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, const char *symname)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	d = path->dentry;
+	path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	err = security_path_symlink(path, d, symname);
+	path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = vfs_symlink(dir, path->dentry, symname);
+	if (!err) {
+		struct path tmp = *path;
+		int did;
+
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, &did);
+		if (did) {
+			tmp.dentry = path->dentry->d_parent;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+		}
+		/*ignore*/
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_mknod(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode, dev_t dev)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	d = path->dentry;
+	path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	err = security_path_mknod(path, d, mode, new_encode_dev(dev));
+	path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = vfs_mknod(dir, path->dentry, mode, dev);
+	if (!err) {
+		struct path tmp = *path;
+		int did;
+
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, &did);
+		if (did) {
+			tmp.dentry = path->dentry->d_parent;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+		}
+		/*ignore*/
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_test_nlink(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	const unsigned int link_max = UINT_MAX >> 1; /* rough margin */
+
+	if (!au_test_fs_no_limit_nlink(inode->i_sb)
+	    || inode->i_nlink < link_max)
+		return 0;
+	return -EMLINK;
+}
+
+int vfsub_link(struct dentry *src_dentry, struct inode *dir, struct path *path)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	err = au_test_nlink(src_dentry->d_inode);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		return err;
+
+	/* we don't call may_linkat() */
+	d = path->dentry;
+	path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	err = security_path_link(src_dentry, path, d);
+	path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_link(src_dentry, dir, path->dentry);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (!err) {
+		struct path tmp = *path;
+		int did;
+
+		/* fuse has different memory inode for the same inumber */
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, &did);
+		if (did) {
+			tmp.dentry = path->dentry->d_parent;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+			tmp.dentry = src_dentry;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+		}
+		/*ignore*/
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_rename(struct inode *src_dir, struct dentry *src_dentry,
+		 struct inode *dir, struct path *path)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path tmp = {
+		.mnt	= path->mnt
+	};
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+	IMustLock(src_dir);
+
+	d = path->dentry;
+	path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	tmp.dentry = src_dentry->d_parent;
+	err = security_path_rename(&tmp, src_dentry, path, d);
+	path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_rename(src_dir, src_dentry, dir, path->dentry);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (!err) {
+		int did;
+
+		tmp.dentry = d->d_parent;
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, &did);
+		if (did) {
+			tmp.dentry = src_dentry;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+			tmp.dentry = src_dentry->d_parent;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+		}
+		/*ignore*/
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	d = path->dentry;
+	path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	err = security_path_mkdir(path, d, mode);
+	path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = vfs_mkdir(dir, path->dentry, mode);
+	if (!err) {
+		struct path tmp = *path;
+		int did;
+
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, &did);
+		if (did) {
+			tmp.dentry = path->dentry->d_parent;
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL);
+		}
+		/*ignore*/
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *d;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	d = path->dentry;
+	path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	err = security_path_rmdir(path, d);
+	path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_rmdir(dir, path->dentry);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (!err) {
+		struct path tmp = {
+			.dentry	= path->dentry->d_parent,
+			.mnt	= path->mnt
+		};
+
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* todo: support mmap_sem? */
+ssize_t vfsub_read_u(struct file *file, char __user *ubuf, size_t count,
+		     loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_read(file, ubuf, count, ppos);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (err >= 0)
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&file->f_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* todo: kernel_read()? */
+ssize_t vfsub_read_k(struct file *file, void *kbuf, size_t count,
+		     loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	mm_segment_t oldfs;
+	union {
+		void *k;
+		char __user *u;
+	} buf;
+
+	buf.k = kbuf;
+	oldfs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	err = vfsub_read_u(file, buf.u, count, ppos);
+	set_fs(oldfs);
+	return err;
+}
+
+ssize_t vfsub_write_u(struct file *file, const char __user *ubuf, size_t count,
+		      loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_write(file, ubuf, count, ppos);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (err >= 0)
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&file->f_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	return err;
+}
+
+ssize_t vfsub_write_k(struct file *file, void *kbuf, size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	mm_segment_t oldfs;
+	union {
+		void *k;
+		const char __user *u;
+	} buf;
+
+	buf.k = kbuf;
+	oldfs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	err = vfsub_write_u(file, buf.u, count, ppos);
+	set_fs(oldfs);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (file->f_op && file->f_op->flush) {
+		if (!au_test_nfs(file->f_dentry->d_sb))
+			err = file->f_op->flush(file, id);
+		else {
+			lockdep_off();
+			err = file->f_op->flush(file, id);
+			lockdep_on();
+		}
+		if (!err)
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(&file->f_path, /*did*/NULL);
+		/*ignore*/
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_iterate_dir(struct file *file, struct dir_context *ctx)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	AuDbg("%.*s, ctx{%pf, %llu}\n",
+	      AuDLNPair(file->f_dentry), ctx->actor, ctx->pos);
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = iterate_dir(file, ctx);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (err >= 0)
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&file->f_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	return err;
+}
+
+long vfsub_splice_to(struct file *in, loff_t *ppos,
+		     struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, size_t len,
+		     unsigned int flags)
+{
+	long err;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = do_splice_to(in, ppos, pipe, len, flags);
+	lockdep_on();
+	file_accessed(in);
+	if (err >= 0)
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&in->f_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	return err;
+}
+
+long vfsub_splice_from(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, struct file *out,
+		       loff_t *ppos, size_t len, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	long err;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = do_splice_from(pipe, out, ppos, len, flags);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (err >= 0)
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&out->f_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_fsync(struct file *file, struct path *path, int datasync)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	/* file can be NULL */
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_fsync(file, datasync);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (!err) {
+		if (!path) {
+			AuDebugOn(!file);
+			path = &file->f_path;
+		}
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* cf. open.c:do_sys_truncate() and do_sys_ftruncate() */
+int vfsub_trunc(struct path *h_path, loff_t length, unsigned int attr,
+		struct file *h_file)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+
+	if (!h_file) {
+		err = vfsub_truncate(h_path, length);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	h_inode = h_path->dentry->d_inode;
+	h_sb = h_inode->i_sb;
+	lockdep_off();
+	sb_start_write(h_sb);
+	lockdep_on();
+	err = locks_verify_truncate(h_inode, h_file, length);
+	if (!err)
+		err = security_path_truncate(h_path);
+	if (!err) {
+		lockdep_off();
+		err = do_truncate(h_path->dentry, length, attr, h_file);
+		lockdep_on();
+	}
+	lockdep_off();
+	sb_end_write(h_sb);
+	lockdep_on();
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_vfsub_mkdir_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct path *path;
+	int mode;
+};
+
+static void au_call_vfsub_mkdir(void *args)
+{
+	struct au_vfsub_mkdir_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = vfsub_mkdir(a->dir, a->path, a->mode);
+}
+
+int vfsub_sio_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode)
+{
+	int err, do_sio, wkq_err;
+
+	do_sio = au_test_h_perm_sio(dir, MAY_EXEC | MAY_WRITE);
+	if (!do_sio)
+		err = vfsub_mkdir(dir, path, mode);
+	else {
+		struct au_vfsub_mkdir_args args = {
+			.errp	= &err,
+			.dir	= dir,
+			.path	= path,
+			.mode	= mode
+		};
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(au_call_vfsub_mkdir, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct au_vfsub_rmdir_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct path *path;
+};
+
+static void au_call_vfsub_rmdir(void *args)
+{
+	struct au_vfsub_rmdir_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = vfsub_rmdir(a->dir, a->path);
+}
+
+int vfsub_sio_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path)
+{
+	int err, do_sio, wkq_err;
+
+	do_sio = au_test_h_perm_sio(dir, MAY_EXEC | MAY_WRITE);
+	if (!do_sio)
+		err = vfsub_rmdir(dir, path);
+	else {
+		struct au_vfsub_rmdir_args args = {
+			.errp	= &err,
+			.dir	= dir,
+			.path	= path
+		};
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(au_call_vfsub_rmdir, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct notify_change_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct path *path;
+	struct iattr *ia;
+};
+
+static void call_notify_change(void *args)
+{
+	struct notify_change_args *a = args;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+
+	h_inode = a->path->dentry->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(h_inode);
+
+	*a->errp = -EPERM;
+	if (!IS_IMMUTABLE(h_inode) && !IS_APPEND(h_inode)) {
+		*a->errp = notify_change(a->path->dentry, a->ia);
+		if (!*a->errp)
+			vfsub_update_h_iattr(a->path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	}
+	AuTraceErr(*a->errp);
+}
+
+int vfsub_notify_change(struct path *path, struct iattr *ia)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct notify_change_args args = {
+		.errp	= &err,
+		.path	= path,
+		.ia	= ia
+	};
+
+	call_notify_change(&args);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_sio_notify_change(struct path *path, struct iattr *ia)
+{
+	int err, wkq_err;
+	struct notify_change_args args = {
+		.errp	= &err,
+		.path	= path,
+		.ia	= ia
+	};
+
+	wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(call_notify_change, &args);
+	if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+		err = wkq_err;
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct unlink_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct path *path;
+};
+
+static void call_unlink(void *args)
+{
+	struct unlink_args *a = args;
+	struct dentry *d = a->path->dentry;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	const int stop_sillyrename = (au_test_nfs(d->d_sb)
+				      && d_count(d) == 1);
+
+	IMustLock(a->dir);
+
+	a->path->dentry = d->d_parent;
+	*a->errp = security_path_unlink(a->path, d);
+	a->path->dentry = d;
+	if (unlikely(*a->errp))
+		return;
+
+	if (!stop_sillyrename)
+		dget(d);
+	h_inode = d->d_inode;
+	if (h_inode)
+		ihold(h_inode);
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	*a->errp = vfs_unlink(a->dir, d);
+	lockdep_on();
+	if (!*a->errp) {
+		struct path tmp = {
+			.dentry = d->d_parent,
+			.mnt	= a->path->mnt
+		};
+		vfsub_update_h_iattr(&tmp, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+	}
+
+	if (!stop_sillyrename)
+		dput(d);
+	if (h_inode)
+		iput(h_inode);
+
+	AuTraceErr(*a->errp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * @dir: must be locked.
+ * @dentry: target dentry.
+ */
+int vfsub_unlink(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int force)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct unlink_args args = {
+		.errp	= &err,
+		.dir	= dir,
+		.path	= path
+	};
+
+	if (!force)
+		call_unlink(&args);
+	else {
+		int wkq_err;
+
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(call_unlink, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/vfsub.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/vfsub.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/vfsub.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/vfsub.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,311 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * sub-routines for VFS
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_VFSUB_H__
+#define __AUFS_VFSUB_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/lglock.h>
+#include <linux/mount.h>
+#include "debug.h"
+
+/* copied from linux/fs/internal.h */
+/* todo: BAD approach!! */
+extern struct lglock vfsmount_lock;
+extern void __mnt_drop_write(struct vfsmount *);
+extern spinlock_t inode_sb_list_lock;
+void __file_sb_list_add(struct file *file, struct super_block *sb);
+
+/* copied from linux/fs/file_table.c */
+extern struct lglock files_lglock;
+#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+/*
+ * These macros iterate all files on all CPUs for a given superblock.
+ * files_lglock must be held globally.
+ */
+#define do_file_list_for_each_entry(__sb, __file)		\
+{								\
+	int i;							\
+	for_each_possible_cpu(i) {				\
+		struct list_head *list;				\
+		list = per_cpu_ptr((__sb)->s_files, i);		\
+		list_for_each_entry((__file), list, f_u.fu_list)
+
+#define while_file_list_for_each_entry				\
+	}							\
+}
+
+#else
+
+#define do_file_list_for_each_entry(__sb, __file)		\
+{								\
+	struct list_head *list;					\
+	list = &(sb)->s_files;					\
+	list_for_each_entry((__file), list, f_u.fu_list)
+
+#define while_file_list_for_each_entry				\
+}
+#endif
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* lock subclass for lower inode */
+/* default MAX_LOCKDEP_SUBCLASSES(8) is not enough */
+/* reduce? gave up. */
+enum {
+	AuLsc_I_Begin = I_MUTEX_QUOTA, /* 4 */
+	AuLsc_I_PARENT,		/* lower inode, parent first */
+	AuLsc_I_PARENT2,	/* copyup dirs */
+	AuLsc_I_PARENT3,	/* copyup wh */
+	AuLsc_I_CHILD,
+	AuLsc_I_CHILD2,
+	AuLsc_I_End
+};
+
+/* to debug easier, do not make them inlined functions */
+#define MtxMustLock(mtx)	AuDebugOn(!mutex_is_locked(mtx))
+#define IMustLock(i)		MtxMustLock(&(i)->i_mutex)
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline void vfsub_drop_nlink(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(!inode->i_nlink);
+	drop_nlink(inode);
+}
+
+static inline void vfsub_dead_dir(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode));
+	inode->i_flags |= S_DEAD;
+	clear_nlink(inode);
+}
+
+static inline int vfsub_native_ro(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	return (inode->i_sb->s_flags & MS_RDONLY)
+		|| IS_RDONLY(inode)
+		/* || IS_APPEND(inode) */
+		|| IS_IMMUTABLE(inode);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int vfsub_update_h_iattr(struct path *h_path, int *did);
+struct file *vfsub_dentry_open(struct path *path, int flags);
+struct file *vfsub_filp_open(const char *path, int oflags, int mode);
+int vfsub_kern_path(const char *name, unsigned int flags, struct path *path);
+
+struct dentry *vfsub_lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct dentry *parent,
+				    int len);
+
+struct vfsub_lkup_one_args {
+	struct dentry **errp;
+	struct qstr *name;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+};
+
+static inline struct dentry *vfsub_lkup_one(struct qstr *name,
+					    struct dentry *parent)
+{
+	return vfsub_lookup_one_len(name->name, parent, name->len);
+}
+
+void vfsub_call_lkup_one(void *args);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline int vfsub_mnt_want_write(struct vfsmount *mnt)
+{
+	int err;
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = mnt_want_write(mnt);
+	lockdep_on();
+	return err;
+}
+
+static inline void vfsub_mnt_drop_write(struct vfsmount *mnt)
+{
+	lockdep_off();
+	mnt_drop_write(mnt);
+	lockdep_on();
+}
+
+static inline void vfsub_mnt_drop_write_file(struct file *file)
+{
+	lockdep_off();
+	mnt_drop_write_file(file);
+	lockdep_on();
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_hinode;
+struct dentry *vfsub_lock_rename(struct dentry *d1, struct au_hinode *hdir1,
+				 struct dentry *d2, struct au_hinode *hdir2);
+void vfsub_unlock_rename(struct dentry *d1, struct au_hinode *hdir1,
+			 struct dentry *d2, struct au_hinode *hdir2);
+
+int vfsub_create(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode,
+		 bool want_excl);
+int vfsub_symlink(struct inode *dir, struct path *path,
+		  const char *symname);
+int vfsub_mknod(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode, dev_t dev);
+int vfsub_link(struct dentry *src_dentry, struct inode *dir,
+	       struct path *path);
+int vfsub_rename(struct inode *src_hdir, struct dentry *src_dentry,
+		 struct inode *hdir, struct path *path);
+int vfsub_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode);
+int vfsub_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+ssize_t vfsub_read_u(struct file *file, char __user *ubuf, size_t count,
+		     loff_t *ppos);
+ssize_t vfsub_read_k(struct file *file, void *kbuf, size_t count,
+			loff_t *ppos);
+ssize_t vfsub_write_u(struct file *file, const char __user *ubuf, size_t count,
+		      loff_t *ppos);
+ssize_t vfsub_write_k(struct file *file, void *kbuf, size_t count,
+		      loff_t *ppos);
+int vfsub_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id);
+int vfsub_iterate_dir(struct file *file, struct dir_context *ctx);
+
+/* just for type-check */
+static inline filldir_t au_diractor(int (*func)(struct dir_context *,
+						const char *, int, loff_t, u64,
+						unsigned))
+{
+	return (filldir_t)func;
+}
+
+
+static inline loff_t vfsub_f_size_read(struct file *file)
+{
+	return i_size_read(file_inode(file));
+}
+
+static inline unsigned int vfsub_file_flags(struct file *file)
+{
+	unsigned int flags;
+
+	spin_lock(&file->f_lock);
+	flags = file->f_flags;
+	spin_unlock(&file->f_lock);
+
+	return flags;
+}
+
+static inline void vfsub_file_accessed(struct file *h_file)
+{
+	file_accessed(h_file);
+	vfsub_update_h_iattr(&h_file->f_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+}
+
+static inline void vfsub_touch_atime(struct vfsmount *h_mnt,
+				     struct dentry *h_dentry)
+{
+	struct path h_path = {
+		.dentry	= h_dentry,
+		.mnt	= h_mnt
+	};
+	touch_atime(&h_path);
+	vfsub_update_h_iattr(&h_path, /*did*/NULL); /*ignore*/
+}
+
+static inline int vfsub_update_time(struct inode *h_inode, struct timespec *ts,
+				    int flags)
+{
+	return update_time(h_inode, ts, flags);
+	/* no vfsub_update_h_iattr() since we don't have struct path */
+}
+
+long vfsub_splice_to(struct file *in, loff_t *ppos,
+		     struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, size_t len,
+		     unsigned int flags);
+long vfsub_splice_from(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, struct file *out,
+		       loff_t *ppos, size_t len, unsigned int flags);
+
+static inline long vfsub_truncate(struct path *path, loff_t length)
+{
+	long err;
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_truncate(path, length);
+	lockdep_on();
+	return err;
+}
+
+int vfsub_trunc(struct path *h_path, loff_t length, unsigned int attr,
+		struct file *h_file);
+int vfsub_fsync(struct file *file, struct path *path, int datasync);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline loff_t vfsub_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin)
+{
+	loff_t err;
+
+	lockdep_off();
+	err = vfs_llseek(file, offset, origin);
+	lockdep_on();
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* dirty workaround for strict type of fmode_t */
+union vfsub_fmu {
+	fmode_t fm;
+	unsigned int ui;
+};
+
+static inline unsigned int vfsub_fmode_to_uint(fmode_t fm)
+{
+	union vfsub_fmu u = {
+		.fm = fm
+	};
+
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(u.fm) != sizeof(u.ui));
+
+	return u.ui;
+}
+
+static inline fmode_t vfsub_uint_to_fmode(unsigned int ui)
+{
+	union vfsub_fmu u = {
+		.ui = ui
+	};
+
+	return u.fm;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int vfsub_sio_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int mode);
+int vfsub_sio_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct path *path);
+int vfsub_sio_notify_change(struct path *path, struct iattr *ia);
+int vfsub_notify_change(struct path *path, struct iattr *ia);
+int vfsub_unlink(struct inode *dir, struct path *path, int force);
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_VFSUB_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/wbr_policy.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/wbr_policy.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/wbr_policy.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/wbr_policy.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,755 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * policies for selecting one among multiple writable branches
+ */
+
+#include <linux/statfs.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* subset of cpup_attr() */
+static noinline_for_stack
+int au_cpdown_attr(struct path *h_path, struct dentry *h_src)
+{
+	int err, sbits;
+	struct iattr ia;
+	struct inode *h_isrc;
+
+	h_isrc = h_src->d_inode;
+	ia.ia_valid = ATTR_FORCE | ATTR_MODE | ATTR_UID | ATTR_GID;
+	ia.ia_mode = h_isrc->i_mode;
+	ia.ia_uid = h_isrc->i_uid;
+	ia.ia_gid = h_isrc->i_gid;
+	sbits = !!(ia.ia_mode & (S_ISUID | S_ISGID));
+	au_cpup_attr_flags(h_path->dentry->d_inode, h_isrc->i_flags);
+	err = vfsub_sio_notify_change(h_path, &ia);
+
+	/* is this nfs only? */
+	if (!err && sbits && au_test_nfs(h_path->dentry->d_sb)) {
+		ia.ia_valid = ATTR_FORCE | ATTR_MODE;
+		ia.ia_mode = h_isrc->i_mode;
+		err = vfsub_sio_notify_change(h_path, &ia);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+#define AuCpdown_PARENT_OPQ	1
+#define AuCpdown_WHED		(1 << 1)
+#define AuCpdown_MADE_DIR	(1 << 2)
+#define AuCpdown_DIROPQ		(1 << 3)
+#define au_ftest_cpdown(flags, name)	((flags) & AuCpdown_##name)
+#define au_fset_cpdown(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuCpdown_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_cpdown(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuCpdown_##name; } while (0)
+
+static int au_cpdown_dir_opq(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst,
+			     unsigned int *flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *opq_dentry;
+
+	opq_dentry = au_diropq_create(dentry, bdst);
+	err = PTR_ERR(opq_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(opq_dentry))
+		goto out;
+	dput(opq_dentry);
+	au_fset_cpdown(*flags, DIROPQ);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_cpdown_dir_wh(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *h_parent,
+			    struct inode *dir, aufs_bindex_t bdst)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	br = au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, bdst);
+	h_path.dentry = au_wh_lkup(h_parent, &dentry->d_name, br);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_path.dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_path.dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (h_path.dentry->d_inode) {
+		h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+		err = au_wh_unlink_dentry(au_h_iptr(dir, bdst), &h_path,
+					  dentry);
+	}
+	dput(h_path.dentry);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_cpdown_dir(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst,
+			 struct au_pin *pin,
+			 struct dentry *h_parent, void *arg)
+{
+	int err, rerr;
+	aufs_bindex_t bopq, bstart;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir, *h_inode, *inode, *dir;
+	unsigned int *flags = arg;
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	/* dentry is di-locked */
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	dir = parent->d_inode;
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	AuDebugOn(h_dir != au_h_iptr(dir, bdst));
+	IMustLock(h_dir);
+
+	err = au_lkup_neg(dentry, bdst, /*wh*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+	h_path.dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bdst);
+	h_path.mnt = au_sbr_mnt(dentry->d_sb, bdst);
+	err = vfsub_sio_mkdir(au_h_iptr(dir, bdst), &h_path,
+			      S_IRWXU | S_IRUGO | S_IXUGO);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_put;
+	au_fset_cpdown(*flags, MADE_DIR);
+
+	bopq = au_dbdiropq(dentry);
+	au_fclr_cpdown(*flags, WHED);
+	au_fclr_cpdown(*flags, DIROPQ);
+	if (au_dbwh(dentry) == bdst)
+		au_fset_cpdown(*flags, WHED);
+	if (!au_ftest_cpdown(*flags, PARENT_OPQ) && bopq <= bdst)
+		au_fset_cpdown(*flags, PARENT_OPQ);
+	h_inode = h_path.dentry->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+	if (au_ftest_cpdown(*flags, WHED)) {
+		err = au_cpdown_dir_opq(dentry, bdst, flags);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			mutex_unlock(&h_inode->i_mutex);
+			goto out_dir;
+		}
+	}
+
+	err = au_cpdown_attr(&h_path, au_h_dptr(dentry, bstart));
+	mutex_unlock(&h_inode->i_mutex);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_opq;
+
+	if (au_ftest_cpdown(*flags, WHED)) {
+		err = au_cpdown_dir_wh(dentry, h_parent, dir, bdst);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_opq;
+	}
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (au_ibend(inode) < bdst)
+		au_set_ibend(inode, bdst);
+	au_set_h_iptr(inode, bdst, au_igrab(h_inode),
+		      au_hi_flags(inode, /*isdir*/1));
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+	/* revert */
+out_opq:
+	if (au_ftest_cpdown(*flags, DIROPQ)) {
+		mutex_lock_nested(&h_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+		rerr = au_diropq_remove(dentry, bdst);
+		mutex_unlock(&h_inode->i_mutex);
+		if (unlikely(rerr)) {
+			AuIOErr("failed removing diropq for %.*s b%d (%d)\n",
+				AuDLNPair(dentry), bdst, rerr);
+			err = -EIO;
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+out_dir:
+	if (au_ftest_cpdown(*flags, MADE_DIR)) {
+		rerr = vfsub_sio_rmdir(au_h_iptr(dir, bdst), &h_path);
+		if (unlikely(rerr)) {
+			AuIOErr("failed removing %.*s b%d (%d)\n",
+				AuDLNPair(dentry), bdst, rerr);
+			err = -EIO;
+		}
+	}
+out_put:
+	au_set_h_dptr(dentry, bdst, NULL);
+	if (au_dbend(dentry) == bdst)
+		au_update_dbend(dentry);
+out:
+	dput(parent);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_cpdown_dirs(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bdst)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int flags;
+
+	flags = 0;
+	err = au_cp_dirs(dentry, bdst, au_cpdown_dir, &flags);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* policies for create */
+
+int au_wbr_nonopq(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	int err, i, j, ndentry;
+	aufs_bindex_t bopq;
+	struct au_dcsub_pages dpages;
+	struct au_dpage *dpage;
+	struct dentry **dentries, *parent, *d;
+
+	err = au_dpages_init(&dpages, GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	err = au_dcsub_pages_rev_aufs(&dpages, parent, /*do_include*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_free;
+
+	err = bindex;
+	for (i = 0; i < dpages.ndpage; i++) {
+		dpage = dpages.dpages + i;
+		dentries = dpage->dentries;
+		ndentry = dpage->ndentry;
+		for (j = 0; j < ndentry; j++) {
+			d = dentries[j];
+			di_read_lock_parent2(d, !AuLock_IR);
+			bopq = au_dbdiropq(d);
+			di_read_unlock(d, !AuLock_IR);
+			if (bopq >= 0 && bopq < err)
+				err = bopq;
+		}
+	}
+
+out_free:
+	dput(parent);
+	au_dpages_free(&dpages);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_bu(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	for (; bindex >= 0; bindex--)
+		if (!au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, bindex)))
+			return bindex;
+	return -EROFS;
+}
+
+/* top down parent */
+static int au_wbr_create_tdp(struct dentry *dentry,
+			     unsigned int flags __maybe_unused)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart, bindex;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *parent, *h_parent;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	err = bstart;
+	if (!au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, bstart)))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EROFS;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	for (bindex = au_dbstart(parent); bindex < bstart; bindex++) {
+		h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bindex);
+		if (!h_parent || !h_parent->d_inode)
+			continue;
+
+		if (!au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, bindex))) {
+			err = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	dput(parent);
+
+	/* bottom up here */
+	if (unlikely(err < 0)) {
+		err = au_wbr_bu(sb, bstart - 1);
+		if (err >= 0)
+			err = au_wbr_nonopq(dentry, err);
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* an exception for the policy other than tdp */
+static int au_wbr_create_exp(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bwh, bdiropq;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+
+	err = -1;
+	bwh = au_dbwh(dentry);
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	bdiropq = au_dbdiropq(parent);
+	if (bwh >= 0) {
+		if (bdiropq >= 0)
+			err = min(bdiropq, bwh);
+		else
+			err = bwh;
+		AuDbg("%d\n", err);
+	} else if (bdiropq >= 0) {
+		err = bdiropq;
+		AuDbg("%d\n", err);
+	}
+	dput(parent);
+
+	if (err >= 0)
+		err = au_wbr_nonopq(dentry, err);
+
+	if (err >= 0 && au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(dentry->d_sb, err)))
+		err = -1;
+
+	AuDbg("%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* round robin */
+static int au_wbr_create_init_rr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = au_wbr_bu(sb, au_sbend(sb));
+	atomic_set(&au_sbi(sb)->si_wbr_rr_next, -err); /* less important */
+	/* smp_mb(); */
+
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_create_rr(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	int err, nbr;
+	unsigned int u;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	atomic_t *next;
+
+	err = au_wbr_create_exp(dentry);
+	if (err >= 0)
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	next = &au_sbi(sb)->si_wbr_rr_next;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	nbr = bend + 1;
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		if (!au_ftest_wbr(flags, DIR)) {
+			err = atomic_dec_return(next) + 1;
+			/* modulo for 0 is meaningless */
+			if (unlikely(!err))
+				err = atomic_dec_return(next) + 1;
+		} else
+			err = atomic_read(next);
+		AuDbg("%d\n", err);
+		u = err;
+		err = u % nbr;
+		AuDbg("%d\n", err);
+		if (!au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, err)))
+			break;
+		err = -EROFS;
+	}
+
+	if (err >= 0)
+		err = au_wbr_nonopq(dentry, err);
+
+out:
+	AuDbg("%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* most free space */
+static void au_mfs(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *parent)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_wbr_mfs *mfs;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	int err;
+	unsigned long long b, bavail;
+	struct path h_path;
+	/* reduce the stack usage */
+	struct kstatfs *st;
+
+	st = kmalloc(sizeof(*st), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!st)) {
+		AuWarn1("failed updating mfs(%d), ignored\n", -ENOMEM);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	bavail = 0;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	mfs = &au_sbi(sb)->si_wbr_mfs;
+	MtxMustLock(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+	mfs->mfs_bindex = -EROFS;
+	mfs->mfsrr_bytes = 0;
+	if (!parent) {
+		bindex = 0;
+		bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	} else {
+		bindex = au_dbstart(parent);
+		bend = au_dbtaildir(parent);
+	}
+
+	for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		if (parent) {
+			h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bindex);
+			if (!h_parent || !h_parent->d_inode)
+				continue;
+		}
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		if (au_br_rdonly(br))
+			continue;
+
+		/* sb->s_root for NFS is unreliable */
+		h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+		h_path.dentry = h_path.mnt->mnt_root;
+		err = vfs_statfs(&h_path, st);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			AuWarn1("failed statfs, b%d, %d\n", bindex, err);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* when the available size is equal, select the lower one */
+		BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(b) < sizeof(st->f_bavail)
+			     || sizeof(b) < sizeof(st->f_bsize));
+		b = st->f_bavail * st->f_bsize;
+		br->br_wbr->wbr_bytes = b;
+		if (b >= bavail) {
+			bavail = b;
+			mfs->mfs_bindex = bindex;
+			mfs->mfs_jiffy = jiffies;
+		}
+	}
+
+	mfs->mfsrr_bytes = bavail;
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", mfs->mfs_bindex);
+	kfree(st);
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_create_mfs(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_wbr_mfs *mfs;
+
+	err = au_wbr_create_exp(dentry);
+	if (err >= 0)
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	parent = NULL;
+	if (au_ftest_wbr(flags, PARENT))
+		parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	mfs = &au_sbi(sb)->si_wbr_mfs;
+	mutex_lock(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+	if (time_after(jiffies, mfs->mfs_jiffy + mfs->mfs_expire)
+	    || mfs->mfs_bindex < 0
+	    || au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, mfs->mfs_bindex)))
+		au_mfs(dentry, parent);
+	mutex_unlock(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+	err = mfs->mfs_bindex;
+	dput(parent);
+
+	if (err >= 0)
+		err = au_wbr_nonopq(dentry, err);
+
+out:
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_create_init_mfs(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_wbr_mfs *mfs;
+
+	mfs = &au_sbi(sb)->si_wbr_mfs;
+	mutex_init(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+	mfs->mfs_jiffy = 0;
+	mfs->mfs_bindex = -EROFS;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_create_fin_mfs(struct super_block *sb __maybe_unused)
+{
+	mutex_destroy(&au_sbi(sb)->si_wbr_mfs.mfs_lock);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* most free space and then round robin */
+static int au_wbr_create_mfsrr(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_wbr_mfs *mfs;
+
+	err = au_wbr_create_mfs(dentry, flags);
+	if (err >= 0) {
+		mfs = &au_sbi(dentry->d_sb)->si_wbr_mfs;
+		mutex_lock(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+		if (mfs->mfsrr_bytes < mfs->mfsrr_watermark)
+			err = au_wbr_create_rr(dentry, flags);
+		mutex_unlock(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+	}
+
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int au_wbr_create_init_mfsrr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	au_wbr_create_init_mfs(sb); /* ignore */
+	err = au_wbr_create_init_rr(sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* top down parent and most free space */
+static int au_wbr_create_pmfs(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	int err, e2;
+	unsigned long long b;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bstart, bend;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *parent, *h_parent;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	err = au_wbr_create_tdp(dentry, flags);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	bstart = au_dbstart(parent);
+	bend = au_dbtaildir(parent);
+	if (bstart == bend)
+		goto out_parent; /* success */
+
+	e2 = au_wbr_create_mfs(dentry, flags);
+	if (e2 < 0)
+		goto out_parent; /* success */
+
+	/* when the available size is equal, select upper one */
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, err);
+	b = br->br_wbr->wbr_bytes;
+	AuDbg("b%d, %llu\n", err, b);
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bindex);
+		if (!h_parent || !h_parent->d_inode)
+			continue;
+
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		if (!au_br_rdonly(br) && br->br_wbr->wbr_bytes > b) {
+			b = br->br_wbr->wbr_bytes;
+			err = bindex;
+			AuDbg("b%d, %llu\n", err, b);
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (err >= 0)
+		err = au_wbr_nonopq(dentry, err);
+
+out_parent:
+	dput(parent);
+out:
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * - top down parent
+ * - most free space with parent
+ * - most free space round-robin regardless parent
+ */
+static int au_wbr_create_pmfsrr(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long long watermark;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_wbr_mfs *mfs;
+
+	err = au_wbr_create_pmfs(dentry, flags | AuWbr_PARENT);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, err);
+	mfs = &au_sbi(sb)->si_wbr_mfs;
+	mutex_lock(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+	watermark = mfs->mfsrr_watermark;
+	mutex_unlock(&mfs->mfs_lock);
+	if (br->br_wbr->wbr_bytes < watermark)
+		/* regardless the parent dir */
+		err = au_wbr_create_mfsrr(dentry, flags);
+
+out:
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* policies for copyup */
+
+/* top down parent */
+static int au_wbr_copyup_tdp(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	return au_wbr_create_tdp(dentry, /*flags, anything is ok*/0);
+}
+
+/* bottom up parent */
+static int au_wbr_copyup_bup(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bstart;
+	struct dentry *parent, *h_parent;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	err = -EROFS;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	bstart = au_dbstart(parent);
+	for (bindex = au_dbstart(dentry); bindex >= bstart; bindex--) {
+		h_parent = au_h_dptr(parent, bindex);
+		if (!h_parent || !h_parent->d_inode)
+			continue;
+
+		if (!au_br_rdonly(au_sbr(sb, bindex))) {
+			err = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	dput(parent);
+
+	/* bottom up here */
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		err = au_wbr_bu(sb, bstart - 1);
+
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* bottom up */
+static int au_wbr_copyup_bu(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bstart;
+
+	bstart = au_dbstart(dentry);
+	err = au_wbr_bu(dentry->d_sb, bstart);
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	if (err > bstart)
+		err = au_wbr_nonopq(dentry, err);
+
+	AuDbg("b%d\n", err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_wbr_copyup_operations au_wbr_copyup_ops[] = {
+	[AuWbrCopyup_TDP] = {
+		.copyup	= au_wbr_copyup_tdp
+	},
+	[AuWbrCopyup_BUP] = {
+		.copyup	= au_wbr_copyup_bup
+	},
+	[AuWbrCopyup_BU] = {
+		.copyup	= au_wbr_copyup_bu
+	}
+};
+
+struct au_wbr_create_operations au_wbr_create_ops[] = {
+	[AuWbrCreate_TDP] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_tdp
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_RR] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_rr,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_rr
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_MFS] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_mfs,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfs,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_MFSV] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_mfs,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfs,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_MFSRR] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_mfsrr,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfsrr,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_MFSRRV] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_mfsrr,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfsrr,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_PMFS] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_pmfs,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfs,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_PMFSV] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_pmfs,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfs,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_PMFSRR] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_pmfsrr,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfsrr,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	},
+	[AuWbrCreate_PMFSRRV] = {
+		.create	= au_wbr_create_pmfsrr,
+		.init	= au_wbr_create_init_mfsrr,
+		.fin	= au_wbr_create_fin_mfs
+	}
+};
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/whout.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/whout.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/whout.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/whout.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1021 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * whiteout for logical deletion and opaque directory
+ */
+
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+#define WH_MASK			S_IRUGO
+
+/*
+ * If a directory contains this file, then it is opaque.  We start with the
+ * .wh. flag so that it is blocked by lookup.
+ */
+static struct qstr diropq_name = QSTR_INIT(AUFS_WH_DIROPQ,
+					   sizeof(AUFS_WH_DIROPQ) - 1);
+
+/*
+ * generate whiteout name, which is NOT terminated by NULL.
+ * @name: original d_name.name
+ * @len: original d_name.len
+ * @wh: whiteout qstr
+ * returns zero when succeeds, otherwise error.
+ * succeeded value as wh->name should be freed by kfree().
+ */
+int au_wh_name_alloc(struct qstr *wh, const struct qstr *name)
+{
+	char *p;
+
+	if (unlikely(name->len > PATH_MAX - AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN))
+		return -ENAMETOOLONG;
+
+	wh->len = name->len + AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+	p = kmalloc(wh->len, GFP_NOFS);
+	wh->name = p;
+	if (p) {
+		memcpy(p, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN);
+		memcpy(p + AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN, name->name, name->len);
+		/* smp_mb(); */
+		return 0;
+	}
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * test if the @wh_name exists under @h_parent.
+ * @try_sio specifies the necessary of super-io.
+ */
+int au_wh_test(struct dentry *h_parent, struct qstr *wh_name,
+	       struct au_branch *br, int try_sio)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry;
+
+	if (!try_sio)
+		wh_dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(wh_name, h_parent);
+	else
+		wh_dentry = au_sio_lkup_one(wh_name, h_parent, br);
+	err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!wh_dentry->d_inode)
+		goto out_wh; /* success */
+
+	err = 1;
+	if (S_ISREG(wh_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		goto out_wh; /* success */
+
+	err = -EIO;
+	AuIOErr("%.*s Invalid whiteout entry type 0%o.\n",
+		AuDLNPair(wh_dentry), wh_dentry->d_inode->i_mode);
+
+out_wh:
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * test if the @h_dentry sets opaque or not.
+ */
+int au_diropq_test(struct dentry *h_dentry, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	h_dir = h_dentry->d_inode;
+	err = au_wh_test(h_dentry, &diropq_name, br,
+			 au_test_h_perm_sio(h_dir, MAY_EXEC));
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns a negative dentry whose name is unique and temporary.
+ */
+struct dentry *au_whtmp_lkup(struct dentry *h_parent, struct au_branch *br,
+			     struct qstr *prefix)
+{
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	int i;
+	char defname[NAME_MAX - AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN + DNAME_INLINE_LEN + 1],
+		*name, *p;
+	/* strict atomic_t is unnecessary here */
+	static unsigned short cnt;
+	struct qstr qs;
+
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(cnt) * 2 > AUFS_WH_TMP_LEN);
+
+	name = defname;
+	qs.len = sizeof(defname) - DNAME_INLINE_LEN + prefix->len - 1;
+	if (unlikely(prefix->len > DNAME_INLINE_LEN)) {
+		dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENAMETOOLONG);
+		if (unlikely(qs.len > NAME_MAX))
+			goto out;
+		dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+		name = kmalloc(qs.len + 1, GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(!name))
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* doubly whiteout-ed */
+	memcpy(name, AUFS_WH_PFX AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN * 2);
+	p = name + AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN * 2;
+	memcpy(p, prefix->name, prefix->len);
+	p += prefix->len;
+	*p++ = '.';
+	AuDebugOn(name + qs.len + 1 - p <= AUFS_WH_TMP_LEN);
+
+	qs.name = name;
+	for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
+		sprintf(p, "%.*x", AUFS_WH_TMP_LEN, cnt++);
+		dentry = au_sio_lkup_one(&qs, h_parent, br);
+		if (IS_ERR(dentry) || !dentry->d_inode)
+			goto out_name;
+		dput(dentry);
+	}
+	/* pr_warn("could not get random name\n"); */
+	dentry = ERR_PTR(-EEXIST);
+	AuDbg("%.*s\n", AuLNPair(&qs));
+	BUG();
+
+out_name:
+	if (name != defname)
+		kfree(name);
+out:
+	AuTraceErrPtr(dentry);
+	return dentry;
+}
+
+/*
+ * rename the @h_dentry on @br to the whiteouted temporary name.
+ */
+int au_whtmp_ren(struct dentry *h_dentry, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path = {
+		.mnt = au_br_mnt(br)
+	};
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+
+	h_parent = h_dentry->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(h_dir);
+
+	h_path.dentry = au_whtmp_lkup(h_parent, br, &h_dentry->d_name);
+	err = PTR_ERR(h_path.dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_path.dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* under the same dir, no need to lock_rename() */
+	err = vfsub_rename(h_dir, h_dentry, h_dir, &h_path);
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	dput(h_path.dentry);
+
+out:
+	AuTraceErr(err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+/*
+ * functions for removing a whiteout
+ */
+
+static int do_unlink_wh(struct inode *h_dir, struct path *h_path)
+{
+	int force;
+
+	/*
+	 * forces superio when the dir has a sticky bit.
+	 * this may be a violation of unix fs semantics.
+	 */
+	force = (h_dir->i_mode & S_ISVTX)
+		&& !uid_eq(current_fsuid(), h_path->dentry->d_inode->i_uid);
+	return vfsub_unlink(h_dir, h_path, force);
+}
+
+int au_wh_unlink_dentry(struct inode *h_dir, struct path *h_path,
+			struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = do_unlink_wh(h_dir, h_path);
+	if (!err && dentry)
+		au_set_dbwh(dentry, -1);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unlink_wh_name(struct dentry *h_parent, struct qstr *wh,
+			  struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path = {
+		.mnt = au_br_mnt(br)
+	};
+
+	err = 0;
+	h_path.dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(wh, h_parent);
+	if (IS_ERR(h_path.dentry))
+		err = PTR_ERR(h_path.dentry);
+	else {
+		if (h_path.dentry->d_inode
+		    && S_ISREG(h_path.dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+			err = do_unlink_wh(h_parent->d_inode, &h_path);
+		dput(h_path.dentry);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+/*
+ * initialize/clean whiteout for a branch
+ */
+
+static void au_wh_clean(struct inode *h_dir, struct path *whpath,
+			const int isdir)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	if (!whpath->dentry->d_inode)
+		return;
+
+	if (isdir)
+		err = vfsub_rmdir(h_dir, whpath);
+	else
+		err = vfsub_unlink(h_dir, whpath, /*force*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		pr_warn("failed removing %.*s (%d), ignored.\n",
+			AuDLNPair(whpath->dentry), err);
+}
+
+static int test_linkable(struct dentry *h_root)
+{
+	struct inode *h_dir = h_root->d_inode;
+
+	if (h_dir->i_op->link)
+		return 0;
+
+	pr_err("%.*s (%s) doesn't support link(2), use noplink and rw+nolwh\n",
+	       AuDLNPair(h_root), au_sbtype(h_root->d_sb));
+	return -ENOSYS;
+}
+
+/* todo: should this mkdir be done in /sbin/mount.aufs helper? */
+static int au_whdir(struct inode *h_dir, struct path *path)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = -EEXIST;
+	if (!path->dentry->d_inode) {
+		int mode = S_IRWXU;
+
+		if (au_test_nfs(path->dentry->d_sb))
+			mode |= S_IXUGO;
+		err = vfsub_mkdir(h_dir, path, mode);
+	} else if (S_ISDIR(path->dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = 0;
+	else
+		pr_err("unknown %.*s exists\n", AuDLNPair(path->dentry));
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct au_wh_base {
+	const struct qstr *name;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+};
+
+static void au_wh_init_ro(struct inode *h_dir, struct au_wh_base base[],
+			  struct path *h_path)
+{
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_BASE].dentry;
+	au_wh_clean(h_dir, h_path, /*isdir*/0);
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_PLINK].dentry;
+	au_wh_clean(h_dir, h_path, /*isdir*/1);
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_ORPH].dentry;
+	au_wh_clean(h_dir, h_path, /*isdir*/1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns tri-state,
+ * minus: error, caller should print the mesage
+ * zero: succuess
+ * plus: error, caller should NOT print the mesage
+ */
+static int au_wh_init_rw_nolink(struct dentry *h_root, struct au_wbr *wbr,
+				int do_plink, struct au_wh_base base[],
+				struct path *h_path)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	h_dir = h_root->d_inode;
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_BASE].dentry;
+	au_wh_clean(h_dir, h_path, /*isdir*/0);
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_PLINK].dentry;
+	if (do_plink) {
+		err = test_linkable(h_root);
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			err = 1;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		err = au_whdir(h_dir, h_path);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+		wbr->wbr_plink = dget(base[AuBrWh_PLINK].dentry);
+	} else
+		au_wh_clean(h_dir, h_path, /*isdir*/1);
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_ORPH].dentry;
+	err = au_whdir(h_dir, h_path);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	wbr->wbr_orph = dget(base[AuBrWh_ORPH].dentry);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * for the moment, aufs supports the branch filesystem which does not support
+ * link(2). testing on FAT which does not support i_op->setattr() fully either,
+ * copyup failed. finally, such filesystem will not be used as the writable
+ * branch.
+ *
+ * returns tri-state, see above.
+ */
+static int au_wh_init_rw(struct dentry *h_root, struct au_wbr *wbr,
+			 int do_plink, struct au_wh_base base[],
+			 struct path *h_path)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	WbrWhMustWriteLock(wbr);
+
+	err = test_linkable(h_root);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		err = 1;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * todo: should this create be done in /sbin/mount.aufs helper?
+	 */
+	err = -EEXIST;
+	h_dir = h_root->d_inode;
+	if (!base[AuBrWh_BASE].dentry->d_inode) {
+		h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_BASE].dentry;
+		err = vfsub_create(h_dir, h_path, WH_MASK, /*want_excl*/true);
+	} else if (S_ISREG(base[AuBrWh_BASE].dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = 0;
+	else
+		pr_err("unknown %.*s/%.*s exists\n",
+		       AuDLNPair(h_root), AuDLNPair(base[AuBrWh_BASE].dentry));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_PLINK].dentry;
+	if (do_plink) {
+		err = au_whdir(h_dir, h_path);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out;
+		wbr->wbr_plink = dget(base[AuBrWh_PLINK].dentry);
+	} else
+		au_wh_clean(h_dir, h_path, /*isdir*/1);
+	wbr->wbr_whbase = dget(base[AuBrWh_BASE].dentry);
+
+	h_path->dentry = base[AuBrWh_ORPH].dentry;
+	err = au_whdir(h_dir, h_path);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out;
+	wbr->wbr_orph = dget(base[AuBrWh_ORPH].dentry);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * initialize the whiteout base file/dir for @br.
+ */
+int au_wh_init(struct au_branch *br, struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err, i;
+	const unsigned char do_plink
+		= !!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), PLINK);
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	struct path path = br->br_path;
+	struct dentry *h_root = path.dentry;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr = br->br_wbr;
+	static const struct qstr base_name[] = {
+		[AuBrWh_BASE] = QSTR_INIT(AUFS_BASE_NAME,
+					  sizeof(AUFS_BASE_NAME) - 1),
+		[AuBrWh_PLINK] = QSTR_INIT(AUFS_PLINKDIR_NAME,
+					   sizeof(AUFS_PLINKDIR_NAME) - 1),
+		[AuBrWh_ORPH] = QSTR_INIT(AUFS_ORPHDIR_NAME,
+					  sizeof(AUFS_ORPHDIR_NAME) - 1)
+	};
+	struct au_wh_base base[] = {
+		[AuBrWh_BASE] = {
+			.name	= base_name + AuBrWh_BASE,
+			.dentry	= NULL
+		},
+		[AuBrWh_PLINK] = {
+			.name	= base_name + AuBrWh_PLINK,
+			.dentry	= NULL
+		},
+		[AuBrWh_ORPH] = {
+			.name	= base_name + AuBrWh_ORPH,
+			.dentry	= NULL
+		}
+	};
+
+	if (wbr)
+		WbrWhMustWriteLock(wbr);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < AuBrWh_Last; i++) {
+		/* doubly whiteouted */
+		struct dentry *d;
+
+		d = au_wh_lkup(h_root, (void *)base[i].name, br);
+		err = PTR_ERR(d);
+		if (IS_ERR(d))
+			goto out;
+
+		base[i].dentry = d;
+		AuDebugOn(wbr
+			  && wbr->wbr_wh[i]
+			  && wbr->wbr_wh[i] != base[i].dentry);
+	}
+
+	if (wbr)
+		for (i = 0; i < AuBrWh_Last; i++) {
+			dput(wbr->wbr_wh[i]);
+			wbr->wbr_wh[i] = NULL;
+		}
+
+	err = 0;
+	if (!au_br_writable(br->br_perm)) {
+		h_dir = h_root->d_inode;
+		au_wh_init_ro(h_dir, base, &path);
+	} else if (!au_br_wh_linkable(br->br_perm)) {
+		err = au_wh_init_rw_nolink(h_root, wbr, do_plink, base, &path);
+		if (err > 0)
+			goto out;
+		else if (err)
+			goto out_err;
+	} else {
+		err = au_wh_init_rw(h_root, wbr, do_plink, base, &path);
+		if (err > 0)
+			goto out;
+		else if (err)
+			goto out_err;
+	}
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_err:
+	pr_err("an error(%d) on the writable branch %.*s(%s)\n",
+	       err, AuDLNPair(h_root), au_sbtype(h_root->d_sb));
+out:
+	for (i = 0; i < AuBrWh_Last; i++)
+		dput(base[i].dentry);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+/*
+ * whiteouts are all hard-linked usually.
+ * when its link count reaches a ceiling, we create a new whiteout base
+ * asynchronously.
+ */
+
+struct reinit_br_wh {
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+};
+
+static void reinit_br_wh(void *arg)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct path h_path;
+	struct reinit_br_wh *a = arg;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct dentry *h_root;
+	struct au_hinode *hdir;
+
+	err = 0;
+	wbr = a->br->br_wbr;
+	/* big aufs lock */
+	si_noflush_write_lock(a->sb);
+	if (!au_br_writable(a->br->br_perm))
+		goto out;
+	bindex = au_br_index(a->sb, a->br->br_id);
+	if (unlikely(bindex < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	di_read_lock_parent(a->sb->s_root, AuLock_IR);
+	dir = a->sb->s_root->d_inode;
+	hdir = au_hi(dir, bindex);
+	h_root = au_h_dptr(a->sb->s_root, bindex);
+	AuDebugOn(h_root != au_br_dentry(a->br));
+
+	au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(hdir, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	wbr_wh_write_lock(wbr);
+	err = au_h_verify(wbr->wbr_whbase, au_opt_udba(a->sb), hdir->hi_inode,
+			  h_root, a->br);
+	if (!err) {
+		h_path.dentry = wbr->wbr_whbase;
+		h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(a->br);
+		err = vfsub_unlink(hdir->hi_inode, &h_path, /*force*/0);
+	} else {
+		pr_warn("%.*s is moved, ignored\n",
+			AuDLNPair(wbr->wbr_whbase));
+		err = 0;
+	}
+	dput(wbr->wbr_whbase);
+	wbr->wbr_whbase = NULL;
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_wh_init(a->br, a->sb);
+	wbr_wh_write_unlock(wbr);
+	au_hn_imtx_unlock(hdir);
+	di_read_unlock(a->sb->s_root, AuLock_IR);
+
+out:
+	if (wbr)
+		atomic_dec(&wbr->wbr_wh_running);
+	atomic_dec(&a->br->br_count);
+	si_write_unlock(a->sb);
+	au_nwt_done(&au_sbi(a->sb)->si_nowait);
+	kfree(arg);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		AuIOErr("err %d\n", err);
+}
+
+static void kick_reinit_br_wh(struct super_block *sb, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int do_dec, wkq_err;
+	struct reinit_br_wh *arg;
+
+	do_dec = 1;
+	if (atomic_inc_return(&br->br_wbr->wbr_wh_running) != 1)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* ignore ENOMEM */
+	arg = kmalloc(sizeof(*arg), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (arg) {
+		/*
+		 * dec(wh_running), kfree(arg) and dec(br_count)
+		 * in reinit function
+		 */
+		arg->sb = sb;
+		arg->br = br;
+		atomic_inc(&br->br_count);
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_nowait(reinit_br_wh, arg, sb, /*flags*/0);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err)) {
+			atomic_dec(&br->br_wbr->wbr_wh_running);
+			atomic_dec(&br->br_count);
+			kfree(arg);
+		}
+		do_dec = 0;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (do_dec)
+		atomic_dec(&br->br_wbr->wbr_wh_running);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * create the whiteout @wh.
+ */
+static int link_or_create_wh(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     struct dentry *wh)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_path = {
+		.dentry = wh
+	};
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct au_wbr *wbr;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+
+	h_parent = wh->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(h_dir);
+
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	h_path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+	wbr = br->br_wbr;
+	wbr_wh_read_lock(wbr);
+	if (wbr->wbr_whbase) {
+		err = vfsub_link(wbr->wbr_whbase, h_dir, &h_path);
+		if (!err || err != -EMLINK)
+			goto out;
+
+		/* link count full. re-initialize br_whbase. */
+		kick_reinit_br_wh(sb, br);
+	}
+
+	/* return this error in this context */
+	err = vfsub_create(h_dir, &h_path, WH_MASK, /*want_excl*/true);
+
+out:
+	wbr_wh_read_unlock(wbr);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * create or remove the diropq.
+ */
+static struct dentry *do_diropq(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+				unsigned int flags)
+{
+	struct dentry *opq_dentry, *h_dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	int err;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	opq_dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(&diropq_name, h_dentry);
+	if (IS_ERR(opq_dentry))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (au_ftest_diropq(flags, CREATE)) {
+		err = link_or_create_wh(sb, bindex, opq_dentry);
+		if (!err) {
+			au_set_dbdiropq(dentry, bindex);
+			goto out; /* success */
+		}
+	} else {
+		struct path tmp = {
+			.dentry = opq_dentry,
+			.mnt	= au_br_mnt(br)
+		};
+		err = do_unlink_wh(au_h_iptr(dentry->d_inode, bindex), &tmp);
+		if (!err)
+			au_set_dbdiropq(dentry, -1);
+	}
+	dput(opq_dentry);
+	opq_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+
+out:
+	return opq_dentry;
+}
+
+struct do_diropq_args {
+	struct dentry **errp;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	unsigned int flags;
+};
+
+static void call_do_diropq(void *args)
+{
+	struct do_diropq_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = do_diropq(a->dentry, a->bindex, a->flags);
+}
+
+struct dentry *au_diropq_sio(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     unsigned int flags)
+{
+	struct dentry *diropq, *h_dentry;
+
+	h_dentry = au_h_dptr(dentry, bindex);
+	if (!au_test_h_perm_sio(h_dentry->d_inode, MAY_EXEC | MAY_WRITE))
+		diropq = do_diropq(dentry, bindex, flags);
+	else {
+		int wkq_err;
+		struct do_diropq_args args = {
+			.errp		= &diropq,
+			.dentry		= dentry,
+			.bindex		= bindex,
+			.flags		= flags
+		};
+
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(call_do_diropq, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			diropq = ERR_PTR(wkq_err);
+	}
+
+	return diropq;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * lookup whiteout dentry.
+ * @h_parent: lower parent dentry which must exist and be locked
+ * @base_name: name of dentry which will be whiteouted
+ * returns dentry for whiteout.
+ */
+struct dentry *au_wh_lkup(struct dentry *h_parent, struct qstr *base_name,
+			  struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct qstr wh_name;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry;
+
+	err = au_wh_name_alloc(&wh_name, base_name);
+	wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+	if (!err) {
+		wh_dentry = vfsub_lkup_one(&wh_name, h_parent);
+		kfree(wh_name.name);
+	}
+	return wh_dentry;
+}
+
+/*
+ * link/create a whiteout for @dentry on @bindex.
+ */
+struct dentry *au_wh_create(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			    struct dentry *h_parent)
+{
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	int err;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	wh_dentry = au_wh_lkup(h_parent, &dentry->d_name, au_sbr(sb, bindex));
+	if (!IS_ERR(wh_dentry) && !wh_dentry->d_inode) {
+		err = link_or_create_wh(sb, bindex, wh_dentry);
+		if (!err)
+			au_set_dbwh(dentry, bindex);
+		else {
+			dput(wh_dentry);
+			wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+		}
+	}
+
+	return wh_dentry;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* Delete all whiteouts in this directory on branch bindex. */
+static int del_wh_children(struct dentry *h_dentry, struct au_nhash *whlist,
+			   aufs_bindex_t bindex, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long ul, n;
+	struct qstr wh_name;
+	char *p;
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	struct au_vdir_wh *pos;
+	struct au_vdir_destr *str;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	p = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	wh_name.name = p;
+	if (unlikely(!wh_name.name))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	memcpy(p, AUFS_WH_PFX, AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN);
+	p += AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN;
+	n = whlist->nh_num;
+	head = whlist->nh_head;
+	for (ul = 0; !err && ul < n; ul++, head++) {
+		hlist_for_each_entry(pos, head, wh_hash) {
+			if (pos->wh_bindex != bindex)
+				continue;
+
+			str = &pos->wh_str;
+			if (str->len + AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN <= PATH_MAX) {
+				memcpy(p, str->name, str->len);
+				wh_name.len = AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN + str->len;
+				err = unlink_wh_name(h_dentry, &wh_name, br);
+				if (!err)
+					continue;
+				break;
+			}
+			AuIOErr("whiteout name too long %.*s\n",
+				str->len, str->name);
+			err = -EIO;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	free_page((unsigned long)wh_name.name);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct del_wh_children_args {
+	int *errp;
+	struct dentry *h_dentry;
+	struct au_nhash *whlist;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+};
+
+static void call_del_wh_children(void *args)
+{
+	struct del_wh_children_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = del_wh_children(a->h_dentry, a->whlist, a->bindex, a->br);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct au_whtmp_rmdir *au_whtmp_rmdir_alloc(struct super_block *sb, gfp_t gfp)
+{
+	struct au_whtmp_rmdir *whtmp;
+	int err;
+	unsigned int rdhash;
+
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	whtmp = kmalloc(sizeof(*whtmp), gfp);
+	if (unlikely(!whtmp)) {
+		whtmp = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	whtmp->dir = NULL;
+	whtmp->br = NULL;
+	whtmp->wh_dentry = NULL;
+	/* no estimation for dir size */
+	rdhash = au_sbi(sb)->si_rdhash;
+	if (!rdhash)
+		rdhash = AUFS_RDHASH_DEF;
+	err = au_nhash_alloc(&whtmp->whlist, rdhash, gfp);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		kfree(whtmp);
+		whtmp = ERR_PTR(err);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return whtmp;
+}
+
+void au_whtmp_rmdir_free(struct au_whtmp_rmdir *whtmp)
+{
+	if (whtmp->br)
+		atomic_dec(&whtmp->br->br_count);
+	dput(whtmp->wh_dentry);
+	iput(whtmp->dir);
+	au_nhash_wh_free(&whtmp->whlist);
+	kfree(whtmp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * rmdir the whiteouted temporary named dir @h_dentry.
+ * @whlist: whiteouted children.
+ */
+int au_whtmp_rmdir(struct inode *dir, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		   struct dentry *wh_dentry, struct au_nhash *whlist)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct path h_tmp;
+	struct inode *wh_inode, *h_dir;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	h_dir = wh_dentry->d_parent->d_inode; /* dir inode is locked */
+	IMustLock(h_dir);
+
+	br = au_sbr(dir->i_sb, bindex);
+	wh_inode = wh_dentry->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&wh_inode->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_CHILD);
+
+	/*
+	 * someone else might change some whiteouts while we were sleeping.
+	 * it means this whlist may have an obsoleted entry.
+	 */
+	if (!au_test_h_perm_sio(wh_inode, MAY_EXEC | MAY_WRITE))
+		err = del_wh_children(wh_dentry, whlist, bindex, br);
+	else {
+		int wkq_err;
+		struct del_wh_children_args args = {
+			.errp		= &err,
+			.h_dentry	= wh_dentry,
+			.whlist		= whlist,
+			.bindex		= bindex,
+			.br		= br
+		};
+
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(call_del_wh_children, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+	mutex_unlock(&wh_inode->i_mutex);
+
+	if (!err) {
+		h_tmp.dentry = wh_dentry;
+		h_tmp.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+		err = vfsub_rmdir(h_dir, &h_tmp);
+	}
+
+	if (!err) {
+		if (au_ibstart(dir) == bindex) {
+			/* todo: dir->i_mutex is necessary */
+			au_cpup_attr_timesizes(dir);
+			vfsub_drop_nlink(dir);
+		}
+		return 0; /* success */
+	}
+
+	pr_warn("failed removing %.*s(%d), ignored\n",
+		AuDLNPair(wh_dentry), err);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void call_rmdir_whtmp(void *args)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct au_whtmp_rmdir *a = args;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *h_parent;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	struct au_hinode *hdir;
+
+	/* rmdir by nfsd may cause deadlock with this i_mutex */
+	/* mutex_lock(&a->dir->i_mutex); */
+	err = -EROFS;
+	sb = a->dir->i_sb;
+	si_read_lock(sb, !AuLock_FLUSH);
+	if (!au_br_writable(a->br->br_perm))
+		goto out;
+	bindex = au_br_index(sb, a->br->br_id);
+	if (unlikely(bindex < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EIO;
+	ii_write_lock_parent(a->dir);
+	h_parent = dget_parent(a->wh_dentry);
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	hdir = au_hi(a->dir, bindex);
+	err = vfsub_mnt_want_write(au_br_mnt(a->br));
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		goto out_mnt;
+	au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(hdir, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	err = au_h_verify(a->wh_dentry, au_opt_udba(sb), h_dir, h_parent,
+			  a->br);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_whtmp_rmdir(a->dir, bindex, a->wh_dentry, &a->whlist);
+	au_hn_imtx_unlock(hdir);
+	vfsub_mnt_drop_write(au_br_mnt(a->br));
+
+out_mnt:
+	dput(h_parent);
+	ii_write_unlock(a->dir);
+out:
+	/* mutex_unlock(&a->dir->i_mutex); */
+	au_whtmp_rmdir_free(a);
+	si_read_unlock(sb);
+	au_nwt_done(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		AuIOErr("err %d\n", err);
+}
+
+void au_whtmp_kick_rmdir(struct inode *dir, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			 struct dentry *wh_dentry, struct au_whtmp_rmdir *args)
+{
+	int wkq_err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	/* all post-process will be done in do_rmdir_whtmp(). */
+	sb = dir->i_sb;
+	args->dir = au_igrab(dir);
+	args->br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	atomic_inc(&args->br->br_count);
+	args->wh_dentry = dget(wh_dentry);
+	wkq_err = au_wkq_nowait(call_rmdir_whtmp, args, sb, /*flags*/0);
+	if (unlikely(wkq_err)) {
+		pr_warn("rmdir error %.*s (%d), ignored\n",
+			AuDLNPair(wh_dentry), wkq_err);
+		au_whtmp_rmdir_free(args);
+	}
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/whout.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/whout.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/whout.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/whout.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,86 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * whiteout for logical deletion and opaque directory
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_WHOUT_H__
+#define __AUFS_WHOUT_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+#include "dir.h"
+
+/* whout.c */
+int au_wh_name_alloc(struct qstr *wh, const struct qstr *name);
+struct au_branch;
+int au_wh_test(struct dentry *h_parent, struct qstr *wh_name,
+	       struct au_branch *br, int try_sio);
+int au_diropq_test(struct dentry *h_dentry, struct au_branch *br);
+struct dentry *au_whtmp_lkup(struct dentry *h_parent, struct au_branch *br,
+			     struct qstr *prefix);
+int au_whtmp_ren(struct dentry *h_dentry, struct au_branch *br);
+int au_wh_unlink_dentry(struct inode *h_dir, struct path *h_path,
+			struct dentry *dentry);
+int au_wh_init(struct au_branch *br, struct super_block *sb);
+
+/* diropq flags */
+#define AuDiropq_CREATE	1
+#define au_ftest_diropq(flags, name)	((flags) & AuDiropq_##name)
+#define au_fset_diropq(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuDiropq_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_diropq(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuDiropq_##name; } while (0)
+
+struct dentry *au_diropq_sio(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			     unsigned int flags);
+struct dentry *au_wh_lkup(struct dentry *h_parent, struct qstr *base_name,
+			  struct au_branch *br);
+struct dentry *au_wh_create(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			    struct dentry *h_parent);
+
+/* real rmdir for the whiteout-ed dir */
+struct au_whtmp_rmdir {
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry;
+	struct au_nhash whlist;
+};
+
+struct au_whtmp_rmdir *au_whtmp_rmdir_alloc(struct super_block *sb, gfp_t gfp);
+void au_whtmp_rmdir_free(struct au_whtmp_rmdir *whtmp);
+int au_whtmp_rmdir(struct inode *dir, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+		   struct dentry *wh_dentry, struct au_nhash *whlist);
+void au_whtmp_kick_rmdir(struct inode *dir, aufs_bindex_t bindex,
+			 struct dentry *wh_dentry, struct au_whtmp_rmdir *args);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline struct dentry *au_diropq_create(struct dentry *dentry,
+					      aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	return au_diropq_sio(dentry, bindex, AuDiropq_CREATE);
+}
+
+static inline int au_diropq_remove(struct dentry *dentry, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	return PTR_ERR(au_diropq_sio(dentry, bindex, !AuDiropq_CREATE));
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_WHOUT_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/wkq.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/wkq.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/wkq.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/wkq.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,212 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * workqueue for asynchronous/super-io operations
+ * todo: try new dredential scheme
+ */
+
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* internal workqueue named AUFS_WKQ_NAME */
+
+static struct workqueue_struct *au_wkq;
+
+struct au_wkinfo {
+	struct work_struct wk;
+	struct kobject *kobj;
+
+	unsigned int flags; /* see wkq.h */
+
+	au_wkq_func_t func;
+	void *args;
+
+	struct completion *comp;
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void wkq_func(struct work_struct *wk)
+{
+	struct au_wkinfo *wkinfo = container_of(wk, struct au_wkinfo, wk);
+
+	AuDebugOn(!uid_eq(current_fsuid(), GLOBAL_ROOT_UID));
+	AuDebugOn(rlimit(RLIMIT_FSIZE) != RLIM_INFINITY);
+
+	wkinfo->func(wkinfo->args);
+	if (au_ftest_wkq(wkinfo->flags, WAIT))
+		complete(wkinfo->comp);
+	else {
+		kobject_put(wkinfo->kobj);
+		module_put(THIS_MODULE); /* todo: ?? */
+		kfree(wkinfo);
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * Since struct completion is large, try allocating it dynamically.
+ */
+#if 1 /* defined(CONFIG_4KSTACKS) || defined(AuTest4KSTACKS) */
+#define AuWkqCompDeclare(name)	struct completion *comp = NULL
+
+static int au_wkq_comp_alloc(struct au_wkinfo *wkinfo, struct completion **comp)
+{
+	*comp = kmalloc(sizeof(**comp), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (*comp) {
+		init_completion(*comp);
+		wkinfo->comp = *comp;
+		return 0;
+	}
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+static void au_wkq_comp_free(struct completion *comp)
+{
+	kfree(comp);
+}
+
+#else
+
+/* no braces */
+#define AuWkqCompDeclare(name) \
+	DECLARE_COMPLETION_ONSTACK(_ ## name); \
+	struct completion *comp = &_ ## name
+
+static int au_wkq_comp_alloc(struct au_wkinfo *wkinfo, struct completion **comp)
+{
+	wkinfo->comp = *comp;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void au_wkq_comp_free(struct completion *comp __maybe_unused)
+{
+	/* empty */
+}
+#endif /* 4KSTACKS */
+
+static void au_wkq_run(struct au_wkinfo *wkinfo)
+{
+	if (au_ftest_wkq(wkinfo->flags, NEST)) {
+		if (au_wkq_test()) {
+			AuWarn1("wkq from wkq, due to a dead dir by UDBA?\n");
+			AuDebugOn(au_ftest_wkq(wkinfo->flags, WAIT));
+		}
+	} else
+		au_dbg_verify_kthread();
+
+	if (au_ftest_wkq(wkinfo->flags, WAIT)) {
+		INIT_WORK_ONSTACK(&wkinfo->wk, wkq_func);
+		queue_work(au_wkq, &wkinfo->wk);
+	} else {
+		INIT_WORK(&wkinfo->wk, wkq_func);
+		schedule_work(&wkinfo->wk);
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * Be careful. It is easy to make deadlock happen.
+ * processA: lock, wkq and wait
+ * processB: wkq and wait, lock in wkq
+ * --> deadlock
+ */
+int au_wkq_do_wait(unsigned int flags, au_wkq_func_t func, void *args)
+{
+	int err;
+	AuWkqCompDeclare(comp);
+	struct au_wkinfo wkinfo = {
+		.flags	= flags,
+		.func	= func,
+		.args	= args
+	};
+
+	err = au_wkq_comp_alloc(&wkinfo, &comp);
+	if (!err) {
+		au_wkq_run(&wkinfo);
+		/* no timeout, no interrupt */
+		wait_for_completion(wkinfo.comp);
+		au_wkq_comp_free(comp);
+		destroy_work_on_stack(&wkinfo.wk);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+
+}
+
+/*
+ * Note: dget/dput() in func for aufs dentries are not supported. It will be a
+ * problem in a concurrent umounting.
+ */
+int au_wkq_nowait(au_wkq_func_t func, void *args, struct super_block *sb,
+		  unsigned int flags)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct au_wkinfo *wkinfo;
+
+	atomic_inc(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait.nw_len);
+
+	/*
+	 * wkq_func() must free this wkinfo.
+	 * it highly depends upon the implementation of workqueue.
+	 */
+	err = 0;
+	wkinfo = kmalloc(sizeof(*wkinfo), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (wkinfo) {
+		wkinfo->kobj = &au_sbi(sb)->si_kobj;
+		wkinfo->flags = flags & ~AuWkq_WAIT;
+		wkinfo->func = func;
+		wkinfo->args = args;
+		wkinfo->comp = NULL;
+		kobject_get(wkinfo->kobj);
+		__module_get(THIS_MODULE); /* todo: ?? */
+
+		au_wkq_run(wkinfo);
+	} else {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		au_nwt_done(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+void au_nwt_init(struct au_nowait_tasks *nwt)
+{
+	atomic_set(&nwt->nw_len, 0);
+	/* smp_mb(); */ /* atomic_set */
+	init_waitqueue_head(&nwt->nw_wq);
+}
+
+void au_wkq_fin(void)
+{
+	destroy_workqueue(au_wkq);
+}
+
+int __init au_wkq_init(void)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = 0;
+	au_wkq = alloc_workqueue(AUFS_WKQ_NAME, 0, WQ_DFL_ACTIVE);
+	if (IS_ERR(au_wkq))
+		err = PTR_ERR(au_wkq);
+	else if (!au_wkq)
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/wkq.h linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/wkq.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/wkq.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/wkq.h	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,91 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * workqueue for asynchronous/super-io operations
+ * todo: try new credentials management scheme
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_WKQ_H__
+#define __AUFS_WKQ_H__
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+
+struct super_block;
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * in the next operation, wait for the 'nowait' tasks in system-wide workqueue
+ */
+struct au_nowait_tasks {
+	atomic_t		nw_len;
+	wait_queue_head_t	nw_wq;
+};
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+typedef void (*au_wkq_func_t)(void *args);
+
+/* wkq flags */
+#define AuWkq_WAIT	1
+#define AuWkq_NEST	(1 << 1)
+#define au_ftest_wkq(flags, name)	((flags) & AuWkq_##name)
+#define au_fset_wkq(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) |= AuWkq_##name; } while (0)
+#define au_fclr_wkq(flags, name) \
+	do { (flags) &= ~AuWkq_##name; } while (0)
+
+#ifndef CONFIG_AUFS_HNOTIFY
+#undef AuWkq_NEST
+#define AuWkq_NEST	0
+#endif
+
+/* wkq.c */
+int au_wkq_do_wait(unsigned int flags, au_wkq_func_t func, void *args);
+int au_wkq_nowait(au_wkq_func_t func, void *args, struct super_block *sb,
+		  unsigned int flags);
+void au_nwt_init(struct au_nowait_tasks *nwt);
+int __init au_wkq_init(void);
+void au_wkq_fin(void);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static inline int au_wkq_test(void)
+{
+	return current->flags & PF_WQ_WORKER;
+}
+
+static inline int au_wkq_wait(au_wkq_func_t func, void *args)
+{
+	return au_wkq_do_wait(AuWkq_WAIT, func, args);
+}
+
+static inline void au_nwt_done(struct au_nowait_tasks *nwt)
+{
+	if (atomic_dec_and_test(&nwt->nw_len))
+		wake_up_all(&nwt->nw_wq);
+}
+
+static inline int au_nwt_flush(struct au_nowait_tasks *nwt)
+{
+	wait_event(nwt->nw_wq, !atomic_read(&nwt->nw_len));
+	return 0;
+}
+
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+#endif /* __AUFS_WKQ_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/xino.c linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/xino.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/aufs/xino.c	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/aufs/xino.c	2014-01-01 22:00:01.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,1311 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * external inode number translation table and bitmap
+ */
+
+#include <linux/seq_file.h>
+#include <linux/statfs.h>
+#include "aufs.h"
+
+/* todo: unnecessary to support mmap_sem since kernel-space? */
+ssize_t xino_fread(au_readf_t func, struct file *file, void *kbuf, size_t size,
+		   loff_t *pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	mm_segment_t oldfs;
+	union {
+		void *k;
+		char __user *u;
+	} buf;
+
+	buf.k = kbuf;
+	oldfs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	do {
+		/* todo: signal_pending? */
+		err = func(file, buf.u, size, pos);
+	} while (err == -EAGAIN || err == -EINTR);
+	set_fs(oldfs);
+
+#if 0 /* reserved for future use */
+	if (err > 0)
+		fsnotify_access(file->f_dentry);
+#endif
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static ssize_t do_xino_fwrite(au_writef_t func, struct file *file, void *kbuf,
+			      size_t size, loff_t *pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+	mm_segment_t oldfs;
+	union {
+		void *k;
+		const char __user *u;
+	} buf;
+
+	buf.k = kbuf;
+	oldfs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	do {
+		/* todo: signal_pending? */
+		err = func(file, buf.u, size, pos);
+	} while (err == -EAGAIN || err == -EINTR);
+	set_fs(oldfs);
+
+#if 0 /* reserved for future use */
+	if (err > 0)
+		fsnotify_modify(file->f_dentry);
+#endif
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct do_xino_fwrite_args {
+	ssize_t *errp;
+	au_writef_t func;
+	struct file *file;
+	void *buf;
+	size_t size;
+	loff_t *pos;
+};
+
+static void call_do_xino_fwrite(void *args)
+{
+	struct do_xino_fwrite_args *a = args;
+	*a->errp = do_xino_fwrite(a->func, a->file, a->buf, a->size, a->pos);
+}
+
+ssize_t xino_fwrite(au_writef_t func, struct file *file, void *buf, size_t size,
+		    loff_t *pos)
+{
+	ssize_t err;
+
+	/* todo: signal block and no wkq? */
+	if (rlimit(RLIMIT_FSIZE) == RLIM_INFINITY) {
+		lockdep_off();
+		err = do_xino_fwrite(func, file, buf, size, pos);
+		lockdep_on();
+	} else {
+		/*
+		 * it breaks RLIMIT_FSIZE and normal user's limit,
+		 * users should care about quota and real 'filesystem full.'
+		 */
+		int wkq_err;
+		struct do_xino_fwrite_args args = {
+			.errp	= &err,
+			.func	= func,
+			.file	= file,
+			.buf	= buf,
+			.size	= size,
+			.pos	= pos
+		};
+
+		wkq_err = au_wkq_wait(call_do_xino_fwrite, &args);
+		if (unlikely(wkq_err))
+			err = wkq_err;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * create a new xinofile at the same place/path as @base_file.
+ */
+struct file *au_xino_create2(struct file *base_file, struct file *copy_src)
+{
+	struct file *file;
+	struct dentry *base, *parent;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct qstr *name;
+	struct path path;
+	int err;
+
+	base = base_file->f_dentry;
+	parent = base->d_parent; /* dir inode is locked */
+	dir = parent->d_inode;
+	IMustLock(dir);
+
+	file = ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+	name = &base->d_name;
+	path.dentry = vfsub_lookup_one_len(name->name, parent, name->len);
+	if (IS_ERR(path.dentry)) {
+		file = (void *)path.dentry;
+		pr_err("%.*s lookup err %ld\n",
+		       AuLNPair(name), PTR_ERR(path.dentry));
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* no need to mnt_want_write() since we call dentry_open() later */
+	err = vfs_create(dir, path.dentry, S_IRUGO | S_IWUGO, NULL);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		file = ERR_PTR(err);
+		pr_err("%.*s create err %d\n", AuLNPair(name), err);
+		goto out_dput;
+	}
+
+	path.mnt = base_file->f_path.mnt;
+	file = vfsub_dentry_open(&path,
+				 O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_EXCL | O_LARGEFILE
+				 /* | __FMODE_NONOTIFY */);
+	if (IS_ERR(file)) {
+		pr_err("%.*s open err %ld\n", AuLNPair(name), PTR_ERR(file));
+		goto out_dput;
+	}
+
+	err = vfsub_unlink(dir, &file->f_path, /*force*/0);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		pr_err("%.*s unlink err %d\n", AuLNPair(name), err);
+		goto out_fput;
+	}
+
+	if (copy_src) {
+		/* no one can touch copy_src xino */
+		err = au_copy_file(file, copy_src, vfsub_f_size_read(copy_src));
+		if (unlikely(err)) {
+			pr_err("%.*s copy err %d\n", AuLNPair(name), err);
+			goto out_fput;
+		}
+	}
+	goto out_dput; /* success */
+
+out_fput:
+	fput(file);
+	file = ERR_PTR(err);
+out_dput:
+	dput(path.dentry);
+out:
+	return file;
+}
+
+struct au_xino_lock_dir {
+	struct au_hinode *hdir;
+	struct dentry *parent;
+	struct mutex *mtx;
+};
+
+static void au_xino_lock_dir(struct super_block *sb, struct file *xino,
+			     struct au_xino_lock_dir *ldir)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t brid, bindex;
+
+	ldir->hdir = NULL;
+	bindex = -1;
+	brid = au_xino_brid(sb);
+	if (brid >= 0)
+		bindex = au_br_index(sb, brid);
+	if (bindex >= 0) {
+		ldir->hdir = au_hi(sb->s_root->d_inode, bindex);
+		au_hn_imtx_lock_nested(ldir->hdir, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	} else {
+		ldir->parent = dget_parent(xino->f_dentry);
+		ldir->mtx = &ldir->parent->d_inode->i_mutex;
+		mutex_lock_nested(ldir->mtx, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	}
+}
+
+static void au_xino_unlock_dir(struct au_xino_lock_dir *ldir)
+{
+	if (ldir->hdir)
+		au_hn_imtx_unlock(ldir->hdir);
+	else {
+		mutex_unlock(ldir->mtx);
+		dput(ldir->parent);
+	}
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* trucate xino files asynchronously */
+
+int au_xino_trunc(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long jiffy;
+	blkcnt_t blocks;
+	aufs_bindex_t bi, bend;
+	struct kstatfs *st;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct file *new_xino, *file;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+	struct au_xino_lock_dir ldir;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	st = kzalloc(sizeof(*st), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!st))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	if (unlikely(bindex < 0 || bend < bindex))
+		goto out_st;
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	file = br->br_xino.xi_file;
+	if (!file)
+		goto out_st;
+
+	err = vfs_statfs(&file->f_path, st);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		AuErr1("statfs err %d, ignored\n", err);
+	jiffy = jiffies;
+	blocks = file_inode(file)->i_blocks;
+	pr_info("begin truncating xino(b%d), ib%llu, %llu/%llu free blks\n",
+		bindex, (u64)blocks, st->f_bfree, st->f_blocks);
+
+	au_xino_lock_dir(sb, file, &ldir);
+	/* mnt_want_write() is unnecessary here */
+	new_xino = au_xino_create2(file, file);
+	au_xino_unlock_dir(&ldir);
+	err = PTR_ERR(new_xino);
+	if (IS_ERR(new_xino)) {
+		pr_err("err %d, ignored\n", err);
+		goto out_st;
+	}
+	err = 0;
+	fput(file);
+	br->br_xino.xi_file = new_xino;
+
+	h_sb = au_br_sb(br);
+	for (bi = 0; bi <= bend; bi++) {
+		if (unlikely(bi == bindex))
+			continue;
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bi);
+		if (au_br_sb(br) != h_sb)
+			continue;
+
+		fput(br->br_xino.xi_file);
+		br->br_xino.xi_file = new_xino;
+		get_file(new_xino);
+	}
+
+	err = vfs_statfs(&new_xino->f_path, st);
+	if (!err) {
+		pr_info("end truncating xino(b%d), ib%llu, %llu/%llu free blks\n",
+			bindex, (u64)file_inode(new_xino)->i_blocks,
+			st->f_bfree, st->f_blocks);
+		if (file_inode(new_xino)->i_blocks < blocks)
+			au_sbi(sb)->si_xino_jiffy = jiffy;
+	} else
+		AuErr1("statfs err %d, ignored\n", err);
+
+out_st:
+	kfree(st);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct xino_do_trunc_args {
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+};
+
+static void xino_do_trunc(void *_args)
+{
+	struct xino_do_trunc_args *args = _args;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sb = args->sb;
+	dir = sb->s_root->d_inode;
+	br = args->br;
+
+	si_noflush_write_lock(sb);
+	ii_read_lock_parent(dir);
+	bindex = au_br_index(sb, br->br_id);
+	err = au_xino_trunc(sb, bindex);
+	ii_read_unlock(dir);
+	if (unlikely(err))
+		pr_warn("err b%d, (%d)\n", bindex, err);
+	atomic_dec(&br->br_xino_running);
+	atomic_dec(&br->br_count);
+	si_write_unlock(sb);
+	au_nwt_done(&au_sbi(sb)->si_nowait);
+	kfree(args);
+}
+
+static int xino_trunc_test(struct super_block *sb, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct kstatfs st;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	/* todo: si_xino_expire and the ratio should be customizable */
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	if (time_before(jiffies,
+			sbinfo->si_xino_jiffy + sbinfo->si_xino_expire))
+		return 0;
+
+	/* truncation border */
+	err = vfs_statfs(&br->br_xino.xi_file->f_path, &st);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		AuErr1("statfs err %d, ignored\n", err);
+		return 0;
+	}
+	if (div64_u64(st.f_bfree * 100, st.f_blocks) >= AUFS_XINO_DEF_TRUNC)
+		return 0;
+
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static void xino_try_trunc(struct super_block *sb, struct au_branch *br)
+{
+	struct xino_do_trunc_args *args;
+	int wkq_err;
+
+	if (!xino_trunc_test(sb, br))
+		return;
+
+	if (atomic_inc_return(&br->br_xino_running) > 1)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* lock and kfree() will be called in trunc_xino() */
+	args = kmalloc(sizeof(*args), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!args)) {
+		AuErr1("no memory\n");
+		goto out_args;
+	}
+
+	atomic_inc(&br->br_count);
+	args->sb = sb;
+	args->br = br;
+	wkq_err = au_wkq_nowait(xino_do_trunc, args, sb, /*flags*/0);
+	if (!wkq_err)
+		return; /* success */
+
+	pr_err("wkq %d\n", wkq_err);
+	atomic_dec(&br->br_count);
+
+out_args:
+	kfree(args);
+out:
+	atomic_dec(&br->br_xino_running);
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static int au_xino_do_write(au_writef_t write, struct file *file,
+			    ino_t h_ino, ino_t ino)
+{
+	loff_t pos;
+	ssize_t sz;
+
+	pos = h_ino;
+	if (unlikely(au_loff_max / sizeof(ino) - 1 < pos)) {
+		AuIOErr1("too large hi%lu\n", (unsigned long)h_ino);
+		return -EFBIG;
+	}
+	pos *= sizeof(ino);
+	sz = xino_fwrite(write, file, &ino, sizeof(ino), &pos);
+	if (sz == sizeof(ino))
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	AuIOErr("write failed (%zd)\n", sz);
+	return -EIO;
+}
+
+/*
+ * write @ino to the xinofile for the specified branch{@sb, @bindex}
+ * at the position of @h_ino.
+ * even if @ino is zero, it is written to the xinofile and means no entry.
+ * if the size of the xino file on a specific filesystem exceeds the watermark,
+ * try truncating it.
+ */
+int au_xino_write(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex, ino_t h_ino,
+		  ino_t ino)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int mnt_flags;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(long long) != sizeof(au_loff_max)
+		     || ((loff_t)-1) > 0);
+	SiMustAnyLock(sb);
+
+	mnt_flags = au_mntflags(sb);
+	if (!au_opt_test(mnt_flags, XINO))
+		return 0;
+
+	br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+	err = au_xino_do_write(au_sbi(sb)->si_xwrite, br->br_xino.xi_file,
+			       h_ino, ino);
+	if (!err) {
+		if (au_opt_test(mnt_flags, TRUNC_XINO)
+		    && au_test_fs_trunc_xino(au_br_sb(br)))
+			xino_try_trunc(sb, br);
+		return 0; /* success */
+	}
+
+	AuIOErr("write failed (%d)\n", err);
+	return -EIO;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* aufs inode number bitmap */
+
+static const int page_bits = (int)PAGE_SIZE * BITS_PER_BYTE;
+static ino_t xib_calc_ino(unsigned long pindex, int bit)
+{
+	ino_t ino;
+
+	AuDebugOn(bit < 0 || page_bits <= bit);
+	ino = AUFS_FIRST_INO + pindex * page_bits + bit;
+	return ino;
+}
+
+static void xib_calc_bit(ino_t ino, unsigned long *pindex, int *bit)
+{
+	AuDebugOn(ino < AUFS_FIRST_INO);
+	ino -= AUFS_FIRST_INO;
+	*pindex = ino / page_bits;
+	*bit = ino % page_bits;
+}
+
+static int xib_pindex(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long pindex)
+{
+	int err;
+	loff_t pos;
+	ssize_t sz;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct file *xib;
+	unsigned long *p;
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	MtxMustLock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	AuDebugOn(pindex > ULONG_MAX / PAGE_SIZE
+		  || !au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO));
+
+	if (pindex == sbinfo->si_xib_last_pindex)
+		return 0;
+
+	xib = sbinfo->si_xib;
+	p = sbinfo->si_xib_buf;
+	pos = sbinfo->si_xib_last_pindex;
+	pos *= PAGE_SIZE;
+	sz = xino_fwrite(sbinfo->si_xwrite, xib, p, PAGE_SIZE, &pos);
+	if (unlikely(sz != PAGE_SIZE))
+		goto out;
+
+	pos = pindex;
+	pos *= PAGE_SIZE;
+	if (vfsub_f_size_read(xib) >= pos + PAGE_SIZE)
+		sz = xino_fread(sbinfo->si_xread, xib, p, PAGE_SIZE, &pos);
+	else {
+		memset(p, 0, PAGE_SIZE);
+		sz = xino_fwrite(sbinfo->si_xwrite, xib, p, PAGE_SIZE, &pos);
+	}
+	if (sz == PAGE_SIZE) {
+		sbinfo->si_xib_last_pindex = pindex;
+		return 0; /* success */
+	}
+
+out:
+	AuIOErr1("write failed (%zd)\n", sz);
+	err = sz;
+	if (sz >= 0)
+		err = -EIO;
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+static void au_xib_clear_bit(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int err, bit;
+	unsigned long pindex;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	AuDebugOn(inode->i_nlink);
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	xib_calc_bit(inode->i_ino, &pindex, &bit);
+	AuDebugOn(page_bits <= bit);
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	mutex_lock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	err = xib_pindex(sb, pindex);
+	if (!err) {
+		clear_bit(bit, sbinfo->si_xib_buf);
+		sbinfo->si_xib_next_bit = bit;
+	}
+	mutex_unlock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+}
+
+/* for s_op->delete_inode() */
+void au_xino_delete_inode(struct inode *inode, const int unlinked)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned int mnt_flags;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend, bi;
+	unsigned char try_trunc;
+	struct au_iinfo *iinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct au_hinode *hi;
+	struct inode *h_inode;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	au_writef_t xwrite;
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	mnt_flags = au_mntflags(sb);
+	if (!au_opt_test(mnt_flags, XINO)
+	    || inode->i_ino == AUFS_ROOT_INO)
+		return;
+
+	if (unlinked) {
+		au_xigen_inc(inode);
+		au_xib_clear_bit(inode);
+	}
+
+	iinfo = au_ii(inode);
+	if (!iinfo)
+		return;
+
+	bindex = iinfo->ii_bstart;
+	if (bindex < 0)
+		return;
+
+	xwrite = au_sbi(sb)->si_xwrite;
+	try_trunc = !!au_opt_test(mnt_flags, TRUNC_XINO);
+	hi = iinfo->ii_hinode + bindex;
+	bend = iinfo->ii_bend;
+	for (; bindex <= bend; bindex++, hi++) {
+		h_inode = hi->hi_inode;
+		if (!h_inode
+		    || (!unlinked && h_inode->i_nlink))
+			continue;
+
+		/* inode may not be revalidated */
+		bi = au_br_index(sb, hi->hi_id);
+		if (bi < 0)
+			continue;
+
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bi);
+		err = au_xino_do_write(xwrite, br->br_xino.xi_file,
+				       h_inode->i_ino, /*ino*/0);
+		if (!err && try_trunc
+		    && au_test_fs_trunc_xino(au_br_sb(br)))
+			xino_try_trunc(sb, br);
+	}
+}
+
+/* get an unused inode number from bitmap */
+ino_t au_xino_new_ino(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	ino_t ino;
+	unsigned long *p, pindex, ul, pend;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct file *file;
+	int free_bit, err;
+
+	if (!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO))
+		return iunique(sb, AUFS_FIRST_INO);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	mutex_lock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	p = sbinfo->si_xib_buf;
+	free_bit = sbinfo->si_xib_next_bit;
+	if (free_bit < page_bits && !test_bit(free_bit, p))
+		goto out; /* success */
+	free_bit = find_first_zero_bit(p, page_bits);
+	if (free_bit < page_bits)
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	pindex = sbinfo->si_xib_last_pindex;
+	for (ul = pindex - 1; ul < ULONG_MAX; ul--) {
+		err = xib_pindex(sb, ul);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_err;
+		free_bit = find_first_zero_bit(p, page_bits);
+		if (free_bit < page_bits)
+			goto out; /* success */
+	}
+
+	file = sbinfo->si_xib;
+	pend = vfsub_f_size_read(file) / PAGE_SIZE;
+	for (ul = pindex + 1; ul <= pend; ul++) {
+		err = xib_pindex(sb, ul);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_err;
+		free_bit = find_first_zero_bit(p, page_bits);
+		if (free_bit < page_bits)
+			goto out; /* success */
+	}
+	BUG();
+
+out:
+	set_bit(free_bit, p);
+	sbinfo->si_xib_next_bit = free_bit + 1;
+	pindex = sbinfo->si_xib_last_pindex;
+	mutex_unlock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	ino = xib_calc_ino(pindex, free_bit);
+	AuDbg("i%lu\n", (unsigned long)ino);
+	return ino;
+out_err:
+	mutex_unlock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	AuDbg("i0\n");
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * read @ino from xinofile for the specified branch{@sb, @bindex}
+ * at the position of @h_ino.
+ * if @ino does not exist and @do_new is true, get new one.
+ */
+int au_xino_read(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t bindex, ino_t h_ino,
+		 ino_t *ino)
+{
+	int err;
+	ssize_t sz;
+	loff_t pos;
+	struct file *file;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	*ino = 0;
+	if (!au_opt_test(au_mntflags(sb), XINO))
+		return 0; /* no xino */
+
+	err = 0;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	pos = h_ino;
+	if (unlikely(au_loff_max / sizeof(*ino) - 1 < pos)) {
+		AuIOErr1("too large hi%lu\n", (unsigned long)h_ino);
+		return -EFBIG;
+	}
+	pos *= sizeof(*ino);
+
+	file = au_sbr(sb, bindex)->br_xino.xi_file;
+	if (vfsub_f_size_read(file) < pos + sizeof(*ino))
+		return 0; /* no ino */
+
+	sz = xino_fread(sbinfo->si_xread, file, ino, sizeof(*ino), &pos);
+	if (sz == sizeof(*ino))
+		return 0; /* success */
+
+	err = sz;
+	if (unlikely(sz >= 0)) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		AuIOErr("xino read error (%zd)\n", sz);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* create and set a new xino file */
+
+struct file *au_xino_create(struct super_block *sb, char *fname, int silent)
+{
+	struct file *file;
+	struct dentry *h_parent, *d;
+	struct inode *h_dir;
+	int err;
+
+	/*
+	 * at mount-time, and the xino file is the default path,
+	 * hnotify is disabled so we have no notify events to ignore.
+	 * when a user specified the xino, we cannot get au_hdir to be ignored.
+	 */
+	file = vfsub_filp_open(fname, O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_EXCL | O_LARGEFILE
+			       /* | __FMODE_NONOTIFY */,
+			       S_IRUGO | S_IWUGO);
+	if (IS_ERR(file)) {
+		if (!silent)
+			pr_err("open %s(%ld)\n", fname, PTR_ERR(file));
+		return file;
+	}
+
+	/* keep file count */
+	h_parent = dget_parent(file->f_dentry);
+	h_dir = h_parent->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&h_dir->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	/* mnt_want_write() is unnecessary here */
+	err = vfsub_unlink(h_dir, &file->f_path, /*force*/0);
+	mutex_unlock(&h_dir->i_mutex);
+	dput(h_parent);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		if (!silent)
+			pr_err("unlink %s(%d)\n", fname, err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = -EINVAL;
+	d = file->f_dentry;
+	if (unlikely(sb == d->d_sb)) {
+		if (!silent)
+			pr_err("%s must be outside\n", fname);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (unlikely(au_test_fs_bad_xino(d->d_sb))) {
+		if (!silent)
+			pr_err("xino doesn't support %s(%s)\n",
+			       fname, au_sbtype(d->d_sb));
+		goto out;
+	}
+	return file; /* success */
+
+out:
+	fput(file);
+	file = ERR_PTR(err);
+	return file;
+}
+
+/*
+ * find another branch who is on the same filesystem of the specified
+ * branch{@btgt}. search until @bend.
+ */
+static int is_sb_shared(struct super_block *sb, aufs_bindex_t btgt,
+			aufs_bindex_t bend)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex;
+	struct super_block *tgt_sb = au_sbr_sb(sb, btgt);
+
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex < btgt; bindex++)
+		if (unlikely(tgt_sb == au_sbr_sb(sb, bindex)))
+			return bindex;
+	for (bindex++; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (unlikely(tgt_sb == au_sbr_sb(sb, bindex)))
+			return bindex;
+	return -1;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * initialize the xinofile for the specified branch @br
+ * at the place/path where @base_file indicates.
+ * test whether another branch is on the same filesystem or not,
+ * if @do_test is true.
+ */
+int au_xino_br(struct super_block *sb, struct au_branch *br, ino_t h_ino,
+	       struct file *base_file, int do_test)
+{
+	int err;
+	ino_t ino;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex;
+	struct au_branch *shared_br, *b;
+	struct file *file;
+	struct super_block *tgt_sb;
+
+	shared_br = NULL;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	if (do_test) {
+		tgt_sb = au_br_sb(br);
+		for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			b = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+			if (tgt_sb == au_br_sb(b)) {
+				shared_br = b;
+				break;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!shared_br || !shared_br->br_xino.xi_file) {
+		struct au_xino_lock_dir ldir;
+
+		au_xino_lock_dir(sb, base_file, &ldir);
+		/* mnt_want_write() is unnecessary here */
+		file = au_xino_create2(base_file, NULL);
+		au_xino_unlock_dir(&ldir);
+		err = PTR_ERR(file);
+		if (IS_ERR(file))
+			goto out;
+		br->br_xino.xi_file = file;
+	} else {
+		br->br_xino.xi_file = shared_br->br_xino.xi_file;
+		get_file(br->br_xino.xi_file);
+	}
+
+	ino = AUFS_ROOT_INO;
+	err = au_xino_do_write(au_sbi(sb)->si_xwrite, br->br_xino.xi_file,
+			       h_ino, ino);
+	if (unlikely(err)) {
+		fput(br->br_xino.xi_file);
+		br->br_xino.xi_file = NULL;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* trucate a xino bitmap file */
+
+/* todo: slow */
+static int do_xib_restore(struct super_block *sb, struct file *file, void *page)
+{
+	int err, bit;
+	ssize_t sz;
+	unsigned long pindex;
+	loff_t pos, pend;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	au_readf_t func;
+	ino_t *ino;
+	unsigned long *p;
+
+	err = 0;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	MtxMustLock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	p = sbinfo->si_xib_buf;
+	func = sbinfo->si_xread;
+	pend = vfsub_f_size_read(file);
+	pos = 0;
+	while (pos < pend) {
+		sz = xino_fread(func, file, page, PAGE_SIZE, &pos);
+		err = sz;
+		if (unlikely(sz <= 0))
+			goto out;
+
+		err = 0;
+		for (ino = page; sz > 0; ino++, sz -= sizeof(ino)) {
+			if (unlikely(*ino < AUFS_FIRST_INO))
+				continue;
+
+			xib_calc_bit(*ino, &pindex, &bit);
+			AuDebugOn(page_bits <= bit);
+			err = xib_pindex(sb, pindex);
+			if (!err)
+				set_bit(bit, p);
+			else
+				goto out;
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int xib_restore(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	void *page;
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	page = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!page))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; !err && bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (!bindex || is_sb_shared(sb, bindex, bindex - 1) < 0)
+			err = do_xib_restore
+				(sb, au_sbr(sb, bindex)->br_xino.xi_file, page);
+		else
+			AuDbg("b%d\n", bindex);
+	free_page((unsigned long)page);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int au_xib_trunc(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int err;
+	ssize_t sz;
+	loff_t pos;
+	struct au_xino_lock_dir ldir;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	unsigned long *p;
+	struct file *file;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	err = 0;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	if (!au_opt_test(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO))
+		goto out;
+
+	file = sbinfo->si_xib;
+	if (vfsub_f_size_read(file) <= PAGE_SIZE)
+		goto out;
+
+	au_xino_lock_dir(sb, file, &ldir);
+	/* mnt_want_write() is unnecessary here */
+	file = au_xino_create2(sbinfo->si_xib, NULL);
+	au_xino_unlock_dir(&ldir);
+	err = PTR_ERR(file);
+	if (IS_ERR(file))
+		goto out;
+	fput(sbinfo->si_xib);
+	sbinfo->si_xib = file;
+
+	p = sbinfo->si_xib_buf;
+	memset(p, 0, PAGE_SIZE);
+	pos = 0;
+	sz = xino_fwrite(sbinfo->si_xwrite, sbinfo->si_xib, p, PAGE_SIZE, &pos);
+	if (unlikely(sz != PAGE_SIZE)) {
+		err = sz;
+		AuIOErr("err %d\n", err);
+		if (sz >= 0)
+			err = -EIO;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	mutex_lock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+	/* mnt_want_write() is unnecessary here */
+	err = xib_restore(sb);
+	mutex_unlock(&sbinfo->si_xib_mtx);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * xino mount option handlers
+ */
+static au_readf_t find_readf(struct file *h_file)
+{
+	const struct file_operations *fop = h_file->f_op;
+
+	if (fop) {
+		if (fop->read)
+			return fop->read;
+		if (fop->aio_read)
+			return do_sync_read;
+	}
+	return ERR_PTR(-ENOSYS);
+}
+
+static au_writef_t find_writef(struct file *h_file)
+{
+	const struct file_operations *fop = h_file->f_op;
+
+	if (fop) {
+		if (fop->write)
+			return fop->write;
+		if (fop->aio_write)
+			return do_sync_write;
+	}
+	return ERR_PTR(-ENOSYS);
+}
+
+/* xino bitmap */
+static void xino_clear_xib(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	sbinfo->si_xread = NULL;
+	sbinfo->si_xwrite = NULL;
+	if (sbinfo->si_xib)
+		fput(sbinfo->si_xib);
+	sbinfo->si_xib = NULL;
+	free_page((unsigned long)sbinfo->si_xib_buf);
+	sbinfo->si_xib_buf = NULL;
+}
+
+static int au_xino_set_xib(struct super_block *sb, struct file *base)
+{
+	int err;
+	loff_t pos;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+	struct file *file;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	file = au_xino_create2(base, sbinfo->si_xib);
+	err = PTR_ERR(file);
+	if (IS_ERR(file))
+		goto out;
+	if (sbinfo->si_xib)
+		fput(sbinfo->si_xib);
+	sbinfo->si_xib = file;
+	sbinfo->si_xread = find_readf(file);
+	sbinfo->si_xwrite = find_writef(file);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	if (!sbinfo->si_xib_buf)
+		sbinfo->si_xib_buf = (void *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!sbinfo->si_xib_buf))
+		goto out_unset;
+
+	sbinfo->si_xib_last_pindex = 0;
+	sbinfo->si_xib_next_bit = 0;
+	if (vfsub_f_size_read(file) < PAGE_SIZE) {
+		pos = 0;
+		err = xino_fwrite(sbinfo->si_xwrite, file, sbinfo->si_xib_buf,
+				  PAGE_SIZE, &pos);
+		if (unlikely(err != PAGE_SIZE))
+			goto out_free;
+	}
+	err = 0;
+	goto out; /* success */
+
+out_free:
+	free_page((unsigned long)sbinfo->si_xib_buf);
+	sbinfo->si_xib_buf = NULL;
+	if (err >= 0)
+		err = -EIO;
+out_unset:
+	fput(sbinfo->si_xib);
+	sbinfo->si_xib = NULL;
+	sbinfo->si_xread = NULL;
+	sbinfo->si_xwrite = NULL;
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* xino for each branch */
+static void xino_clear_br(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		if (!br || !br->br_xino.xi_file)
+			continue;
+
+		fput(br->br_xino.xi_file);
+		br->br_xino.xi_file = NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+static int au_xino_set_br(struct super_block *sb, struct file *base)
+{
+	int err;
+	ino_t ino;
+	aufs_bindex_t bindex, bend, bshared;
+	struct {
+		struct file *old, *new;
+	} *fpair, *p;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	au_writef_t writef;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	fpair = kcalloc(bend + 1, sizeof(*fpair), GFP_NOFS);
+	if (unlikely(!fpair))
+		goto out;
+
+	inode = sb->s_root->d_inode;
+	ino = AUFS_ROOT_INO;
+	writef = au_sbi(sb)->si_xwrite;
+	for (bindex = 0, p = fpair; bindex <= bend; bindex++, p++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		bshared = is_sb_shared(sb, bindex, bindex - 1);
+		if (bshared >= 0) {
+			/* shared xino */
+			*p = fpair[bshared];
+			get_file(p->new);
+		}
+
+		if (!p->new) {
+			/* new xino */
+			p->old = br->br_xino.xi_file;
+			p->new = au_xino_create2(base, br->br_xino.xi_file);
+			err = PTR_ERR(p->new);
+			if (IS_ERR(p->new)) {
+				p->new = NULL;
+				goto out_pair;
+			}
+		}
+
+		err = au_xino_do_write(writef, p->new,
+				       au_h_iptr(inode, bindex)->i_ino, ino);
+		if (unlikely(err))
+			goto out_pair;
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = 0, p = fpair; bindex <= bend; bindex++, p++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		if (br->br_xino.xi_file)
+			fput(br->br_xino.xi_file);
+		get_file(p->new);
+		br->br_xino.xi_file = p->new;
+	}
+
+out_pair:
+	for (bindex = 0, p = fpair; bindex <= bend; bindex++, p++)
+		if (p->new)
+			fput(p->new);
+		else
+			break;
+	kfree(fpair);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+void au_xino_clr(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	au_xigen_clr(sb);
+	xino_clear_xib(sb);
+	xino_clear_br(sb);
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	/* lvalue, do not call au_mntflags() */
+	au_opt_clr(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO);
+}
+
+int au_xino_set(struct super_block *sb, struct au_opt_xino *xino, int remount)
+{
+	int err, skip;
+	struct dentry *parent, *cur_parent;
+	struct qstr *dname, *cur_name;
+	struct file *cur_xino;
+	struct inode *dir;
+	struct au_sbinfo *sbinfo;
+
+	SiMustWriteLock(sb);
+
+	err = 0;
+	sbinfo = au_sbi(sb);
+	parent = dget_parent(xino->file->f_dentry);
+	if (remount) {
+		skip = 0;
+		dname = &xino->file->f_dentry->d_name;
+		cur_xino = sbinfo->si_xib;
+		if (cur_xino) {
+			cur_parent = dget_parent(cur_xino->f_dentry);
+			cur_name = &cur_xino->f_dentry->d_name;
+			skip = (cur_parent == parent
+				&& dname->len == cur_name->len
+				&& !memcmp(dname->name, cur_name->name,
+					   dname->len));
+			dput(cur_parent);
+		}
+		if (skip)
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	au_opt_set(sbinfo->si_mntflags, XINO);
+	dir = parent->d_inode;
+	mutex_lock_nested(&dir->i_mutex, AuLsc_I_PARENT);
+	/* mnt_want_write() is unnecessary here */
+	err = au_xino_set_xib(sb, xino->file);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_xigen_set(sb, xino->file);
+	if (!err)
+		err = au_xino_set_br(sb, xino->file);
+	mutex_unlock(&dir->i_mutex);
+	if (!err)
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	/* reset all */
+	AuIOErr("failed creating xino(%d).\n", err);
+
+out:
+	dput(parent);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/*
+ * create a xinofile at the default place/path.
+ */
+struct file *au_xino_def(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct file *file;
+	char *page, *p;
+	struct au_branch *br;
+	struct super_block *h_sb;
+	struct path path;
+	aufs_bindex_t bend, bindex, bwr;
+
+	br = NULL;
+	bend = au_sbend(sb);
+	bwr = -1;
+	for (bindex = 0; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		br = au_sbr(sb, bindex);
+		if (au_br_writable(br->br_perm)
+		    && !au_test_fs_bad_xino(au_br_sb(br))) {
+			bwr = bindex;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (bwr >= 0) {
+		file = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+		page = (void *)__get_free_page(GFP_NOFS);
+		if (unlikely(!page))
+			goto out;
+		path.mnt = au_br_mnt(br);
+		path.dentry = au_h_dptr(sb->s_root, bwr);
+		p = d_path(&path, page, PATH_MAX - sizeof(AUFS_XINO_FNAME));
+		file = (void *)p;
+		if (!IS_ERR(p)) {
+			strcat(p, "/" AUFS_XINO_FNAME);
+			AuDbg("%s\n", p);
+			file = au_xino_create(sb, p, /*silent*/0);
+			if (!IS_ERR(file))
+				au_xino_brid_set(sb, br->br_id);
+		}
+		free_page((unsigned long)page);
+	} else {
+		file = au_xino_create(sb, AUFS_XINO_DEFPATH, /*silent*/0);
+		if (IS_ERR(file))
+			goto out;
+		h_sb = file->f_dentry->d_sb;
+		if (unlikely(au_test_fs_bad_xino(h_sb))) {
+			pr_err("xino doesn't support %s(%s)\n",
+			       AUFS_XINO_DEFPATH, au_sbtype(h_sb));
+			fput(file);
+			file = ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+		}
+		if (!IS_ERR(file))
+			au_xino_brid_set(sb, -1);
+	}
+
+out:
+	return file;
+}
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+int au_xino_path(struct seq_file *seq, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = au_seq_path(seq, &file->f_path);
+	if (unlikely(err < 0))
+		goto out;
+
+	err = 0;
+#define Deleted "\\040(deleted)"
+	seq->count -= sizeof(Deleted) - 1;
+	AuDebugOn(memcmp(seq->buf + seq->count, Deleted,
+			 sizeof(Deleted) - 1));
+#undef Deleted
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/buffer.c linux-3.12.6/fs/buffer.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/buffer.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/buffer.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -2446,7 +2446,7 @@ int block_page_mkwrite(struct vm_area_st
 	 * Update file times before taking page lock. We may end up failing the
 	 * fault so this update may be superfluous but who really cares...
 	 */
-	file_update_time(vma->vm_file);
+	vma_file_update_time(vma);
 
 	ret = __block_page_mkwrite(vma, vmf, get_block);
 	sb_end_pagefault(sb);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/file_table.c linux-3.12.6/fs/file_table.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/file_table.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/file_table.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -36,7 +36,8 @@ struct files_stat_struct files_stat = {
 	.max_files = NR_FILE
 };
 
-DEFINE_STATIC_LGLOCK(files_lglock);
+DEFINE_LGLOCK(files_lglock);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(files_lglock);
 
 /* SLAB cache for file structures */
 static struct kmem_cache *filp_cachep __read_mostly;
@@ -360,7 +361,7 @@ static inline int file_list_cpu(struct f
 }
 
 /* helper for file_sb_list_add to reduce ifdefs */
-static inline void __file_sb_list_add(struct file *file, struct super_block *sb)
+inline void __file_sb_list_add(struct file *file, struct super_block *sb)
 {
 	struct list_head *list;
 #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
@@ -373,6 +374,7 @@ static inline void __file_sb_list_add(st
 #endif
 	list_add(&file->f_u.fu_list, list);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__file_sb_list_add);
 
 /**
  * file_sb_list_add - add a file to the sb's file list
@@ -409,6 +411,8 @@ void file_sb_list_del(struct file *file)
 	}
 }
 
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(file_sb_list_del);
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
 
 /*
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/inode.c linux-3.12.6/fs/inode.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/inode.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/inode.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -57,6 +57,7 @@ static struct hlist_head *inode_hashtabl
 static __cacheline_aligned_in_smp DEFINE_SPINLOCK(inode_hash_lock);
 
 __cacheline_aligned_in_smp DEFINE_SPINLOCK(inode_sb_list_lock);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(inode_sb_list_lock);
 
 /*
  * Empty aops. Can be used for the cases where the user does not
@@ -1469,7 +1470,7 @@ static int relatime_need_update(struct v
  * This does the actual work of updating an inodes time or version.  Must have
  * had called mnt_want_write() before calling this.
  */
-static int update_time(struct inode *inode, struct timespec *time, int flags)
+int update_time(struct inode *inode, struct timespec *time, int flags)
 {
 	if (inode->i_op->update_time)
 		return inode->i_op->update_time(inode, time, flags);
@@ -1485,6 +1486,7 @@ static int update_time(struct inode *ino
 	mark_inode_dirty_sync(inode);
 	return 0;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(update_time);
 
 /**
  *	touch_atime	-	update the access time
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/Kconfig linux-3.12.6/fs/Kconfig
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/Kconfig	2014-01-01 13:05:40.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/Kconfig	2014-01-01 22:02:36.000000000 -0200
@@ -222,6 +222,7 @@ source "fs/ufs/Kconfig"
 source "fs/exofs/Kconfig"
 source "fs/f2fs/Kconfig"
 source "fs/efivarfs/Kconfig"
+source "fs/aufs/Kconfig"
 
 endif # MISC_FILESYSTEMS
 
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/Makefile linux-3.12.6/fs/Makefile
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/Makefile	2014-01-01 13:05:40.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/Makefile	2014-01-01 22:02:36.000000000 -0200
@@ -127,3 +127,4 @@ obj-y				+= exofs/ # Multiple modules
 obj-$(CONFIG_CEPH_FS)		+= ceph/
 obj-$(CONFIG_PSTORE)		+= pstore/
 obj-$(CONFIG_EFIVAR_FS)		+= efivarfs/
+obj-$(CONFIG_AUFS_FS)           += aufs/
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/namei.c.orig linux-3.12.6/fs/namei.c.orig
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/namei.c.orig	2014-01-01 13:05:40.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/namei.c.orig	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 -0300
@@ -1,4365 +0,0 @@
-/*
- *  linux/fs/namei.c
- *
- *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992  Linus Torvalds
- */
-
-/*
- * Some corrections by tytso.
- */
-
-/* [Feb 1997 T. Schoebel-Theuer] Complete rewrite of the pathname
- * lookup logic.
- */
-/* [Feb-Apr 2000, AV] Rewrite to the new namespace architecture.
- */
-
-#include <linux/init.h>
-#include <linux/export.h>
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
-#include <linux/slab.h>
-#include <linux/fs.h>
-#include <linux/namei.h>
-#include <linux/pagemap.h>
-#include <linux/fsnotify.h>
-#include <linux/personality.h>
-#include <linux/security.h>
-#include <linux/ima.h>
-#include <linux/syscalls.h>
-#include <linux/mount.h>
-#include <linux/audit.h>
-#include <linux/capability.h>
-#include <linux/file.h>
-#include <linux/fcntl.h>
-#include <linux/device_cgroup.h>
-#include <linux/fs_struct.h>
-#include <linux/posix_acl.h>
-#include <asm/uaccess.h>
-
-#include "internal.h"
-#include "mount.h"
-
-/* [Feb-1997 T. Schoebel-Theuer]
- * Fundamental changes in the pathname lookup mechanisms (namei)
- * were necessary because of omirr.  The reason is that omirr needs
- * to know the _real_ pathname, not the user-supplied one, in case
- * of symlinks (and also when transname replacements occur).
- *
- * The new code replaces the old recursive symlink resolution with
- * an iterative one (in case of non-nested symlink chains).  It does
- * this with calls to <fs>_follow_link().
- * As a side effect, dir_namei(), _namei() and follow_link() are now 
- * replaced with a single function lookup_dentry() that can handle all 
- * the special cases of the former code.
- *
- * With the new dcache, the pathname is stored at each inode, at least as
- * long as the refcount of the inode is positive.  As a side effect, the
- * size of the dcache depends on the inode cache and thus is dynamic.
- *
- * [29-Apr-1998 C. Scott Ananian] Updated above description of symlink
- * resolution to correspond with current state of the code.
- *
- * Note that the symlink resolution is not *completely* iterative.
- * There is still a significant amount of tail- and mid- recursion in
- * the algorithm.  Also, note that <fs>_readlink() is not used in
- * lookup_dentry(): lookup_dentry() on the result of <fs>_readlink()
- * may return different results than <fs>_follow_link().  Many virtual
- * filesystems (including /proc) exhibit this behavior.
- */
-
-/* [24-Feb-97 T. Schoebel-Theuer] Side effects caused by new implementation:
- * New symlink semantics: when open() is called with flags O_CREAT | O_EXCL
- * and the name already exists in form of a symlink, try to create the new
- * name indicated by the symlink. The old code always complained that the
- * name already exists, due to not following the symlink even if its target
- * is nonexistent.  The new semantics affects also mknod() and link() when
- * the name is a symlink pointing to a non-existent name.
- *
- * I don't know which semantics is the right one, since I have no access
- * to standards. But I found by trial that HP-UX 9.0 has the full "new"
- * semantics implemented, while SunOS 4.1.1 and Solaris (SunOS 5.4) have the
- * "old" one. Personally, I think the new semantics is much more logical.
- * Note that "ln old new" where "new" is a symlink pointing to a non-existing
- * file does succeed in both HP-UX and SunOs, but not in Solaris
- * and in the old Linux semantics.
- */
-
-/* [16-Dec-97 Kevin Buhr] For security reasons, we change some symlink
- * semantics.  See the comments in "open_namei" and "do_link" below.
- *
- * [10-Sep-98 Alan Modra] Another symlink change.
- */
-
-/* [Feb-Apr 2000 AV] Complete rewrite. Rules for symlinks:
- *	inside the path - always follow.
- *	in the last component in creation/removal/renaming - never follow.
- *	if LOOKUP_FOLLOW passed - follow.
- *	if the pathname has trailing slashes - follow.
- *	otherwise - don't follow.
- * (applied in that order).
- *
- * [Jun 2000 AV] Inconsistent behaviour of open() in case if flags==O_CREAT
- * restored for 2.4. This is the last surviving part of old 4.2BSD bug.
- * During the 2.4 we need to fix the userland stuff depending on it -
- * hopefully we will be able to get rid of that wart in 2.5. So far only
- * XEmacs seems to be relying on it...
- */
-/*
- * [Sep 2001 AV] Single-semaphore locking scheme (kudos to David Holland)
- * implemented.  Let's see if raised priority of ->s_vfs_rename_mutex gives
- * any extra contention...
- */
-
-/* In order to reduce some races, while at the same time doing additional
- * checking and hopefully speeding things up, we copy filenames to the
- * kernel data space before using them..
- *
- * POSIX.1 2.4: an empty pathname is invalid (ENOENT).
- * PATH_MAX includes the nul terminator --RR.
- */
-void final_putname(struct filename *name)
-{
-	if (name->separate) {
-		__putname(name->name);
-		kfree(name);
-	} else {
-		__putname(name);
-	}
-}
-
-#define EMBEDDED_NAME_MAX	(PATH_MAX - sizeof(struct filename))
-
-static struct filename *
-getname_flags(const char __user *filename, int flags, int *empty)
-{
-	struct filename *result, *err;
-	int len;
-	long max;
-	char *kname;
-
-	result = audit_reusename(filename);
-	if (result)
-		return result;
-
-	result = __getname();
-	if (unlikely(!result))
-		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
-
-	/*
-	 * First, try to embed the struct filename inside the names_cache
-	 * allocation
-	 */
-	kname = (char *)result + sizeof(*result);
-	result->name = kname;
-	result->separate = false;
-	max = EMBEDDED_NAME_MAX;
-
-recopy:
-	len = strncpy_from_user(kname, filename, max);
-	if (unlikely(len < 0)) {
-		err = ERR_PTR(len);
-		goto error;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * Uh-oh. We have a name that's approaching PATH_MAX. Allocate a
-	 * separate struct filename so we can dedicate the entire
-	 * names_cache allocation for the pathname, and re-do the copy from
-	 * userland.
-	 */
-	if (len == EMBEDDED_NAME_MAX && max == EMBEDDED_NAME_MAX) {
-		kname = (char *)result;
-
-		result = kzalloc(sizeof(*result), GFP_KERNEL);
-		if (!result) {
-			err = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
-			result = (struct filename *)kname;
-			goto error;
-		}
-		result->name = kname;
-		result->separate = true;
-		max = PATH_MAX;
-		goto recopy;
-	}
-
-	/* The empty path is special. */
-	if (unlikely(!len)) {
-		if (empty)
-			*empty = 1;
-		err = ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
-		if (!(flags & LOOKUP_EMPTY))
-			goto error;
-	}
-
-	err = ERR_PTR(-ENAMETOOLONG);
-	if (unlikely(len >= PATH_MAX))
-		goto error;
-
-	result->uptr = filename;
-	audit_getname(result);
-	return result;
-
-error:
-	final_putname(result);
-	return err;
-}
-
-struct filename *
-getname(const char __user * filename)
-{
-	return getname_flags(filename, 0, NULL);
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(getname);
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL
-void putname(struct filename *name)
-{
-	if (unlikely(!audit_dummy_context()))
-		return audit_putname(name);
-	final_putname(name);
-}
-#endif
-
-static int check_acl(struct inode *inode, int mask)
-{
-#ifdef CONFIG_FS_POSIX_ACL
-	struct posix_acl *acl;
-
-	if (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK) {
-		acl = get_cached_acl_rcu(inode, ACL_TYPE_ACCESS);
-	        if (!acl)
-	                return -EAGAIN;
-		/* no ->get_acl() calls in RCU mode... */
-		if (acl == ACL_NOT_CACHED)
-			return -ECHILD;
-	        return posix_acl_permission(inode, acl, mask & ~MAY_NOT_BLOCK);
-	}
-
-	acl = get_cached_acl(inode, ACL_TYPE_ACCESS);
-
-	/*
-	 * A filesystem can force a ACL callback by just never filling the
-	 * ACL cache. But normally you'd fill the cache either at inode
-	 * instantiation time, or on the first ->get_acl call.
-	 *
-	 * If the filesystem doesn't have a get_acl() function at all, we'll
-	 * just create the negative cache entry.
-	 */
-	if (acl == ACL_NOT_CACHED) {
-	        if (inode->i_op->get_acl) {
-			acl = inode->i_op->get_acl(inode, ACL_TYPE_ACCESS);
-			if (IS_ERR(acl))
-				return PTR_ERR(acl);
-		} else {
-		        set_cached_acl(inode, ACL_TYPE_ACCESS, NULL);
-		        return -EAGAIN;
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (acl) {
-	        int error = posix_acl_permission(inode, acl, mask);
-	        posix_acl_release(acl);
-	        return error;
-	}
-#endif
-
-	return -EAGAIN;
-}
-
-/*
- * This does the basic permission checking
- */
-static int acl_permission_check(struct inode *inode, int mask)
-{
-	unsigned int mode = inode->i_mode;
-
-	if (likely(uid_eq(current_fsuid(), inode->i_uid)))
-		mode >>= 6;
-	else {
-		if (IS_POSIXACL(inode) && (mode & S_IRWXG)) {
-			int error = check_acl(inode, mask);
-			if (error != -EAGAIN)
-				return error;
-		}
-
-		if (in_group_p(inode->i_gid))
-			mode >>= 3;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * If the DACs are ok we don't need any capability check.
-	 */
-	if ((mask & ~mode & (MAY_READ | MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC)) == 0)
-		return 0;
-	return -EACCES;
-}
-
-/**
- * generic_permission -  check for access rights on a Posix-like filesystem
- * @inode:	inode to check access rights for
- * @mask:	right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC, ...)
- *
- * Used to check for read/write/execute permissions on a file.
- * We use "fsuid" for this, letting us set arbitrary permissions
- * for filesystem access without changing the "normal" uids which
- * are used for other things.
- *
- * generic_permission is rcu-walk aware. It returns -ECHILD in case an rcu-walk
- * request cannot be satisfied (eg. requires blocking or too much complexity).
- * It would then be called again in ref-walk mode.
- */
-int generic_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask)
-{
-	int ret;
-
-	/*
-	 * Do the basic permission checks.
-	 */
-	ret = acl_permission_check(inode, mask);
-	if (ret != -EACCES)
-		return ret;
-
-	if (S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
-		/* DACs are overridable for directories */
-		if (inode_capable(inode, CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE))
-			return 0;
-		if (!(mask & MAY_WRITE))
-			if (inode_capable(inode, CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH))
-				return 0;
-		return -EACCES;
-	}
-	/*
-	 * Read/write DACs are always overridable.
-	 * Executable DACs are overridable when there is
-	 * at least one exec bit set.
-	 */
-	if (!(mask & MAY_EXEC) || (inode->i_mode & S_IXUGO))
-		if (inode_capable(inode, CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE))
-			return 0;
-
-	/*
-	 * Searching includes executable on directories, else just read.
-	 */
-	mask &= MAY_READ | MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC;
-	if (mask == MAY_READ)
-		if (inode_capable(inode, CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH))
-			return 0;
-
-	return -EACCES;
-}
-
-/*
- * We _really_ want to just do "generic_permission()" without
- * even looking at the inode->i_op values. So we keep a cache
- * flag in inode->i_opflags, that says "this has not special
- * permission function, use the fast case".
- */
-static inline int do_inode_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask)
-{
-	if (unlikely(!(inode->i_opflags & IOP_FASTPERM))) {
-		if (likely(inode->i_op->permission))
-			return inode->i_op->permission(inode, mask);
-
-		/* This gets set once for the inode lifetime */
-		spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
-		inode->i_opflags |= IOP_FASTPERM;
-		spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
-	}
-	return generic_permission(inode, mask);
-}
-
-/**
- * __inode_permission - Check for access rights to a given inode
- * @inode: Inode to check permission on
- * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC)
- *
- * Check for read/write/execute permissions on an inode.
- *
- * When checking for MAY_APPEND, MAY_WRITE must also be set in @mask.
- *
- * This does not check for a read-only file system.  You probably want
- * inode_permission().
- */
-int __inode_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask)
-{
-	int retval;
-
-	if (unlikely(mask & MAY_WRITE)) {
-		/*
-		 * Nobody gets write access to an immutable file.
-		 */
-		if (IS_IMMUTABLE(inode))
-			return -EACCES;
-	}
-
-	retval = do_inode_permission(inode, mask);
-	if (retval)
-		return retval;
-
-	retval = devcgroup_inode_permission(inode, mask);
-	if (retval)
-		return retval;
-
-	return security_inode_permission(inode, mask);
-}
-
-/**
- * sb_permission - Check superblock-level permissions
- * @sb: Superblock of inode to check permission on
- * @inode: Inode to check permission on
- * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC)
- *
- * Separate out file-system wide checks from inode-specific permission checks.
- */
-static int sb_permission(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *inode, int mask)
-{
-	if (unlikely(mask & MAY_WRITE)) {
-		umode_t mode = inode->i_mode;
-
-		/* Nobody gets write access to a read-only fs. */
-		if ((sb->s_flags & MS_RDONLY) &&
-		    (S_ISREG(mode) || S_ISDIR(mode) || S_ISLNK(mode)))
-			return -EROFS;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/**
- * inode_permission - Check for access rights to a given inode
- * @inode: Inode to check permission on
- * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC)
- *
- * Check for read/write/execute permissions on an inode.  We use fs[ug]id for
- * this, letting us set arbitrary permissions for filesystem access without
- * changing the "normal" UIDs which are used for other things.
- *
- * When checking for MAY_APPEND, MAY_WRITE must also be set in @mask.
- */
-int inode_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask)
-{
-	int retval;
-
-	retval = sb_permission(inode->i_sb, inode, mask);
-	if (retval)
-		return retval;
-	return __inode_permission(inode, mask);
-}
-
-/**
- * path_get - get a reference to a path
- * @path: path to get the reference to
- *
- * Given a path increment the reference count to the dentry and the vfsmount.
- */
-void path_get(const struct path *path)
-{
-	mntget(path->mnt);
-	dget(path->dentry);
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(path_get);
-
-/**
- * path_put - put a reference to a path
- * @path: path to put the reference to
- *
- * Given a path decrement the reference count to the dentry and the vfsmount.
- */
-void path_put(const struct path *path)
-{
-	dput(path->dentry);
-	mntput(path->mnt);
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(path_put);
-
-/*
- * Path walking has 2 modes, rcu-walk and ref-walk (see
- * Documentation/filesystems/path-lookup.txt).  In situations when we can't
- * continue in RCU mode, we attempt to drop out of rcu-walk mode and grab
- * normal reference counts on dentries and vfsmounts to transition to rcu-walk
- * mode.  Refcounts are grabbed at the last known good point before rcu-walk
- * got stuck, so ref-walk may continue from there. If this is not successful
- * (eg. a seqcount has changed), then failure is returned and it's up to caller
- * to restart the path walk from the beginning in ref-walk mode.
- */
-
-static inline void lock_rcu_walk(void)
-{
-	br_read_lock(&vfsmount_lock);
-	rcu_read_lock();
-}
-
-static inline void unlock_rcu_walk(void)
-{
-	rcu_read_unlock();
-	br_read_unlock(&vfsmount_lock);
-}
-
-/**
- * unlazy_walk - try to switch to ref-walk mode.
- * @nd: nameidata pathwalk data
- * @dentry: child of nd->path.dentry or NULL
- * Returns: 0 on success, -ECHILD on failure
- *
- * unlazy_walk attempts to legitimize the current nd->path, nd->root and dentry
- * for ref-walk mode.  @dentry must be a path found by a do_lookup call on
- * @nd or NULL.  Must be called from rcu-walk context.
- */
-static int unlazy_walk(struct nameidata *nd, struct dentry *dentry)
-{
-	struct fs_struct *fs = current->fs;
-	struct dentry *parent = nd->path.dentry;
-
-	BUG_ON(!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU));
-
-	/*
-	 * Get a reference to the parent first: we're
-	 * going to make "path_put(nd->path)" valid in
-	 * non-RCU context for "terminate_walk()".
-	 *
-	 * If this doesn't work, return immediately with
-	 * RCU walking still active (and then we will do
-	 * the RCU walk cleanup in terminate_walk()).
-	 */
-	if (!lockref_get_not_dead(&parent->d_lockref))
-		return -ECHILD;
-
-	/*
-	 * After the mntget(), we terminate_walk() will do
-	 * the right thing for non-RCU mode, and all our
-	 * subsequent exit cases should unlock_rcu_walk()
-	 * before returning.
-	 */
-	mntget(nd->path.mnt);
-	nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_RCU;
-
-	/*
-	 * For a negative lookup, the lookup sequence point is the parents
-	 * sequence point, and it only needs to revalidate the parent dentry.
-	 *
-	 * For a positive lookup, we need to move both the parent and the
-	 * dentry from the RCU domain to be properly refcounted. And the
-	 * sequence number in the dentry validates *both* dentry counters,
-	 * since we checked the sequence number of the parent after we got
-	 * the child sequence number. So we know the parent must still
-	 * be valid if the child sequence number is still valid.
-	 */
-	if (!dentry) {
-		if (read_seqcount_retry(&parent->d_seq, nd->seq))
-			goto out;
-		BUG_ON(nd->inode != parent->d_inode);
-	} else {
-		if (!lockref_get_not_dead(&dentry->d_lockref))
-			goto out;
-		if (read_seqcount_retry(&dentry->d_seq, nd->seq))
-			goto drop_dentry;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * Sequence counts matched. Now make sure that the root is
-	 * still valid and get it if required.
-	 */
-	if (nd->root.mnt && !(nd->flags & LOOKUP_ROOT)) {
-		spin_lock(&fs->lock);
-		if (nd->root.mnt != fs->root.mnt || nd->root.dentry != fs->root.dentry)
-			goto unlock_and_drop_dentry;
-		path_get(&nd->root);
-		spin_unlock(&fs->lock);
-	}
-
-	unlock_rcu_walk();
-	return 0;
-
-unlock_and_drop_dentry:
-	spin_unlock(&fs->lock);
-drop_dentry:
-	unlock_rcu_walk();
-	dput(dentry);
-	goto drop_root_mnt;
-out:
-	unlock_rcu_walk();
-drop_root_mnt:
-	if (!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_ROOT))
-		nd->root.mnt = NULL;
-	return -ECHILD;
-}
-
-static inline int d_revalidate(struct dentry *dentry, unsigned int flags)
-{
-	return dentry->d_op->d_revalidate(dentry, flags);
-}
-
-/**
- * complete_walk - successful completion of path walk
- * @nd:  pointer nameidata
- *
- * If we had been in RCU mode, drop out of it and legitimize nd->path.
- * Revalidate the final result, unless we'd already done that during
- * the path walk or the filesystem doesn't ask for it.  Return 0 on
- * success, -error on failure.  In case of failure caller does not
- * need to drop nd->path.
- */
-static int complete_walk(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry = nd->path.dentry;
-	int status;
-
-	if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-		nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_RCU;
-		if (!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_ROOT))
-			nd->root.mnt = NULL;
-
-		if (unlikely(!lockref_get_not_dead(&dentry->d_lockref))) {
-			unlock_rcu_walk();
-			return -ECHILD;
-		}
-		if (read_seqcount_retry(&dentry->d_seq, nd->seq)) {
-			unlock_rcu_walk();
-			dput(dentry);
-			return -ECHILD;
-		}
-		mntget(nd->path.mnt);
-		unlock_rcu_walk();
-	}
-
-	if (likely(!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_JUMPED)))
-		return 0;
-
-	if (likely(!(dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_OP_WEAK_REVALIDATE)))
-		return 0;
-
-	status = dentry->d_op->d_weak_revalidate(dentry, nd->flags);
-	if (status > 0)
-		return 0;
-
-	if (!status)
-		status = -ESTALE;
-
-	path_put(&nd->path);
-	return status;
-}
-
-static __always_inline void set_root(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	if (!nd->root.mnt)
-		get_fs_root(current->fs, &nd->root);
-}
-
-static int link_path_walk(const char *, struct nameidata *);
-
-static __always_inline void set_root_rcu(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	if (!nd->root.mnt) {
-		struct fs_struct *fs = current->fs;
-		unsigned seq;
-
-		do {
-			seq = read_seqcount_begin(&fs->seq);
-			nd->root = fs->root;
-			nd->seq = __read_seqcount_begin(&nd->root.dentry->d_seq);
-		} while (read_seqcount_retry(&fs->seq, seq));
-	}
-}
-
-static void path_put_conditional(struct path *path, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	dput(path->dentry);
-	if (path->mnt != nd->path.mnt)
-		mntput(path->mnt);
-}
-
-static inline void path_to_nameidata(const struct path *path,
-					struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	if (!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU)) {
-		dput(nd->path.dentry);
-		if (nd->path.mnt != path->mnt)
-			mntput(nd->path.mnt);
-	}
-	nd->path.mnt = path->mnt;
-	nd->path.dentry = path->dentry;
-}
-
-/*
- * Helper to directly jump to a known parsed path from ->follow_link,
- * caller must have taken a reference to path beforehand.
- */
-void nd_jump_link(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path)
-{
-	path_put(&nd->path);
-
-	nd->path = *path;
-	nd->inode = nd->path.dentry->d_inode;
-	nd->flags |= LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-}
-
-static inline void put_link(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *link, void *cookie)
-{
-	struct inode *inode = link->dentry->d_inode;
-	if (inode->i_op->put_link)
-		inode->i_op->put_link(link->dentry, nd, cookie);
-	path_put(link);
-}
-
-int sysctl_protected_symlinks __read_mostly = 0;
-int sysctl_protected_hardlinks __read_mostly = 0;
-
-/**
- * may_follow_link - Check symlink following for unsafe situations
- * @link: The path of the symlink
- * @nd: nameidata pathwalk data
- *
- * In the case of the sysctl_protected_symlinks sysctl being enabled,
- * CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE needs to be specifically ignored if the symlink is
- * in a sticky world-writable directory. This is to protect privileged
- * processes from failing races against path names that may change out
- * from under them by way of other users creating malicious symlinks.
- * It will permit symlinks to be followed only when outside a sticky
- * world-writable directory, or when the uid of the symlink and follower
- * match, or when the directory owner matches the symlink's owner.
- *
- * Returns 0 if following the symlink is allowed, -ve on error.
- */
-static inline int may_follow_link(struct path *link, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	const struct inode *inode;
-	const struct inode *parent;
-
-	if (!sysctl_protected_symlinks)
-		return 0;
-
-	/* Allowed if owner and follower match. */
-	inode = link->dentry->d_inode;
-	if (uid_eq(current_cred()->fsuid, inode->i_uid))
-		return 0;
-
-	/* Allowed if parent directory not sticky and world-writable. */
-	parent = nd->path.dentry->d_inode;
-	if ((parent->i_mode & (S_ISVTX|S_IWOTH)) != (S_ISVTX|S_IWOTH))
-		return 0;
-
-	/* Allowed if parent directory and link owner match. */
-	if (uid_eq(parent->i_uid, inode->i_uid))
-		return 0;
-
-	audit_log_link_denied("follow_link", link);
-	path_put_conditional(link, nd);
-	path_put(&nd->path);
-	return -EACCES;
-}
-
-/**
- * safe_hardlink_source - Check for safe hardlink conditions
- * @inode: the source inode to hardlink from
- *
- * Return false if at least one of the following conditions:
- *    - inode is not a regular file
- *    - inode is setuid
- *    - inode is setgid and group-exec
- *    - access failure for read and write
- *
- * Otherwise returns true.
- */
-static bool safe_hardlink_source(struct inode *inode)
-{
-	umode_t mode = inode->i_mode;
-
-	/* Special files should not get pinned to the filesystem. */
-	if (!S_ISREG(mode))
-		return false;
-
-	/* Setuid files should not get pinned to the filesystem. */
-	if (mode & S_ISUID)
-		return false;
-
-	/* Executable setgid files should not get pinned to the filesystem. */
-	if ((mode & (S_ISGID | S_IXGRP)) == (S_ISGID | S_IXGRP))
-		return false;
-
-	/* Hardlinking to unreadable or unwritable sources is dangerous. */
-	if (inode_permission(inode, MAY_READ | MAY_WRITE))
-		return false;
-
-	return true;
-}
-
-/**
- * may_linkat - Check permissions for creating a hardlink
- * @link: the source to hardlink from
- *
- * Block hardlink when all of:
- *  - sysctl_protected_hardlinks enabled
- *  - fsuid does not match inode
- *  - hardlink source is unsafe (see safe_hardlink_source() above)
- *  - not CAP_FOWNER
- *
- * Returns 0 if successful, -ve on error.
- */
-static int may_linkat(struct path *link)
-{
-	const struct cred *cred;
-	struct inode *inode;
-
-	if (!sysctl_protected_hardlinks)
-		return 0;
-
-	cred = current_cred();
-	inode = link->dentry->d_inode;
-
-	/* Source inode owner (or CAP_FOWNER) can hardlink all they like,
-	 * otherwise, it must be a safe source.
-	 */
-	if (uid_eq(cred->fsuid, inode->i_uid) || safe_hardlink_source(inode) ||
-	    capable(CAP_FOWNER))
-		return 0;
-
-	audit_log_link_denied("linkat", link);
-	return -EPERM;
-}
-
-static __always_inline int
-follow_link(struct path *link, struct nameidata *nd, void **p)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry = link->dentry;
-	int error;
-	char *s;
-
-	BUG_ON(nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU);
-
-	if (link->mnt == nd->path.mnt)
-		mntget(link->mnt);
-
-	error = -ELOOP;
-	if (unlikely(current->total_link_count >= 40))
-		goto out_put_nd_path;
-
-	cond_resched();
-	current->total_link_count++;
-
-	touch_atime(link);
-	nd_set_link(nd, NULL);
-
-	error = security_inode_follow_link(link->dentry, nd);
-	if (error)
-		goto out_put_nd_path;
-
-	nd->last_type = LAST_BIND;
-	*p = dentry->d_inode->i_op->follow_link(dentry, nd);
-	error = PTR_ERR(*p);
-	if (IS_ERR(*p))
-		goto out_put_nd_path;
-
-	error = 0;
-	s = nd_get_link(nd);
-	if (s) {
-		if (unlikely(IS_ERR(s))) {
-			path_put(&nd->path);
-			put_link(nd, link, *p);
-			return PTR_ERR(s);
-		}
-		if (*s == '/') {
-			set_root(nd);
-			path_put(&nd->path);
-			nd->path = nd->root;
-			path_get(&nd->root);
-			nd->flags |= LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-		}
-		nd->inode = nd->path.dentry->d_inode;
-		error = link_path_walk(s, nd);
-		if (unlikely(error))
-			put_link(nd, link, *p);
-	}
-
-	return error;
-
-out_put_nd_path:
-	*p = NULL;
-	path_put(&nd->path);
-	path_put(link);
-	return error;
-}
-
-static int follow_up_rcu(struct path *path)
-{
-	struct mount *mnt = real_mount(path->mnt);
-	struct mount *parent;
-	struct dentry *mountpoint;
-
-	parent = mnt->mnt_parent;
-	if (&parent->mnt == path->mnt)
-		return 0;
-	mountpoint = mnt->mnt_mountpoint;
-	path->dentry = mountpoint;
-	path->mnt = &parent->mnt;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-/*
- * follow_up - Find the mountpoint of path's vfsmount
- *
- * Given a path, find the mountpoint of its source file system.
- * Replace @path with the path of the mountpoint in the parent mount.
- * Up is towards /.
- *
- * Return 1 if we went up a level and 0 if we were already at the
- * root.
- */
-int follow_up(struct path *path)
-{
-	struct mount *mnt = real_mount(path->mnt);
-	struct mount *parent;
-	struct dentry *mountpoint;
-
-	br_read_lock(&vfsmount_lock);
-	parent = mnt->mnt_parent;
-	if (parent == mnt) {
-		br_read_unlock(&vfsmount_lock);
-		return 0;
-	}
-	mntget(&parent->mnt);
-	mountpoint = dget(mnt->mnt_mountpoint);
-	br_read_unlock(&vfsmount_lock);
-	dput(path->dentry);
-	path->dentry = mountpoint;
-	mntput(path->mnt);
-	path->mnt = &parent->mnt;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-/*
- * Perform an automount
- * - return -EISDIR to tell follow_managed() to stop and return the path we
- *   were called with.
- */
-static int follow_automount(struct path *path, unsigned flags,
-			    bool *need_mntput)
-{
-	struct vfsmount *mnt;
-	int err;
-
-	if (!path->dentry->d_op || !path->dentry->d_op->d_automount)
-		return -EREMOTE;
-
-	/* We don't want to mount if someone's just doing a stat -
-	 * unless they're stat'ing a directory and appended a '/' to
-	 * the name.
-	 *
-	 * We do, however, want to mount if someone wants to open or
-	 * create a file of any type under the mountpoint, wants to
-	 * traverse through the mountpoint or wants to open the
-	 * mounted directory.  Also, autofs may mark negative dentries
-	 * as being automount points.  These will need the attentions
-	 * of the daemon to instantiate them before they can be used.
-	 */
-	if (!(flags & (LOOKUP_PARENT | LOOKUP_DIRECTORY |
-		     LOOKUP_OPEN | LOOKUP_CREATE | LOOKUP_AUTOMOUNT)) &&
-	    path->dentry->d_inode)
-		return -EISDIR;
-
-	current->total_link_count++;
-	if (current->total_link_count >= 40)
-		return -ELOOP;
-
-	mnt = path->dentry->d_op->d_automount(path);
-	if (IS_ERR(mnt)) {
-		/*
-		 * The filesystem is allowed to return -EISDIR here to indicate
-		 * it doesn't want to automount.  For instance, autofs would do
-		 * this so that its userspace daemon can mount on this dentry.
-		 *
-		 * However, we can only permit this if it's a terminal point in
-		 * the path being looked up; if it wasn't then the remainder of
-		 * the path is inaccessible and we should say so.
-		 */
-		if (PTR_ERR(mnt) == -EISDIR && (flags & LOOKUP_PARENT))
-			return -EREMOTE;
-		return PTR_ERR(mnt);
-	}
-
-	if (!mnt) /* mount collision */
-		return 0;
-
-	if (!*need_mntput) {
-		/* lock_mount() may release path->mnt on error */
-		mntget(path->mnt);
-		*need_mntput = true;
-	}
-	err = finish_automount(mnt, path);
-
-	switch (err) {
-	case -EBUSY:
-		/* Someone else made a mount here whilst we were busy */
-		return 0;
-	case 0:
-		path_put(path);
-		path->mnt = mnt;
-		path->dentry = dget(mnt->mnt_root);
-		return 0;
-	default:
-		return err;
-	}
-
-}
-
-/*
- * Handle a dentry that is managed in some way.
- * - Flagged for transit management (autofs)
- * - Flagged as mountpoint
- * - Flagged as automount point
- *
- * This may only be called in refwalk mode.
- *
- * Serialization is taken care of in namespace.c
- */
-static int follow_managed(struct path *path, unsigned flags)
-{
-	struct vfsmount *mnt = path->mnt; /* held by caller, must be left alone */
-	unsigned managed;
-	bool need_mntput = false;
-	int ret = 0;
-
-	/* Given that we're not holding a lock here, we retain the value in a
-	 * local variable for each dentry as we look at it so that we don't see
-	 * the components of that value change under us */
-	while (managed = ACCESS_ONCE(path->dentry->d_flags),
-	       managed &= DCACHE_MANAGED_DENTRY,
-	       unlikely(managed != 0)) {
-		/* Allow the filesystem to manage the transit without i_mutex
-		 * being held. */
-		if (managed & DCACHE_MANAGE_TRANSIT) {
-			BUG_ON(!path->dentry->d_op);
-			BUG_ON(!path->dentry->d_op->d_manage);
-			ret = path->dentry->d_op->d_manage(path->dentry, false);
-			if (ret < 0)
-				break;
-		}
-
-		/* Transit to a mounted filesystem. */
-		if (managed & DCACHE_MOUNTED) {
-			struct vfsmount *mounted = lookup_mnt(path);
-			if (mounted) {
-				dput(path->dentry);
-				if (need_mntput)
-					mntput(path->mnt);
-				path->mnt = mounted;
-				path->dentry = dget(mounted->mnt_root);
-				need_mntput = true;
-				continue;
-			}
-
-			/* Something is mounted on this dentry in another
-			 * namespace and/or whatever was mounted there in this
-			 * namespace got unmounted before we managed to get the
-			 * vfsmount_lock */
-		}
-
-		/* Handle an automount point */
-		if (managed & DCACHE_NEED_AUTOMOUNT) {
-			ret = follow_automount(path, flags, &need_mntput);
-			if (ret < 0)
-				break;
-			continue;
-		}
-
-		/* We didn't change the current path point */
-		break;
-	}
-
-	if (need_mntput && path->mnt == mnt)
-		mntput(path->mnt);
-	if (ret == -EISDIR)
-		ret = 0;
-	return ret < 0 ? ret : need_mntput;
-}
-
-int follow_down_one(struct path *path)
-{
-	struct vfsmount *mounted;
-
-	mounted = lookup_mnt(path);
-	if (mounted) {
-		dput(path->dentry);
-		mntput(path->mnt);
-		path->mnt = mounted;
-		path->dentry = dget(mounted->mnt_root);
-		return 1;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static inline bool managed_dentry_might_block(struct dentry *dentry)
-{
-	return (dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_MANAGE_TRANSIT &&
-		dentry->d_op->d_manage(dentry, true) < 0);
-}
-
-/*
- * Try to skip to top of mountpoint pile in rcuwalk mode.  Fail if
- * we meet a managed dentry that would need blocking.
- */
-static bool __follow_mount_rcu(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path,
-			       struct inode **inode)
-{
-	for (;;) {
-		struct mount *mounted;
-		/*
-		 * Don't forget we might have a non-mountpoint managed dentry
-		 * that wants to block transit.
-		 */
-		if (unlikely(managed_dentry_might_block(path->dentry)))
-			return false;
-
-		if (!d_mountpoint(path->dentry))
-			break;
-
-		mounted = __lookup_mnt(path->mnt, path->dentry, 1);
-		if (!mounted)
-			break;
-		path->mnt = &mounted->mnt;
-		path->dentry = mounted->mnt.mnt_root;
-		nd->flags |= LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-		nd->seq = read_seqcount_begin(&path->dentry->d_seq);
-		/*
-		 * Update the inode too. We don't need to re-check the
-		 * dentry sequence number here after this d_inode read,
-		 * because a mount-point is always pinned.
-		 */
-		*inode = path->dentry->d_inode;
-	}
-	return true;
-}
-
-static void follow_mount_rcu(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	while (d_mountpoint(nd->path.dentry)) {
-		struct mount *mounted;
-		mounted = __lookup_mnt(nd->path.mnt, nd->path.dentry, 1);
-		if (!mounted)
-			break;
-		nd->path.mnt = &mounted->mnt;
-		nd->path.dentry = mounted->mnt.mnt_root;
-		nd->seq = read_seqcount_begin(&nd->path.dentry->d_seq);
-	}
-}
-
-static int follow_dotdot_rcu(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	set_root_rcu(nd);
-
-	while (1) {
-		if (nd->path.dentry == nd->root.dentry &&
-		    nd->path.mnt == nd->root.mnt) {
-			break;
-		}
-		if (nd->path.dentry != nd->path.mnt->mnt_root) {
-			struct dentry *old = nd->path.dentry;
-			struct dentry *parent = old->d_parent;
-			unsigned seq;
-
-			seq = read_seqcount_begin(&parent->d_seq);
-			if (read_seqcount_retry(&old->d_seq, nd->seq))
-				goto failed;
-			nd->path.dentry = parent;
-			nd->seq = seq;
-			break;
-		}
-		if (!follow_up_rcu(&nd->path))
-			break;
-		nd->seq = read_seqcount_begin(&nd->path.dentry->d_seq);
-	}
-	follow_mount_rcu(nd);
-	nd->inode = nd->path.dentry->d_inode;
-	return 0;
-
-failed:
-	nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_RCU;
-	if (!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_ROOT))
-		nd->root.mnt = NULL;
-	unlock_rcu_walk();
-	return -ECHILD;
-}
-
-/*
- * Follow down to the covering mount currently visible to userspace.  At each
- * point, the filesystem owning that dentry may be queried as to whether the
- * caller is permitted to proceed or not.
- */
-int follow_down(struct path *path)
-{
-	unsigned managed;
-	int ret;
-
-	while (managed = ACCESS_ONCE(path->dentry->d_flags),
-	       unlikely(managed & DCACHE_MANAGED_DENTRY)) {
-		/* Allow the filesystem to manage the transit without i_mutex
-		 * being held.
-		 *
-		 * We indicate to the filesystem if someone is trying to mount
-		 * something here.  This gives autofs the chance to deny anyone
-		 * other than its daemon the right to mount on its
-		 * superstructure.
-		 *
-		 * The filesystem may sleep at this point.
-		 */
-		if (managed & DCACHE_MANAGE_TRANSIT) {
-			BUG_ON(!path->dentry->d_op);
-			BUG_ON(!path->dentry->d_op->d_manage);
-			ret = path->dentry->d_op->d_manage(
-				path->dentry, false);
-			if (ret < 0)
-				return ret == -EISDIR ? 0 : ret;
-		}
-
-		/* Transit to a mounted filesystem. */
-		if (managed & DCACHE_MOUNTED) {
-			struct vfsmount *mounted = lookup_mnt(path);
-			if (!mounted)
-				break;
-			dput(path->dentry);
-			mntput(path->mnt);
-			path->mnt = mounted;
-			path->dentry = dget(mounted->mnt_root);
-			continue;
-		}
-
-		/* Don't handle automount points here */
-		break;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- * Skip to top of mountpoint pile in refwalk mode for follow_dotdot()
- */
-static void follow_mount(struct path *path)
-{
-	while (d_mountpoint(path->dentry)) {
-		struct vfsmount *mounted = lookup_mnt(path);
-		if (!mounted)
-			break;
-		dput(path->dentry);
-		mntput(path->mnt);
-		path->mnt = mounted;
-		path->dentry = dget(mounted->mnt_root);
-	}
-}
-
-static void follow_dotdot(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	set_root(nd);
-
-	while(1) {
-		struct dentry *old = nd->path.dentry;
-
-		if (nd->path.dentry == nd->root.dentry &&
-		    nd->path.mnt == nd->root.mnt) {
-			break;
-		}
-		if (nd->path.dentry != nd->path.mnt->mnt_root) {
-			/* rare case of legitimate dget_parent()... */
-			nd->path.dentry = dget_parent(nd->path.dentry);
-			dput(old);
-			break;
-		}
-		if (!follow_up(&nd->path))
-			break;
-	}
-	follow_mount(&nd->path);
-	nd->inode = nd->path.dentry->d_inode;
-}
-
-/*
- * This looks up the name in dcache, possibly revalidates the old dentry and
- * allocates a new one if not found or not valid.  In the need_lookup argument
- * returns whether i_op->lookup is necessary.
- *
- * dir->d_inode->i_mutex must be held
- */
-static struct dentry *lookup_dcache(struct qstr *name, struct dentry *dir,
-				    unsigned int flags, bool *need_lookup)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	int error;
-
-	*need_lookup = false;
-	dentry = d_lookup(dir, name);
-	if (dentry) {
-		if (dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_OP_REVALIDATE) {
-			error = d_revalidate(dentry, flags);
-			if (unlikely(error <= 0)) {
-				if (error < 0) {
-					dput(dentry);
-					return ERR_PTR(error);
-				} else if (!d_invalidate(dentry)) {
-					dput(dentry);
-					dentry = NULL;
-				}
-			}
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (!dentry) {
-		dentry = d_alloc(dir, name);
-		if (unlikely(!dentry))
-			return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
-
-		*need_lookup = true;
-	}
-	return dentry;
-}
-
-/*
- * Call i_op->lookup on the dentry.  The dentry must be negative but may be
- * hashed if it was pouplated with DCACHE_NEED_LOOKUP.
- *
- * dir->d_inode->i_mutex must be held
- */
-static struct dentry *lookup_real(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
-				  unsigned int flags)
-{
-	struct dentry *old;
-
-	/* Don't create child dentry for a dead directory. */
-	if (unlikely(IS_DEADDIR(dir))) {
-		dput(dentry);
-		return ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
-	}
-
-	old = dir->i_op->lookup(dir, dentry, flags);
-	if (unlikely(old)) {
-		dput(dentry);
-		dentry = old;
-	}
-	return dentry;
-}
-
-static struct dentry *__lookup_hash(struct qstr *name,
-		struct dentry *base, unsigned int flags)
-{
-	bool need_lookup;
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-
-	dentry = lookup_dcache(name, base, flags, &need_lookup);
-	if (!need_lookup)
-		return dentry;
-
-	return lookup_real(base->d_inode, dentry, flags);
-}
-
-/*
- *  It's more convoluted than I'd like it to be, but... it's still fairly
- *  small and for now I'd prefer to have fast path as straight as possible.
- *  It _is_ time-critical.
- */
-static int lookup_fast(struct nameidata *nd,
-		       struct path *path, struct inode **inode)
-{
-	struct vfsmount *mnt = nd->path.mnt;
-	struct dentry *dentry, *parent = nd->path.dentry;
-	int need_reval = 1;
-	int status = 1;
-	int err;
-
-	/*
-	 * Rename seqlock is not required here because in the off chance
-	 * of a false negative due to a concurrent rename, we're going to
-	 * do the non-racy lookup, below.
-	 */
-	if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-		unsigned seq;
-		dentry = __d_lookup_rcu(parent, &nd->last, &seq);
-		if (!dentry)
-			goto unlazy;
-
-		/*
-		 * This sequence count validates that the inode matches
-		 * the dentry name information from lookup.
-		 */
-		*inode = dentry->d_inode;
-		if (read_seqcount_retry(&dentry->d_seq, seq))
-			return -ECHILD;
-
-		/*
-		 * This sequence count validates that the parent had no
-		 * changes while we did the lookup of the dentry above.
-		 *
-		 * The memory barrier in read_seqcount_begin of child is
-		 *  enough, we can use __read_seqcount_retry here.
-		 */
-		if (__read_seqcount_retry(&parent->d_seq, nd->seq))
-			return -ECHILD;
-		nd->seq = seq;
-
-		if (unlikely(dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_OP_REVALIDATE)) {
-			status = d_revalidate(dentry, nd->flags);
-			if (unlikely(status <= 0)) {
-				if (status != -ECHILD)
-					need_reval = 0;
-				goto unlazy;
-			}
-		}
-		path->mnt = mnt;
-		path->dentry = dentry;
-		if (unlikely(!__follow_mount_rcu(nd, path, inode)))
-			goto unlazy;
-		if (unlikely(path->dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_NEED_AUTOMOUNT))
-			goto unlazy;
-		return 0;
-unlazy:
-		if (unlazy_walk(nd, dentry))
-			return -ECHILD;
-	} else {
-		dentry = __d_lookup(parent, &nd->last);
-	}
-
-	if (unlikely(!dentry))
-		goto need_lookup;
-
-	if (unlikely(dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_OP_REVALIDATE) && need_reval)
-		status = d_revalidate(dentry, nd->flags);
-	if (unlikely(status <= 0)) {
-		if (status < 0) {
-			dput(dentry);
-			return status;
-		}
-		if (!d_invalidate(dentry)) {
-			dput(dentry);
-			goto need_lookup;
-		}
-	}
-
-	path->mnt = mnt;
-	path->dentry = dentry;
-	err = follow_managed(path, nd->flags);
-	if (unlikely(err < 0)) {
-		path_put_conditional(path, nd);
-		return err;
-	}
-	if (err)
-		nd->flags |= LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-	*inode = path->dentry->d_inode;
-	return 0;
-
-need_lookup:
-	return 1;
-}
-
-/* Fast lookup failed, do it the slow way */
-static int lookup_slow(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry, *parent;
-	int err;
-
-	parent = nd->path.dentry;
-	BUG_ON(nd->inode != parent->d_inode);
-
-	mutex_lock(&parent->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	dentry = __lookup_hash(&nd->last, parent, nd->flags);
-	mutex_unlock(&parent->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-		return PTR_ERR(dentry);
-	path->mnt = nd->path.mnt;
-	path->dentry = dentry;
-	err = follow_managed(path, nd->flags);
-	if (unlikely(err < 0)) {
-		path_put_conditional(path, nd);
-		return err;
-	}
-	if (err)
-		nd->flags |= LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static inline int may_lookup(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-		int err = inode_permission(nd->inode, MAY_EXEC|MAY_NOT_BLOCK);
-		if (err != -ECHILD)
-			return err;
-		if (unlazy_walk(nd, NULL))
-			return -ECHILD;
-	}
-	return inode_permission(nd->inode, MAY_EXEC);
-}
-
-static inline int handle_dots(struct nameidata *nd, int type)
-{
-	if (type == LAST_DOTDOT) {
-		if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-			if (follow_dotdot_rcu(nd))
-				return -ECHILD;
-		} else
-			follow_dotdot(nd);
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static void terminate_walk(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	if (!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU)) {
-		path_put(&nd->path);
-	} else {
-		nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_RCU;
-		if (!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_ROOT))
-			nd->root.mnt = NULL;
-		unlock_rcu_walk();
-	}
-}
-
-/*
- * Do we need to follow links? We _really_ want to be able
- * to do this check without having to look at inode->i_op,
- * so we keep a cache of "no, this doesn't need follow_link"
- * for the common case.
- */
-static inline int should_follow_link(struct inode *inode, int follow)
-{
-	if (unlikely(!(inode->i_opflags & IOP_NOFOLLOW))) {
-		if (likely(inode->i_op->follow_link))
-			return follow;
-
-		/* This gets set once for the inode lifetime */
-		spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
-		inode->i_opflags |= IOP_NOFOLLOW;
-		spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static inline int walk_component(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path,
-		int follow)
-{
-	struct inode *inode;
-	int err;
-	/*
-	 * "." and ".." are special - ".." especially so because it has
-	 * to be able to know about the current root directory and
-	 * parent relationships.
-	 */
-	if (unlikely(nd->last_type != LAST_NORM))
-		return handle_dots(nd, nd->last_type);
-	err = lookup_fast(nd, path, &inode);
-	if (unlikely(err)) {
-		if (err < 0)
-			goto out_err;
-
-		err = lookup_slow(nd, path);
-		if (err < 0)
-			goto out_err;
-
-		inode = path->dentry->d_inode;
-	}
-	err = -ENOENT;
-	if (!inode)
-		goto out_path_put;
-
-	if (should_follow_link(inode, follow)) {
-		if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-			if (unlikely(unlazy_walk(nd, path->dentry))) {
-				err = -ECHILD;
-				goto out_err;
-			}
-		}
-		BUG_ON(inode != path->dentry->d_inode);
-		return 1;
-	}
-	path_to_nameidata(path, nd);
-	nd->inode = inode;
-	return 0;
-
-out_path_put:
-	path_to_nameidata(path, nd);
-out_err:
-	terminate_walk(nd);
-	return err;
-}
-
-/*
- * This limits recursive symlink follows to 8, while
- * limiting consecutive symlinks to 40.
- *
- * Without that kind of total limit, nasty chains of consecutive
- * symlinks can cause almost arbitrarily long lookups.
- */
-static inline int nested_symlink(struct path *path, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	int res;
-
-	if (unlikely(current->link_count >= MAX_NESTED_LINKS)) {
-		path_put_conditional(path, nd);
-		path_put(&nd->path);
-		return -ELOOP;
-	}
-	BUG_ON(nd->depth >= MAX_NESTED_LINKS);
-
-	nd->depth++;
-	current->link_count++;
-
-	do {
-		struct path link = *path;
-		void *cookie;
-
-		res = follow_link(&link, nd, &cookie);
-		if (res)
-			break;
-		res = walk_component(nd, path, LOOKUP_FOLLOW);
-		put_link(nd, &link, cookie);
-	} while (res > 0);
-
-	current->link_count--;
-	nd->depth--;
-	return res;
-}
-
-/*
- * We really don't want to look at inode->i_op->lookup
- * when we don't have to. So we keep a cache bit in
- * the inode ->i_opflags field that says "yes, we can
- * do lookup on this inode".
- */
-static inline int can_lookup(struct inode *inode)
-{
-	if (likely(inode->i_opflags & IOP_LOOKUP))
-		return 1;
-	if (likely(!inode->i_op->lookup))
-		return 0;
-
-	/* We do this once for the lifetime of the inode */
-	spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
-	inode->i_opflags |= IOP_LOOKUP;
-	spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
-	return 1;
-}
-
-/*
- * We can do the critical dentry name comparison and hashing
- * operations one word at a time, but we are limited to:
- *
- * - Architectures with fast unaligned word accesses. We could
- *   do a "get_unaligned()" if this helps and is sufficiently
- *   fast.
- *
- * - Little-endian machines (so that we can generate the mask
- *   of low bytes efficiently). Again, we *could* do a byte
- *   swapping load on big-endian architectures if that is not
- *   expensive enough to make the optimization worthless.
- *
- * - non-CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC configurations (so that we
- *   do not trap on the (extremely unlikely) case of a page
- *   crossing operation.
- *
- * - Furthermore, we need an efficient 64-bit compile for the
- *   64-bit case in order to generate the "number of bytes in
- *   the final mask". Again, that could be replaced with a
- *   efficient population count instruction or similar.
- */
-#ifdef CONFIG_DCACHE_WORD_ACCESS
-
-#include <asm/word-at-a-time.h>
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_64BIT
-
-static inline unsigned int fold_hash(unsigned long hash)
-{
-	hash += hash >> (8*sizeof(int));
-	return hash;
-}
-
-#else	/* 32-bit case */
-
-#define fold_hash(x) (x)
-
-#endif
-
-unsigned int full_name_hash(const unsigned char *name, unsigned int len)
-{
-	unsigned long a, mask;
-	unsigned long hash = 0;
-
-	for (;;) {
-		a = load_unaligned_zeropad(name);
-		if (len < sizeof(unsigned long))
-			break;
-		hash += a;
-		hash *= 9;
-		name += sizeof(unsigned long);
-		len -= sizeof(unsigned long);
-		if (!len)
-			goto done;
-	}
-	mask = ~(~0ul << len*8);
-	hash += mask & a;
-done:
-	return fold_hash(hash);
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(full_name_hash);
-
-/*
- * Calculate the length and hash of the path component, and
- * return the length of the component;
- */
-static inline unsigned long hash_name(const char *name, unsigned int *hashp)
-{
-	unsigned long a, b, adata, bdata, mask, hash, len;
-	const struct word_at_a_time constants = WORD_AT_A_TIME_CONSTANTS;
-
-	hash = a = 0;
-	len = -sizeof(unsigned long);
-	do {
-		hash = (hash + a) * 9;
-		len += sizeof(unsigned long);
-		a = load_unaligned_zeropad(name+len);
-		b = a ^ REPEAT_BYTE('/');
-	} while (!(has_zero(a, &adata, &constants) | has_zero(b, &bdata, &constants)));
-
-	adata = prep_zero_mask(a, adata, &constants);
-	bdata = prep_zero_mask(b, bdata, &constants);
-
-	mask = create_zero_mask(adata | bdata);
-
-	hash += a & zero_bytemask(mask);
-	*hashp = fold_hash(hash);
-
-	return len + find_zero(mask);
-}
-
-#else
-
-unsigned int full_name_hash(const unsigned char *name, unsigned int len)
-{
-	unsigned long hash = init_name_hash();
-	while (len--)
-		hash = partial_name_hash(*name++, hash);
-	return end_name_hash(hash);
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(full_name_hash);
-
-/*
- * We know there's a real path component here of at least
- * one character.
- */
-static inline unsigned long hash_name(const char *name, unsigned int *hashp)
-{
-	unsigned long hash = init_name_hash();
-	unsigned long len = 0, c;
-
-	c = (unsigned char)*name;
-	do {
-		len++;
-		hash = partial_name_hash(c, hash);
-		c = (unsigned char)name[len];
-	} while (c && c != '/');
-	*hashp = end_name_hash(hash);
-	return len;
-}
-
-#endif
-
-/*
- * Name resolution.
- * This is the basic name resolution function, turning a pathname into
- * the final dentry. We expect 'base' to be positive and a directory.
- *
- * Returns 0 and nd will have valid dentry and mnt on success.
- * Returns error and drops reference to input namei data on failure.
- */
-static int link_path_walk(const char *name, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	struct path next;
-	int err;
-	
-	while (*name=='/')
-		name++;
-	if (!*name)
-		return 0;
-
-	/* At this point we know we have a real path component. */
-	for(;;) {
-		struct qstr this;
-		long len;
-		int type;
-
-		err = may_lookup(nd);
- 		if (err)
-			break;
-
-		len = hash_name(name, &this.hash);
-		this.name = name;
-		this.len = len;
-
-		type = LAST_NORM;
-		if (name[0] == '.') switch (len) {
-			case 2:
-				if (name[1] == '.') {
-					type = LAST_DOTDOT;
-					nd->flags |= LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-				}
-				break;
-			case 1:
-				type = LAST_DOT;
-		}
-		if (likely(type == LAST_NORM)) {
-			struct dentry *parent = nd->path.dentry;
-			nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-			if (unlikely(parent->d_flags & DCACHE_OP_HASH)) {
-				err = parent->d_op->d_hash(parent, &this);
-				if (err < 0)
-					break;
-			}
-		}
-
-		nd->last = this;
-		nd->last_type = type;
-
-		if (!name[len])
-			return 0;
-		/*
-		 * If it wasn't NUL, we know it was '/'. Skip that
-		 * slash, and continue until no more slashes.
-		 */
-		do {
-			len++;
-		} while (unlikely(name[len] == '/'));
-		if (!name[len])
-			return 0;
-
-		name += len;
-
-		err = walk_component(nd, &next, LOOKUP_FOLLOW);
-		if (err < 0)
-			return err;
-
-		if (err) {
-			err = nested_symlink(&next, nd);
-			if (err)
-				return err;
-		}
-		if (!can_lookup(nd->inode)) {
-			err = -ENOTDIR; 
-			break;
-		}
-	}
-	terminate_walk(nd);
-	return err;
-}
-
-static int path_init(int dfd, const char *name, unsigned int flags,
-		     struct nameidata *nd, struct file **fp)
-{
-	int retval = 0;
-
-	nd->last_type = LAST_ROOT; /* if there are only slashes... */
-	nd->flags = flags | LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-	nd->depth = 0;
-	if (flags & LOOKUP_ROOT) {
-		struct inode *inode = nd->root.dentry->d_inode;
-		if (*name) {
-			if (!can_lookup(inode))
-				return -ENOTDIR;
-			retval = inode_permission(inode, MAY_EXEC);
-			if (retval)
-				return retval;
-		}
-		nd->path = nd->root;
-		nd->inode = inode;
-		if (flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-			lock_rcu_walk();
-			nd->seq = __read_seqcount_begin(&nd->path.dentry->d_seq);
-		} else {
-			path_get(&nd->path);
-		}
-		return 0;
-	}
-
-	nd->root.mnt = NULL;
-
-	if (*name=='/') {
-		if (flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-			lock_rcu_walk();
-			set_root_rcu(nd);
-		} else {
-			set_root(nd);
-			path_get(&nd->root);
-		}
-		nd->path = nd->root;
-	} else if (dfd == AT_FDCWD) {
-		if (flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-			struct fs_struct *fs = current->fs;
-			unsigned seq;
-
-			lock_rcu_walk();
-
-			do {
-				seq = read_seqcount_begin(&fs->seq);
-				nd->path = fs->pwd;
-				nd->seq = __read_seqcount_begin(&nd->path.dentry->d_seq);
-			} while (read_seqcount_retry(&fs->seq, seq));
-		} else {
-			get_fs_pwd(current->fs, &nd->path);
-		}
-	} else {
-		/* Caller must check execute permissions on the starting path component */
-		struct fd f = fdget_raw(dfd);
-		struct dentry *dentry;
-
-		if (!f.file)
-			return -EBADF;
-
-		dentry = f.file->f_path.dentry;
-
-		if (*name) {
-			if (!can_lookup(dentry->d_inode)) {
-				fdput(f);
-				return -ENOTDIR;
-			}
-		}
-
-		nd->path = f.file->f_path;
-		if (flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-			if (f.need_put)
-				*fp = f.file;
-			nd->seq = __read_seqcount_begin(&nd->path.dentry->d_seq);
-			lock_rcu_walk();
-		} else {
-			path_get(&nd->path);
-			fdput(f);
-		}
-	}
-
-	nd->inode = nd->path.dentry->d_inode;
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static inline int lookup_last(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path)
-{
-	if (nd->last_type == LAST_NORM && nd->last.name[nd->last.len])
-		nd->flags |= LOOKUP_FOLLOW | LOOKUP_DIRECTORY;
-
-	nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-	return walk_component(nd, path, nd->flags & LOOKUP_FOLLOW);
-}
-
-/* Returns 0 and nd will be valid on success; Retuns error, otherwise. */
-static int path_lookupat(int dfd, const char *name,
-				unsigned int flags, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	struct file *base = NULL;
-	struct path path;
-	int err;
-
-	/*
-	 * Path walking is largely split up into 2 different synchronisation
-	 * schemes, rcu-walk and ref-walk (explained in
-	 * Documentation/filesystems/path-lookup.txt). These share much of the
-	 * path walk code, but some things particularly setup, cleanup, and
-	 * following mounts are sufficiently divergent that functions are
-	 * duplicated. Typically there is a function foo(), and its RCU
-	 * analogue, foo_rcu().
-	 *
-	 * -ECHILD is the error number of choice (just to avoid clashes) that
-	 * is returned if some aspect of an rcu-walk fails. Such an error must
-	 * be handled by restarting a traditional ref-walk (which will always
-	 * be able to complete).
-	 */
-	err = path_init(dfd, name, flags | LOOKUP_PARENT, nd, &base);
-
-	if (unlikely(err))
-		return err;
-
-	current->total_link_count = 0;
-	err = link_path_walk(name, nd);
-
-	if (!err && !(flags & LOOKUP_PARENT)) {
-		err = lookup_last(nd, &path);
-		while (err > 0) {
-			void *cookie;
-			struct path link = path;
-			err = may_follow_link(&link, nd);
-			if (unlikely(err))
-				break;
-			nd->flags |= LOOKUP_PARENT;
-			err = follow_link(&link, nd, &cookie);
-			if (err)
-				break;
-			err = lookup_last(nd, &path);
-			put_link(nd, &link, cookie);
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (!err)
-		err = complete_walk(nd);
-
-	if (!err && nd->flags & LOOKUP_DIRECTORY) {
-		if (!can_lookup(nd->inode)) {
-			path_put(&nd->path);
-			err = -ENOTDIR;
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (base)
-		fput(base);
-
-	if (nd->root.mnt && !(nd->flags & LOOKUP_ROOT)) {
-		path_put(&nd->root);
-		nd->root.mnt = NULL;
-	}
-	return err;
-}
-
-static int filename_lookup(int dfd, struct filename *name,
-				unsigned int flags, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	int retval = path_lookupat(dfd, name->name, flags | LOOKUP_RCU, nd);
-	if (unlikely(retval == -ECHILD))
-		retval = path_lookupat(dfd, name->name, flags, nd);
-	if (unlikely(retval == -ESTALE))
-		retval = path_lookupat(dfd, name->name,
-						flags | LOOKUP_REVAL, nd);
-
-	if (likely(!retval))
-		audit_inode(name, nd->path.dentry, flags & LOOKUP_PARENT);
-	return retval;
-}
-
-static int do_path_lookup(int dfd, const char *name,
-				unsigned int flags, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	struct filename filename = { .name = name };
-
-	return filename_lookup(dfd, &filename, flags, nd);
-}
-
-/* does lookup, returns the object with parent locked */
-struct dentry *kern_path_locked(const char *name, struct path *path)
-{
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	struct dentry *d;
-	int err = do_path_lookup(AT_FDCWD, name, LOOKUP_PARENT, &nd);
-	if (err)
-		return ERR_PTR(err);
-	if (nd.last_type != LAST_NORM) {
-		path_put(&nd.path);
-		return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
-	}
-	mutex_lock_nested(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-	d = __lookup_hash(&nd.last, nd.path.dentry, 0);
-	if (IS_ERR(d)) {
-		mutex_unlock(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-		path_put(&nd.path);
-		return d;
-	}
-	*path = nd.path;
-	return d;
-}
-
-int kern_path(const char *name, unsigned int flags, struct path *path)
-{
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	int res = do_path_lookup(AT_FDCWD, name, flags, &nd);
-	if (!res)
-		*path = nd.path;
-	return res;
-}
-
-/**
- * vfs_path_lookup - lookup a file path relative to a dentry-vfsmount pair
- * @dentry:  pointer to dentry of the base directory
- * @mnt: pointer to vfs mount of the base directory
- * @name: pointer to file name
- * @flags: lookup flags
- * @path: pointer to struct path to fill
- */
-int vfs_path_lookup(struct dentry *dentry, struct vfsmount *mnt,
-		    const char *name, unsigned int flags,
-		    struct path *path)
-{
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	int err;
-	nd.root.dentry = dentry;
-	nd.root.mnt = mnt;
-	BUG_ON(flags & LOOKUP_PARENT);
-	/* the first argument of do_path_lookup() is ignored with LOOKUP_ROOT */
-	err = do_path_lookup(AT_FDCWD, name, flags | LOOKUP_ROOT, &nd);
-	if (!err)
-		*path = nd.path;
-	return err;
-}
-
-/*
- * Restricted form of lookup. Doesn't follow links, single-component only,
- * needs parent already locked. Doesn't follow mounts.
- * SMP-safe.
- */
-static struct dentry *lookup_hash(struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	return __lookup_hash(&nd->last, nd->path.dentry, nd->flags);
-}
-
-/**
- * lookup_one_len - filesystem helper to lookup single pathname component
- * @name:	pathname component to lookup
- * @base:	base directory to lookup from
- * @len:	maximum length @len should be interpreted to
- *
- * Note that this routine is purely a helper for filesystem usage and should
- * not be called by generic code.  Also note that by using this function the
- * nameidata argument is passed to the filesystem methods and a filesystem
- * using this helper needs to be prepared for that.
- */
-struct dentry *lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)
-{
-	struct qstr this;
-	unsigned int c;
-	int err;
-
-	WARN_ON_ONCE(!mutex_is_locked(&base->d_inode->i_mutex));
-
-	this.name = name;
-	this.len = len;
-	this.hash = full_name_hash(name, len);
-	if (!len)
-		return ERR_PTR(-EACCES);
-
-	if (unlikely(name[0] == '.')) {
-		if (len < 2 || (len == 2 && name[1] == '.'))
-			return ERR_PTR(-EACCES);
-	}
-
-	while (len--) {
-		c = *(const unsigned char *)name++;
-		if (c == '/' || c == '\0')
-			return ERR_PTR(-EACCES);
-	}
-	/*
-	 * See if the low-level filesystem might want
-	 * to use its own hash..
-	 */
-	if (base->d_flags & DCACHE_OP_HASH) {
-		int err = base->d_op->d_hash(base, &this);
-		if (err < 0)
-			return ERR_PTR(err);
-	}
-
-	err = inode_permission(base->d_inode, MAY_EXEC);
-	if (err)
-		return ERR_PTR(err);
-
-	return __lookup_hash(&this, base, 0);
-}
-
-int user_path_at_empty(int dfd, const char __user *name, unsigned flags,
-		 struct path *path, int *empty)
-{
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	struct filename *tmp = getname_flags(name, flags, empty);
-	int err = PTR_ERR(tmp);
-	if (!IS_ERR(tmp)) {
-
-		BUG_ON(flags & LOOKUP_PARENT);
-
-		err = filename_lookup(dfd, tmp, flags, &nd);
-		putname(tmp);
-		if (!err)
-			*path = nd.path;
-	}
-	return err;
-}
-
-int user_path_at(int dfd, const char __user *name, unsigned flags,
-		 struct path *path)
-{
-	return user_path_at_empty(dfd, name, flags, path, NULL);
-}
-
-/*
- * NB: most callers don't do anything directly with the reference to the
- *     to struct filename, but the nd->last pointer points into the name string
- *     allocated by getname. So we must hold the reference to it until all
- *     path-walking is complete.
- */
-static struct filename *
-user_path_parent(int dfd, const char __user *path, struct nameidata *nd,
-		 unsigned int flags)
-{
-	struct filename *s = getname(path);
-	int error;
-
-	/* only LOOKUP_REVAL is allowed in extra flags */
-	flags &= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-
-	if (IS_ERR(s))
-		return s;
-
-	error = filename_lookup(dfd, s, flags | LOOKUP_PARENT, nd);
-	if (error) {
-		putname(s);
-		return ERR_PTR(error);
-	}
-
-	return s;
-}
-
-/**
- * mountpoint_last - look up last component for umount
- * @nd:   pathwalk nameidata - currently pointing at parent directory of "last"
- * @path: pointer to container for result
- *
- * This is a special lookup_last function just for umount. In this case, we
- * need to resolve the path without doing any revalidation.
- *
- * The nameidata should be the result of doing a LOOKUP_PARENT pathwalk. Since
- * mountpoints are always pinned in the dcache, their ancestors are too. Thus,
- * in almost all cases, this lookup will be served out of the dcache. The only
- * cases where it won't are if nd->last refers to a symlink or the path is
- * bogus and it doesn't exist.
- *
- * Returns:
- * -error: if there was an error during lookup. This includes -ENOENT if the
- *         lookup found a negative dentry. The nd->path reference will also be
- *         put in this case.
- *
- * 0:      if we successfully resolved nd->path and found it to not to be a
- *         symlink that needs to be followed. "path" will also be populated.
- *         The nd->path reference will also be put.
- *
- * 1:      if we successfully resolved nd->last and found it to be a symlink
- *         that needs to be followed. "path" will be populated with the path
- *         to the link, and nd->path will *not* be put.
- */
-static int
-mountpoint_last(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path)
-{
-	int error = 0;
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	struct dentry *dir = nd->path.dentry;
-
-	/* If we're in rcuwalk, drop out of it to handle last component */
-	if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-		if (unlazy_walk(nd, NULL)) {
-			error = -ECHILD;
-			goto out;
-		}
-	}
-
-	nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-
-	if (unlikely(nd->last_type != LAST_NORM)) {
-		error = handle_dots(nd, nd->last_type);
-		if (error)
-			goto out;
-		dentry = dget(nd->path.dentry);
-		goto done;
-	}
-
-	mutex_lock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	dentry = d_lookup(dir, &nd->last);
-	if (!dentry) {
-		/*
-		 * No cached dentry. Mounted dentries are pinned in the cache,
-		 * so that means that this dentry is probably a symlink or the
-		 * path doesn't actually point to a mounted dentry.
-		 */
-		dentry = d_alloc(dir, &nd->last);
-		if (!dentry) {
-			error = -ENOMEM;
-			mutex_unlock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
-			goto out;
-		}
-		dentry = lookup_real(dir->d_inode, dentry, nd->flags);
-		error = PTR_ERR(dentry);
-		if (IS_ERR(dentry)) {
-			mutex_unlock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
-			goto out;
-		}
-	}
-	mutex_unlock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
-
-done:
-	if (!dentry->d_inode) {
-		error = -ENOENT;
-		dput(dentry);
-		goto out;
-	}
-	path->dentry = dentry;
-	path->mnt = mntget(nd->path.mnt);
-	if (should_follow_link(dentry->d_inode, nd->flags & LOOKUP_FOLLOW))
-		return 1;
-	follow_mount(path);
-	error = 0;
-out:
-	terminate_walk(nd);
-	return error;
-}
-
-/**
- * path_mountpoint - look up a path to be umounted
- * @dfd:	directory file descriptor to start walk from
- * @name:	full pathname to walk
- * @path:	pointer to container for result
- * @flags:	lookup flags
- *
- * Look up the given name, but don't attempt to revalidate the last component.
- * Returns 0 and "path" will be valid on success; Returns error otherwise.
- */
-static int
-path_mountpoint(int dfd, const char *name, struct path *path, unsigned int flags)
-{
-	struct file *base = NULL;
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	int err;
-
-	err = path_init(dfd, name, flags | LOOKUP_PARENT, &nd, &base);
-	if (unlikely(err))
-		return err;
-
-	current->total_link_count = 0;
-	err = link_path_walk(name, &nd);
-	if (err)
-		goto out;
-
-	err = mountpoint_last(&nd, path);
-	while (err > 0) {
-		void *cookie;
-		struct path link = *path;
-		err = may_follow_link(&link, &nd);
-		if (unlikely(err))
-			break;
-		nd.flags |= LOOKUP_PARENT;
-		err = follow_link(&link, &nd, &cookie);
-		if (err)
-			break;
-		err = mountpoint_last(&nd, path);
-		put_link(&nd, &link, cookie);
-	}
-out:
-	if (base)
-		fput(base);
-
-	if (nd.root.mnt && !(nd.flags & LOOKUP_ROOT))
-		path_put(&nd.root);
-
-	return err;
-}
-
-static int
-filename_mountpoint(int dfd, struct filename *s, struct path *path,
-			unsigned int flags)
-{
-	int error = path_mountpoint(dfd, s->name, path, flags | LOOKUP_RCU);
-	if (unlikely(error == -ECHILD))
-		error = path_mountpoint(dfd, s->name, path, flags);
-	if (unlikely(error == -ESTALE))
-		error = path_mountpoint(dfd, s->name, path, flags | LOOKUP_REVAL);
-	if (likely(!error))
-		audit_inode(s, path->dentry, 0);
-	return error;
-}
-
-/**
- * user_path_mountpoint_at - lookup a path from userland in order to umount it
- * @dfd:	directory file descriptor
- * @name:	pathname from userland
- * @flags:	lookup flags
- * @path:	pointer to container to hold result
- *
- * A umount is a special case for path walking. We're not actually interested
- * in the inode in this situation, and ESTALE errors can be a problem. We
- * simply want track down the dentry and vfsmount attached at the mountpoint
- * and avoid revalidating the last component.
- *
- * Returns 0 and populates "path" on success.
- */
-int
-user_path_mountpoint_at(int dfd, const char __user *name, unsigned int flags,
-			struct path *path)
-{
-	struct filename *s = getname(name);
-	int error;
-	if (IS_ERR(s))
-		return PTR_ERR(s);
-	error = filename_mountpoint(dfd, s, path, flags);
-	putname(s);
-	return error;
-}
-
-int
-kern_path_mountpoint(int dfd, const char *name, struct path *path,
-			unsigned int flags)
-{
-	struct filename s = {.name = name};
-	return filename_mountpoint(dfd, &s, path, flags);
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(kern_path_mountpoint);
-
-/*
- * It's inline, so penalty for filesystems that don't use sticky bit is
- * minimal.
- */
-static inline int check_sticky(struct inode *dir, struct inode *inode)
-{
-	kuid_t fsuid = current_fsuid();
-
-	if (!(dir->i_mode & S_ISVTX))
-		return 0;
-	if (uid_eq(inode->i_uid, fsuid))
-		return 0;
-	if (uid_eq(dir->i_uid, fsuid))
-		return 0;
-	return !inode_capable(inode, CAP_FOWNER);
-}
-
-/*
- *	Check whether we can remove a link victim from directory dir, check
- *  whether the type of victim is right.
- *  1. We can't do it if dir is read-only (done in permission())
- *  2. We should have write and exec permissions on dir
- *  3. We can't remove anything from append-only dir
- *  4. We can't do anything with immutable dir (done in permission())
- *  5. If the sticky bit on dir is set we should either
- *	a. be owner of dir, or
- *	b. be owner of victim, or
- *	c. have CAP_FOWNER capability
- *  6. If the victim is append-only or immutable we can't do antyhing with
- *     links pointing to it.
- *  7. If we were asked to remove a directory and victim isn't one - ENOTDIR.
- *  8. If we were asked to remove a non-directory and victim isn't one - EISDIR.
- *  9. We can't remove a root or mountpoint.
- * 10. We don't allow removal of NFS sillyrenamed files; it's handled by
- *     nfs_async_unlink().
- */
-static int may_delete(struct inode *dir,struct dentry *victim,int isdir)
-{
-	int error;
-
-	if (!victim->d_inode)
-		return -ENOENT;
-
-	BUG_ON(victim->d_parent->d_inode != dir);
-	audit_inode_child(dir, victim, AUDIT_TYPE_CHILD_DELETE);
-
-	error = inode_permission(dir, MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-	if (IS_APPEND(dir))
-		return -EPERM;
-	if (check_sticky(dir, victim->d_inode)||IS_APPEND(victim->d_inode)||
-	    IS_IMMUTABLE(victim->d_inode) || IS_SWAPFILE(victim->d_inode))
-		return -EPERM;
-	if (isdir) {
-		if (!S_ISDIR(victim->d_inode->i_mode))
-			return -ENOTDIR;
-		if (IS_ROOT(victim))
-			return -EBUSY;
-	} else if (S_ISDIR(victim->d_inode->i_mode))
-		return -EISDIR;
-	if (IS_DEADDIR(dir))
-		return -ENOENT;
-	if (victim->d_flags & DCACHE_NFSFS_RENAMED)
-		return -EBUSY;
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*	Check whether we can create an object with dentry child in directory
- *  dir.
- *  1. We can't do it if child already exists (open has special treatment for
- *     this case, but since we are inlined it's OK)
- *  2. We can't do it if dir is read-only (done in permission())
- *  3. We should have write and exec permissions on dir
- *  4. We can't do it if dir is immutable (done in permission())
- */
-static inline int may_create(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *child)
-{
-	audit_inode_child(dir, child, AUDIT_TYPE_CHILD_CREATE);
-	if (child->d_inode)
-		return -EEXIST;
-	if (IS_DEADDIR(dir))
-		return -ENOENT;
-	return inode_permission(dir, MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC);
-}
-
-/*
- * p1 and p2 should be directories on the same fs.
- */
-struct dentry *lock_rename(struct dentry *p1, struct dentry *p2)
-{
-	struct dentry *p;
-
-	if (p1 == p2) {
-		mutex_lock_nested(&p1->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-		return NULL;
-	}
-
-	mutex_lock(&p1->d_inode->i_sb->s_vfs_rename_mutex);
-
-	p = d_ancestor(p2, p1);
-	if (p) {
-		mutex_lock_nested(&p2->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-		mutex_lock_nested(&p1->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_CHILD);
-		return p;
-	}
-
-	p = d_ancestor(p1, p2);
-	if (p) {
-		mutex_lock_nested(&p1->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-		mutex_lock_nested(&p2->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_CHILD);
-		return p;
-	}
-
-	mutex_lock_nested(&p1->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-	mutex_lock_nested(&p2->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_CHILD);
-	return NULL;
-}
-
-void unlock_rename(struct dentry *p1, struct dentry *p2)
-{
-	mutex_unlock(&p1->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	if (p1 != p2) {
-		mutex_unlock(&p2->d_inode->i_mutex);
-		mutex_unlock(&p1->d_inode->i_sb->s_vfs_rename_mutex);
-	}
-}
-
-int vfs_create(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode,
-		bool want_excl)
-{
-	int error = may_create(dir, dentry);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (!dir->i_op->create)
-		return -EACCES;	/* shouldn't it be ENOSYS? */
-	mode &= S_IALLUGO;
-	mode |= S_IFREG;
-	error = security_inode_create(dir, dentry, mode);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-	error = dir->i_op->create(dir, dentry, mode, want_excl);
-	if (!error)
-		fsnotify_create(dir, dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-static int may_open(struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry = path->dentry;
-	struct inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
-	int error;
-
-	/* O_PATH? */
-	if (!acc_mode)
-		return 0;
-
-	if (!inode)
-		return -ENOENT;
-
-	switch (inode->i_mode & S_IFMT) {
-	case S_IFLNK:
-		return -ELOOP;
-	case S_IFDIR:
-		if (acc_mode & MAY_WRITE)
-			return -EISDIR;
-		break;
-	case S_IFBLK:
-	case S_IFCHR:
-		if (path->mnt->mnt_flags & MNT_NODEV)
-			return -EACCES;
-		/*FALLTHRU*/
-	case S_IFIFO:
-	case S_IFSOCK:
-		flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
-		break;
-	}
-
-	error = inode_permission(inode, acc_mode);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	/*
-	 * An append-only file must be opened in append mode for writing.
-	 */
-	if (IS_APPEND(inode)) {
-		if  ((flag & O_ACCMODE) != O_RDONLY && !(flag & O_APPEND))
-			return -EPERM;
-		if (flag & O_TRUNC)
-			return -EPERM;
-	}
-
-	/* O_NOATIME can only be set by the owner or superuser */
-	if (flag & O_NOATIME && !inode_owner_or_capable(inode))
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int handle_truncate(struct file *filp)
-{
-	struct path *path = &filp->f_path;
-	struct inode *inode = path->dentry->d_inode;
-	int error = get_write_access(inode);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-	/*
-	 * Refuse to truncate files with mandatory locks held on them.
-	 */
-	error = locks_verify_locked(inode);
-	if (!error)
-		error = security_path_truncate(path);
-	if (!error) {
-		error = do_truncate(path->dentry, 0,
-				    ATTR_MTIME|ATTR_CTIME|ATTR_OPEN,
-				    filp);
-	}
-	put_write_access(inode);
-	return error;
-}
-
-static inline int open_to_namei_flags(int flag)
-{
-	if ((flag & O_ACCMODE) == 3)
-		flag--;
-	return flag;
-}
-
-static int may_o_create(struct path *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode)
-{
-	int error = security_path_mknod(dir, dentry, mode, 0);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	error = inode_permission(dir->dentry->d_inode, MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	return security_inode_create(dir->dentry->d_inode, dentry, mode);
-}
-
-/*
- * Attempt to atomically look up, create and open a file from a negative
- * dentry.
- *
- * Returns 0 if successful.  The file will have been created and attached to
- * @file by the filesystem calling finish_open().
- *
- * Returns 1 if the file was looked up only or didn't need creating.  The
- * caller will need to perform the open themselves.  @path will have been
- * updated to point to the new dentry.  This may be negative.
- *
- * Returns an error code otherwise.
- */
-static int atomic_open(struct nameidata *nd, struct dentry *dentry,
-			struct path *path, struct file *file,
-			const struct open_flags *op,
-			bool got_write, bool need_lookup,
-			int *opened)
-{
-	struct inode *dir =  nd->path.dentry->d_inode;
-	unsigned open_flag = open_to_namei_flags(op->open_flag);
-	umode_t mode;
-	int error;
-	int acc_mode;
-	int create_error = 0;
-	struct dentry *const DENTRY_NOT_SET = (void *) -1UL;
-	bool excl;
-
-	BUG_ON(dentry->d_inode);
-
-	/* Don't create child dentry for a dead directory. */
-	if (unlikely(IS_DEADDIR(dir))) {
-		error = -ENOENT;
-		goto out;
-	}
-
-	mode = op->mode;
-	if ((open_flag & O_CREAT) && !IS_POSIXACL(dir))
-		mode &= ~current_umask();
-
-	excl = (open_flag & (O_EXCL | O_CREAT)) == (O_EXCL | O_CREAT);
-	if (excl)
-		open_flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
-
-	/*
-	 * Checking write permission is tricky, bacuse we don't know if we are
-	 * going to actually need it: O_CREAT opens should work as long as the
-	 * file exists.  But checking existence breaks atomicity.  The trick is
-	 * to check access and if not granted clear O_CREAT from the flags.
-	 *
-	 * Another problem is returing the "right" error value (e.g. for an
-	 * O_EXCL open we want to return EEXIST not EROFS).
-	 */
-	if (((open_flag & (O_CREAT | O_TRUNC)) ||
-	    (open_flag & O_ACCMODE) != O_RDONLY) && unlikely(!got_write)) {
-		if (!(open_flag & O_CREAT)) {
-			/*
-			 * No O_CREATE -> atomicity not a requirement -> fall
-			 * back to lookup + open
-			 */
-			goto no_open;
-		} else if (open_flag & (O_EXCL | O_TRUNC)) {
-			/* Fall back and fail with the right error */
-			create_error = -EROFS;
-			goto no_open;
-		} else {
-			/* No side effects, safe to clear O_CREAT */
-			create_error = -EROFS;
-			open_flag &= ~O_CREAT;
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (open_flag & O_CREAT) {
-		error = may_o_create(&nd->path, dentry, mode);
-		if (error) {
-			create_error = error;
-			if (open_flag & O_EXCL)
-				goto no_open;
-			open_flag &= ~O_CREAT;
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_DIRECTORY)
-		open_flag |= O_DIRECTORY;
-
-	file->f_path.dentry = DENTRY_NOT_SET;
-	file->f_path.mnt = nd->path.mnt;
-	error = dir->i_op->atomic_open(dir, dentry, file, open_flag, mode,
-				      opened);
-	if (error < 0) {
-		if (create_error && error == -ENOENT)
-			error = create_error;
-		goto out;
-	}
-
-	if (error) {	/* returned 1, that is */
-		if (WARN_ON(file->f_path.dentry == DENTRY_NOT_SET)) {
-			error = -EIO;
-			goto out;
-		}
-		if (file->f_path.dentry) {
-			dput(dentry);
-			dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
-		}
-		if (*opened & FILE_CREATED)
-			fsnotify_create(dir, dentry);
-		if (!dentry->d_inode) {
-			WARN_ON(*opened & FILE_CREATED);
-			if (create_error) {
-				error = create_error;
-				goto out;
-			}
-		} else {
-			if (excl && !(*opened & FILE_CREATED)) {
-				error = -EEXIST;
-				goto out;
-			}
-		}
-		goto looked_up;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * We didn't have the inode before the open, so check open permission
-	 * here.
-	 */
-	acc_mode = op->acc_mode;
-	if (*opened & FILE_CREATED) {
-		WARN_ON(!(open_flag & O_CREAT));
-		fsnotify_create(dir, dentry);
-		acc_mode = MAY_OPEN;
-	}
-	error = may_open(&file->f_path, acc_mode, open_flag);
-	if (error)
-		fput(file);
-
-out:
-	dput(dentry);
-	return error;
-
-no_open:
-	if (need_lookup) {
-		dentry = lookup_real(dir, dentry, nd->flags);
-		if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-			return PTR_ERR(dentry);
-
-		if (create_error) {
-			int open_flag = op->open_flag;
-
-			error = create_error;
-			if ((open_flag & O_EXCL)) {
-				if (!dentry->d_inode)
-					goto out;
-			} else if (!dentry->d_inode) {
-				goto out;
-			} else if ((open_flag & O_TRUNC) &&
-				   S_ISREG(dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
-				goto out;
-			}
-			/* will fail later, go on to get the right error */
-		}
-	}
-looked_up:
-	path->dentry = dentry;
-	path->mnt = nd->path.mnt;
-	return 1;
-}
-
-/*
- * Look up and maybe create and open the last component.
- *
- * Must be called with i_mutex held on parent.
- *
- * Returns 0 if the file was successfully atomically created (if necessary) and
- * opened.  In this case the file will be returned attached to @file.
- *
- * Returns 1 if the file was not completely opened at this time, though lookups
- * and creations will have been performed and the dentry returned in @path will
- * be positive upon return if O_CREAT was specified.  If O_CREAT wasn't
- * specified then a negative dentry may be returned.
- *
- * An error code is returned otherwise.
- *
- * FILE_CREATE will be set in @*opened if the dentry was created and will be
- * cleared otherwise prior to returning.
- */
-static int lookup_open(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path,
-			struct file *file,
-			const struct open_flags *op,
-			bool got_write, int *opened)
-{
-	struct dentry *dir = nd->path.dentry;
-	struct inode *dir_inode = dir->d_inode;
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	int error;
-	bool need_lookup;
-
-	*opened &= ~FILE_CREATED;
-	dentry = lookup_dcache(&nd->last, dir, nd->flags, &need_lookup);
-	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-		return PTR_ERR(dentry);
-
-	/* Cached positive dentry: will open in f_op->open */
-	if (!need_lookup && dentry->d_inode)
-		goto out_no_open;
-
-	if ((nd->flags & LOOKUP_OPEN) && dir_inode->i_op->atomic_open) {
-		return atomic_open(nd, dentry, path, file, op, got_write,
-				   need_lookup, opened);
-	}
-
-	if (need_lookup) {
-		BUG_ON(dentry->d_inode);
-
-		dentry = lookup_real(dir_inode, dentry, nd->flags);
-		if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-			return PTR_ERR(dentry);
-	}
-
-	/* Negative dentry, just create the file */
-	if (!dentry->d_inode && (op->open_flag & O_CREAT)) {
-		umode_t mode = op->mode;
-		if (!IS_POSIXACL(dir->d_inode))
-			mode &= ~current_umask();
-		/*
-		 * This write is needed to ensure that a
-		 * rw->ro transition does not occur between
-		 * the time when the file is created and when
-		 * a permanent write count is taken through
-		 * the 'struct file' in finish_open().
-		 */
-		if (!got_write) {
-			error = -EROFS;
-			goto out_dput;
-		}
-		*opened |= FILE_CREATED;
-		error = security_path_mknod(&nd->path, dentry, mode, 0);
-		if (error)
-			goto out_dput;
-		error = vfs_create(dir->d_inode, dentry, mode,
-				   nd->flags & LOOKUP_EXCL);
-		if (error)
-			goto out_dput;
-	}
-out_no_open:
-	path->dentry = dentry;
-	path->mnt = nd->path.mnt;
-	return 1;
-
-out_dput:
-	dput(dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-/*
- * Handle the last step of open()
- */
-static int do_last(struct nameidata *nd, struct path *path,
-		   struct file *file, const struct open_flags *op,
-		   int *opened, struct filename *name)
-{
-	struct dentry *dir = nd->path.dentry;
-	int open_flag = op->open_flag;
-	bool will_truncate = (open_flag & O_TRUNC) != 0;
-	bool got_write = false;
-	int acc_mode = op->acc_mode;
-	struct inode *inode;
-	bool symlink_ok = false;
-	struct path save_parent = { .dentry = NULL, .mnt = NULL };
-	bool retried = false;
-	int error;
-
-	nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-	nd->flags |= op->intent;
-
-	if (nd->last_type != LAST_NORM) {
-		error = handle_dots(nd, nd->last_type);
-		if (error)
-			return error;
-		goto finish_open;
-	}
-
-	if (!(open_flag & O_CREAT)) {
-		if (nd->last.name[nd->last.len])
-			nd->flags |= LOOKUP_FOLLOW | LOOKUP_DIRECTORY;
-		if (open_flag & O_PATH && !(nd->flags & LOOKUP_FOLLOW))
-			symlink_ok = true;
-		/* we _can_ be in RCU mode here */
-		error = lookup_fast(nd, path, &inode);
-		if (likely(!error))
-			goto finish_lookup;
-
-		if (error < 0)
-			goto out;
-
-		BUG_ON(nd->inode != dir->d_inode);
-	} else {
-		/* create side of things */
-		/*
-		 * This will *only* deal with leaving RCU mode - LOOKUP_JUMPED
-		 * has been cleared when we got to the last component we are
-		 * about to look up
-		 */
-		error = complete_walk(nd);
-		if (error)
-			return error;
-
-		audit_inode(name, dir, LOOKUP_PARENT);
-		error = -EISDIR;
-		/* trailing slashes? */
-		if (nd->last.name[nd->last.len])
-			goto out;
-	}
-
-retry_lookup:
-	if (op->open_flag & (O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_WRONLY | O_RDWR)) {
-		error = mnt_want_write(nd->path.mnt);
-		if (!error)
-			got_write = true;
-		/*
-		 * do _not_ fail yet - we might not need that or fail with
-		 * a different error; let lookup_open() decide; we'll be
-		 * dropping this one anyway.
-		 */
-	}
-	mutex_lock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	error = lookup_open(nd, path, file, op, got_write, opened);
-	mutex_unlock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
-
-	if (error <= 0) {
-		if (error)
-			goto out;
-
-		if ((*opened & FILE_CREATED) ||
-		    !S_ISREG(file_inode(file)->i_mode))
-			will_truncate = false;
-
-		audit_inode(name, file->f_path.dentry, 0);
-		goto opened;
-	}
-
-	if (*opened & FILE_CREATED) {
-		/* Don't check for write permission, don't truncate */
-		open_flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
-		will_truncate = false;
-		acc_mode = MAY_OPEN;
-		path_to_nameidata(path, nd);
-		goto finish_open_created;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * create/update audit record if it already exists.
-	 */
-	if (path->dentry->d_inode)
-		audit_inode(name, path->dentry, 0);
-
-	/*
-	 * If atomic_open() acquired write access it is dropped now due to
-	 * possible mount and symlink following (this might be optimized away if
-	 * necessary...)
-	 */
-	if (got_write) {
-		mnt_drop_write(nd->path.mnt);
-		got_write = false;
-	}
-
-	error = -EEXIST;
-	if ((open_flag & (O_EXCL | O_CREAT)) == (O_EXCL | O_CREAT))
-		goto exit_dput;
-
-	error = follow_managed(path, nd->flags);
-	if (error < 0)
-		goto exit_dput;
-
-	if (error)
-		nd->flags |= LOOKUP_JUMPED;
-
-	BUG_ON(nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU);
-	inode = path->dentry->d_inode;
-finish_lookup:
-	/* we _can_ be in RCU mode here */
-	error = -ENOENT;
-	if (!inode) {
-		path_to_nameidata(path, nd);
-		goto out;
-	}
-
-	if (should_follow_link(inode, !symlink_ok)) {
-		if (nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) {
-			if (unlikely(unlazy_walk(nd, path->dentry))) {
-				error = -ECHILD;
-				goto out;
-			}
-		}
-		BUG_ON(inode != path->dentry->d_inode);
-		return 1;
-	}
-
-	if ((nd->flags & LOOKUP_RCU) || nd->path.mnt != path->mnt) {
-		path_to_nameidata(path, nd);
-	} else {
-		save_parent.dentry = nd->path.dentry;
-		save_parent.mnt = mntget(path->mnt);
-		nd->path.dentry = path->dentry;
-
-	}
-	nd->inode = inode;
-	/* Why this, you ask?  _Now_ we might have grown LOOKUP_JUMPED... */
-finish_open:
-	error = complete_walk(nd);
-	if (error) {
-		path_put(&save_parent);
-		return error;
-	}
-	audit_inode(name, nd->path.dentry, 0);
-	error = -EISDIR;
-	if ((open_flag & O_CREAT) && S_ISDIR(nd->inode->i_mode))
-		goto out;
-	error = -ENOTDIR;
-	if ((nd->flags & LOOKUP_DIRECTORY) && !can_lookup(nd->inode))
-		goto out;
-	if (!S_ISREG(nd->inode->i_mode))
-		will_truncate = false;
-
-	if (will_truncate) {
-		error = mnt_want_write(nd->path.mnt);
-		if (error)
-			goto out;
-		got_write = true;
-	}
-finish_open_created:
-	error = may_open(&nd->path, acc_mode, open_flag);
-	if (error)
-		goto out;
-	file->f_path.mnt = nd->path.mnt;
-	error = finish_open(file, nd->path.dentry, NULL, opened);
-	if (error) {
-		if (error == -EOPENSTALE)
-			goto stale_open;
-		goto out;
-	}
-opened:
-	error = open_check_o_direct(file);
-	if (error)
-		goto exit_fput;
-	error = ima_file_check(file, op->acc_mode);
-	if (error)
-		goto exit_fput;
-
-	if (will_truncate) {
-		error = handle_truncate(file);
-		if (error)
-			goto exit_fput;
-	}
-out:
-	if (got_write)
-		mnt_drop_write(nd->path.mnt);
-	path_put(&save_parent);
-	terminate_walk(nd);
-	return error;
-
-exit_dput:
-	path_put_conditional(path, nd);
-	goto out;
-exit_fput:
-	fput(file);
-	goto out;
-
-stale_open:
-	/* If no saved parent or already retried then can't retry */
-	if (!save_parent.dentry || retried)
-		goto out;
-
-	BUG_ON(save_parent.dentry != dir);
-	path_put(&nd->path);
-	nd->path = save_parent;
-	nd->inode = dir->d_inode;
-	save_parent.mnt = NULL;
-	save_parent.dentry = NULL;
-	if (got_write) {
-		mnt_drop_write(nd->path.mnt);
-		got_write = false;
-	}
-	retried = true;
-	goto retry_lookup;
-}
-
-static int do_tmpfile(int dfd, struct filename *pathname,
-		struct nameidata *nd, int flags,
-		const struct open_flags *op,
-		struct file *file, int *opened)
-{
-	static const struct qstr name = QSTR_INIT("/", 1);
-	struct dentry *dentry, *child;
-	struct inode *dir;
-	int error = path_lookupat(dfd, pathname->name,
-				  flags | LOOKUP_DIRECTORY, nd);
-	if (unlikely(error))
-		return error;
-	error = mnt_want_write(nd->path.mnt);
-	if (unlikely(error))
-		goto out;
-	/* we want directory to be writable */
-	error = inode_permission(nd->inode, MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC);
-	if (error)
-		goto out2;
-	dentry = nd->path.dentry;
-	dir = dentry->d_inode;
-	if (!dir->i_op->tmpfile) {
-		error = -EOPNOTSUPP;
-		goto out2;
-	}
-	child = d_alloc(dentry, &name);
-	if (unlikely(!child)) {
-		error = -ENOMEM;
-		goto out2;
-	}
-	nd->flags &= ~LOOKUP_DIRECTORY;
-	nd->flags |= op->intent;
-	dput(nd->path.dentry);
-	nd->path.dentry = child;
-	error = dir->i_op->tmpfile(dir, nd->path.dentry, op->mode);
-	if (error)
-		goto out2;
-	audit_inode(pathname, nd->path.dentry, 0);
-	error = may_open(&nd->path, op->acc_mode, op->open_flag);
-	if (error)
-		goto out2;
-	file->f_path.mnt = nd->path.mnt;
-	error = finish_open(file, nd->path.dentry, NULL, opened);
-	if (error)
-		goto out2;
-	error = open_check_o_direct(file);
-	if (error) {
-		fput(file);
-	} else if (!(op->open_flag & O_EXCL)) {
-		struct inode *inode = file_inode(file);
-		spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
-		inode->i_state |= I_LINKABLE;
-		spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
-	}
-out2:
-	mnt_drop_write(nd->path.mnt);
-out:
-	path_put(&nd->path);
-	return error;
-}
-
-static struct file *path_openat(int dfd, struct filename *pathname,
-		struct nameidata *nd, const struct open_flags *op, int flags)
-{
-	struct file *base = NULL;
-	struct file *file;
-	struct path path;
-	int opened = 0;
-	int error;
-
-	file = get_empty_filp();
-	if (IS_ERR(file))
-		return file;
-
-	file->f_flags = op->open_flag;
-
-	if (unlikely(file->f_flags & __O_TMPFILE)) {
-		error = do_tmpfile(dfd, pathname, nd, flags, op, file, &opened);
-		goto out;
-	}
-
-	error = path_init(dfd, pathname->name, flags | LOOKUP_PARENT, nd, &base);
-	if (unlikely(error))
-		goto out;
-
-	current->total_link_count = 0;
-	error = link_path_walk(pathname->name, nd);
-	if (unlikely(error))
-		goto out;
-
-	error = do_last(nd, &path, file, op, &opened, pathname);
-	while (unlikely(error > 0)) { /* trailing symlink */
-		struct path link = path;
-		void *cookie;
-		if (!(nd->flags & LOOKUP_FOLLOW)) {
-			path_put_conditional(&path, nd);
-			path_put(&nd->path);
-			error = -ELOOP;
-			break;
-		}
-		error = may_follow_link(&link, nd);
-		if (unlikely(error))
-			break;
-		nd->flags |= LOOKUP_PARENT;
-		nd->flags &= ~(LOOKUP_OPEN|LOOKUP_CREATE|LOOKUP_EXCL);
-		error = follow_link(&link, nd, &cookie);
-		if (unlikely(error))
-			break;
-		error = do_last(nd, &path, file, op, &opened, pathname);
-		put_link(nd, &link, cookie);
-	}
-out:
-	if (nd->root.mnt && !(nd->flags & LOOKUP_ROOT))
-		path_put(&nd->root);
-	if (base)
-		fput(base);
-	if (!(opened & FILE_OPENED)) {
-		BUG_ON(!error);
-		put_filp(file);
-	}
-	if (unlikely(error)) {
-		if (error == -EOPENSTALE) {
-			if (flags & LOOKUP_RCU)
-				error = -ECHILD;
-			else
-				error = -ESTALE;
-		}
-		file = ERR_PTR(error);
-	}
-	return file;
-}
-
-struct file *do_filp_open(int dfd, struct filename *pathname,
-		const struct open_flags *op)
-{
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	int flags = op->lookup_flags;
-	struct file *filp;
-
-	filp = path_openat(dfd, pathname, &nd, op, flags | LOOKUP_RCU);
-	if (unlikely(filp == ERR_PTR(-ECHILD)))
-		filp = path_openat(dfd, pathname, &nd, op, flags);
-	if (unlikely(filp == ERR_PTR(-ESTALE)))
-		filp = path_openat(dfd, pathname, &nd, op, flags | LOOKUP_REVAL);
-	return filp;
-}
-
-struct file *do_file_open_root(struct dentry *dentry, struct vfsmount *mnt,
-		const char *name, const struct open_flags *op)
-{
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	struct file *file;
-	struct filename filename = { .name = name };
-	int flags = op->lookup_flags | LOOKUP_ROOT;
-
-	nd.root.mnt = mnt;
-	nd.root.dentry = dentry;
-
-	if (dentry->d_inode->i_op->follow_link && op->intent & LOOKUP_OPEN)
-		return ERR_PTR(-ELOOP);
-
-	file = path_openat(-1, &filename, &nd, op, flags | LOOKUP_RCU);
-	if (unlikely(file == ERR_PTR(-ECHILD)))
-		file = path_openat(-1, &filename, &nd, op, flags);
-	if (unlikely(file == ERR_PTR(-ESTALE)))
-		file = path_openat(-1, &filename, &nd, op, flags | LOOKUP_REVAL);
-	return file;
-}
-
-struct dentry *kern_path_create(int dfd, const char *pathname,
-				struct path *path, unsigned int lookup_flags)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry = ERR_PTR(-EEXIST);
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	int err2;
-	int error;
-	bool is_dir = (lookup_flags & LOOKUP_DIRECTORY);
-
-	/*
-	 * Note that only LOOKUP_REVAL and LOOKUP_DIRECTORY matter here. Any
-	 * other flags passed in are ignored!
-	 */
-	lookup_flags &= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-
-	error = do_path_lookup(dfd, pathname, LOOKUP_PARENT|lookup_flags, &nd);
-	if (error)
-		return ERR_PTR(error);
-
-	/*
-	 * Yucky last component or no last component at all?
-	 * (foo/., foo/.., /////)
-	 */
-	if (nd.last_type != LAST_NORM)
-		goto out;
-	nd.flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-	nd.flags |= LOOKUP_CREATE | LOOKUP_EXCL;
-
-	/* don't fail immediately if it's r/o, at least try to report other errors */
-	err2 = mnt_want_write(nd.path.mnt);
-	/*
-	 * Do the final lookup.
-	 */
-	mutex_lock_nested(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-	dentry = lookup_hash(&nd);
-	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-		goto unlock;
-
-	error = -EEXIST;
-	if (dentry->d_inode)
-		goto fail;
-	/*
-	 * Special case - lookup gave negative, but... we had foo/bar/
-	 * From the vfs_mknod() POV we just have a negative dentry -
-	 * all is fine. Let's be bastards - you had / on the end, you've
-	 * been asking for (non-existent) directory. -ENOENT for you.
-	 */
-	if (unlikely(!is_dir && nd.last.name[nd.last.len])) {
-		error = -ENOENT;
-		goto fail;
-	}
-	if (unlikely(err2)) {
-		error = err2;
-		goto fail;
-	}
-	*path = nd.path;
-	return dentry;
-fail:
-	dput(dentry);
-	dentry = ERR_PTR(error);
-unlock:
-	mutex_unlock(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	if (!err2)
-		mnt_drop_write(nd.path.mnt);
-out:
-	path_put(&nd.path);
-	return dentry;
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(kern_path_create);
-
-void done_path_create(struct path *path, struct dentry *dentry)
-{
-	dput(dentry);
-	mutex_unlock(&path->dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	mnt_drop_write(path->mnt);
-	path_put(path);
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(done_path_create);
-
-struct dentry *user_path_create(int dfd, const char __user *pathname,
-				struct path *path, unsigned int lookup_flags)
-{
-	struct filename *tmp = getname(pathname);
-	struct dentry *res;
-	if (IS_ERR(tmp))
-		return ERR_CAST(tmp);
-	res = kern_path_create(dfd, tmp->name, path, lookup_flags);
-	putname(tmp);
-	return res;
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(user_path_create);
-
-int vfs_mknod(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode, dev_t dev)
-{
-	int error = may_create(dir, dentry);
-
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if ((S_ISCHR(mode) || S_ISBLK(mode)) && !capable(CAP_MKNOD))
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	if (!dir->i_op->mknod)
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	error = devcgroup_inode_mknod(mode, dev);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	error = security_inode_mknod(dir, dentry, mode, dev);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	error = dir->i_op->mknod(dir, dentry, mode, dev);
-	if (!error)
-		fsnotify_create(dir, dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-static int may_mknod(umode_t mode)
-{
-	switch (mode & S_IFMT) {
-	case S_IFREG:
-	case S_IFCHR:
-	case S_IFBLK:
-	case S_IFIFO:
-	case S_IFSOCK:
-	case 0: /* zero mode translates to S_IFREG */
-		return 0;
-	case S_IFDIR:
-		return -EPERM;
-	default:
-		return -EINVAL;
-	}
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE4(mknodat, int, dfd, const char __user *, filename, umode_t, mode,
-		unsigned, dev)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	struct path path;
-	int error;
-	unsigned int lookup_flags = 0;
-
-	error = may_mknod(mode);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-retry:
-	dentry = user_path_create(dfd, filename, &path, lookup_flags);
-	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-		return PTR_ERR(dentry);
-
-	if (!IS_POSIXACL(path.dentry->d_inode))
-		mode &= ~current_umask();
-	error = security_path_mknod(&path, dentry, mode, dev);
-	if (error)
-		goto out;
-	switch (mode & S_IFMT) {
-		case 0: case S_IFREG:
-			error = vfs_create(path.dentry->d_inode,dentry,mode,true);
-			break;
-		case S_IFCHR: case S_IFBLK:
-			error = vfs_mknod(path.dentry->d_inode,dentry,mode,
-					new_decode_dev(dev));
-			break;
-		case S_IFIFO: case S_IFSOCK:
-			error = vfs_mknod(path.dentry->d_inode,dentry,mode,0);
-			break;
-	}
-out:
-	done_path_create(&path, dentry);
-	if (retry_estale(error, lookup_flags)) {
-		lookup_flags |= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-		goto retry;
-	}
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE3(mknod, const char __user *, filename, umode_t, mode, unsigned, dev)
-{
-	return sys_mknodat(AT_FDCWD, filename, mode, dev);
-}
-
-int vfs_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode)
-{
-	int error = may_create(dir, dentry);
-	unsigned max_links = dir->i_sb->s_max_links;
-
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (!dir->i_op->mkdir)
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	mode &= (S_IRWXUGO|S_ISVTX);
-	error = security_inode_mkdir(dir, dentry, mode);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (max_links && dir->i_nlink >= max_links)
-		return -EMLINK;
-
-	error = dir->i_op->mkdir(dir, dentry, mode);
-	if (!error)
-		fsnotify_mkdir(dir, dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE3(mkdirat, int, dfd, const char __user *, pathname, umode_t, mode)
-{
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	struct path path;
-	int error;
-	unsigned int lookup_flags = LOOKUP_DIRECTORY;
-
-retry:
-	dentry = user_path_create(dfd, pathname, &path, lookup_flags);
-	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-		return PTR_ERR(dentry);
-
-	if (!IS_POSIXACL(path.dentry->d_inode))
-		mode &= ~current_umask();
-	error = security_path_mkdir(&path, dentry, mode);
-	if (!error)
-		error = vfs_mkdir(path.dentry->d_inode, dentry, mode);
-	done_path_create(&path, dentry);
-	if (retry_estale(error, lookup_flags)) {
-		lookup_flags |= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-		goto retry;
-	}
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE2(mkdir, const char __user *, pathname, umode_t, mode)
-{
-	return sys_mkdirat(AT_FDCWD, pathname, mode);
-}
-
-/*
- * The dentry_unhash() helper will try to drop the dentry early: we
- * should have a usage count of 1 if we're the only user of this
- * dentry, and if that is true (possibly after pruning the dcache),
- * then we drop the dentry now.
- *
- * A low-level filesystem can, if it choses, legally
- * do a
- *
- *	if (!d_unhashed(dentry))
- *		return -EBUSY;
- *
- * if it cannot handle the case of removing a directory
- * that is still in use by something else..
- */
-void dentry_unhash(struct dentry *dentry)
-{
-	shrink_dcache_parent(dentry);
-	spin_lock(&dentry->d_lock);
-	if (dentry->d_lockref.count == 1)
-		__d_drop(dentry);
-	spin_unlock(&dentry->d_lock);
-}
-
-int vfs_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
-{
-	int error = may_delete(dir, dentry, 1);
-
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (!dir->i_op->rmdir)
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	dget(dentry);
-	mutex_lock(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-
-	error = -EBUSY;
-	if (d_mountpoint(dentry))
-		goto out;
-
-	error = security_inode_rmdir(dir, dentry);
-	if (error)
-		goto out;
-
-	shrink_dcache_parent(dentry);
-	error = dir->i_op->rmdir(dir, dentry);
-	if (error)
-		goto out;
-
-	dentry->d_inode->i_flags |= S_DEAD;
-	dont_mount(dentry);
-
-out:
-	mutex_unlock(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	dput(dentry);
-	if (!error)
-		d_delete(dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-static long do_rmdir(int dfd, const char __user *pathname)
-{
-	int error = 0;
-	struct filename *name;
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	unsigned int lookup_flags = 0;
-retry:
-	name = user_path_parent(dfd, pathname, &nd, lookup_flags);
-	if (IS_ERR(name))
-		return PTR_ERR(name);
-
-	switch(nd.last_type) {
-	case LAST_DOTDOT:
-		error = -ENOTEMPTY;
-		goto exit1;
-	case LAST_DOT:
-		error = -EINVAL;
-		goto exit1;
-	case LAST_ROOT:
-		error = -EBUSY;
-		goto exit1;
-	}
-
-	nd.flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-	error = mnt_want_write(nd.path.mnt);
-	if (error)
-		goto exit1;
-
-	mutex_lock_nested(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-	dentry = lookup_hash(&nd);
-	error = PTR_ERR(dentry);
-	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-		goto exit2;
-	if (!dentry->d_inode) {
-		error = -ENOENT;
-		goto exit3;
-	}
-	error = security_path_rmdir(&nd.path, dentry);
-	if (error)
-		goto exit3;
-	error = vfs_rmdir(nd.path.dentry->d_inode, dentry);
-exit3:
-	dput(dentry);
-exit2:
-	mutex_unlock(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	mnt_drop_write(nd.path.mnt);
-exit1:
-	path_put(&nd.path);
-	putname(name);
-	if (retry_estale(error, lookup_flags)) {
-		lookup_flags |= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-		goto retry;
-	}
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE1(rmdir, const char __user *, pathname)
-{
-	return do_rmdir(AT_FDCWD, pathname);
-}
-
-int vfs_unlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
-{
-	int error = may_delete(dir, dentry, 0);
-
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (!dir->i_op->unlink)
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	mutex_lock(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	if (d_mountpoint(dentry))
-		error = -EBUSY;
-	else {
-		error = security_inode_unlink(dir, dentry);
-		if (!error) {
-			error = dir->i_op->unlink(dir, dentry);
-			if (!error)
-				dont_mount(dentry);
-		}
-	}
-	mutex_unlock(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-
-	/* We don't d_delete() NFS sillyrenamed files--they still exist. */
-	if (!error && !(dentry->d_flags & DCACHE_NFSFS_RENAMED)) {
-		fsnotify_link_count(dentry->d_inode);
-		d_delete(dentry);
-	}
-
-	return error;
-}
-
-/*
- * Make sure that the actual truncation of the file will occur outside its
- * directory's i_mutex.  Truncate can take a long time if there is a lot of
- * writeout happening, and we don't want to prevent access to the directory
- * while waiting on the I/O.
- */
-static long do_unlinkat(int dfd, const char __user *pathname)
-{
-	int error;
-	struct filename *name;
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	struct inode *inode = NULL;
-	unsigned int lookup_flags = 0;
-retry:
-	name = user_path_parent(dfd, pathname, &nd, lookup_flags);
-	if (IS_ERR(name))
-		return PTR_ERR(name);
-
-	error = -EISDIR;
-	if (nd.last_type != LAST_NORM)
-		goto exit1;
-
-	nd.flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-	error = mnt_want_write(nd.path.mnt);
-	if (error)
-		goto exit1;
-
-	mutex_lock_nested(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex, I_MUTEX_PARENT);
-	dentry = lookup_hash(&nd);
-	error = PTR_ERR(dentry);
-	if (!IS_ERR(dentry)) {
-		/* Why not before? Because we want correct error value */
-		if (nd.last.name[nd.last.len])
-			goto slashes;
-		inode = dentry->d_inode;
-		if (!inode)
-			goto slashes;
-		ihold(inode);
-		error = security_path_unlink(&nd.path, dentry);
-		if (error)
-			goto exit2;
-		error = vfs_unlink(nd.path.dentry->d_inode, dentry);
-exit2:
-		dput(dentry);
-	}
-	mutex_unlock(&nd.path.dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
-	if (inode)
-		iput(inode);	/* truncate the inode here */
-	mnt_drop_write(nd.path.mnt);
-exit1:
-	path_put(&nd.path);
-	putname(name);
-	if (retry_estale(error, lookup_flags)) {
-		lookup_flags |= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-		inode = NULL;
-		goto retry;
-	}
-	return error;
-
-slashes:
-	error = !dentry->d_inode ? -ENOENT :
-		S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode) ? -EISDIR : -ENOTDIR;
-	goto exit2;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE3(unlinkat, int, dfd, const char __user *, pathname, int, flag)
-{
-	if ((flag & ~AT_REMOVEDIR) != 0)
-		return -EINVAL;
-
-	if (flag & AT_REMOVEDIR)
-		return do_rmdir(dfd, pathname);
-
-	return do_unlinkat(dfd, pathname);
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE1(unlink, const char __user *, pathname)
-{
-	return do_unlinkat(AT_FDCWD, pathname);
-}
-
-int vfs_symlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, const char *oldname)
-{
-	int error = may_create(dir, dentry);
-
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (!dir->i_op->symlink)
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	error = security_inode_symlink(dir, dentry, oldname);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	error = dir->i_op->symlink(dir, dentry, oldname);
-	if (!error)
-		fsnotify_create(dir, dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE3(symlinkat, const char __user *, oldname,
-		int, newdfd, const char __user *, newname)
-{
-	int error;
-	struct filename *from;
-	struct dentry *dentry;
-	struct path path;
-	unsigned int lookup_flags = 0;
-
-	from = getname(oldname);
-	if (IS_ERR(from))
-		return PTR_ERR(from);
-retry:
-	dentry = user_path_create(newdfd, newname, &path, lookup_flags);
-	error = PTR_ERR(dentry);
-	if (IS_ERR(dentry))
-		goto out_putname;
-
-	error = security_path_symlink(&path, dentry, from->name);
-	if (!error)
-		error = vfs_symlink(path.dentry->d_inode, dentry, from->name);
-	done_path_create(&path, dentry);
-	if (retry_estale(error, lookup_flags)) {
-		lookup_flags |= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-		goto retry;
-	}
-out_putname:
-	putname(from);
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE2(symlink, const char __user *, oldname, const char __user *, newname)
-{
-	return sys_symlinkat(oldname, AT_FDCWD, newname);
-}
-
-int vfs_link(struct dentry *old_dentry, struct inode *dir, struct dentry *new_dentry)
-{
-	struct inode *inode = old_dentry->d_inode;
-	unsigned max_links = dir->i_sb->s_max_links;
-	int error;
-
-	if (!inode)
-		return -ENOENT;
-
-	error = may_create(dir, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (dir->i_sb != inode->i_sb)
-		return -EXDEV;
-
-	/*
-	 * A link to an append-only or immutable file cannot be created.
-	 */
-	if (IS_APPEND(inode) || IS_IMMUTABLE(inode))
-		return -EPERM;
-	if (!dir->i_op->link)
-		return -EPERM;
-	if (S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	error = security_inode_link(old_dentry, dir, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
-	/* Make sure we don't allow creating hardlink to an unlinked file */
-	if (inode->i_nlink == 0 && !(inode->i_state & I_LINKABLE))
-		error =  -ENOENT;
-	else if (max_links && inode->i_nlink >= max_links)
-		error = -EMLINK;
-	else
-		error = dir->i_op->link(old_dentry, dir, new_dentry);
-
-	if (!error && (inode->i_state & I_LINKABLE)) {
-		spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
-		inode->i_state &= ~I_LINKABLE;
-		spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
-	}
-	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
-	if (!error)
-		fsnotify_link(dir, inode, new_dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-/*
- * Hardlinks are often used in delicate situations.  We avoid
- * security-related surprises by not following symlinks on the
- * newname.  --KAB
- *
- * We don't follow them on the oldname either to be compatible
- * with linux 2.0, and to avoid hard-linking to directories
- * and other special files.  --ADM
- */
-SYSCALL_DEFINE5(linkat, int, olddfd, const char __user *, oldname,
-		int, newdfd, const char __user *, newname, int, flags)
-{
-	struct dentry *new_dentry;
-	struct path old_path, new_path;
-	int how = 0;
-	int error;
-
-	if ((flags & ~(AT_SYMLINK_FOLLOW | AT_EMPTY_PATH)) != 0)
-		return -EINVAL;
-	/*
-	 * To use null names we require CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH
-	 * This ensures that not everyone will be able to create
-	 * handlink using the passed filedescriptor.
-	 */
-	if (flags & AT_EMPTY_PATH) {
-		if (!capable(CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH))
-			return -ENOENT;
-		how = LOOKUP_EMPTY;
-	}
-
-	if (flags & AT_SYMLINK_FOLLOW)
-		how |= LOOKUP_FOLLOW;
-retry:
-	error = user_path_at(olddfd, oldname, how, &old_path);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	new_dentry = user_path_create(newdfd, newname, &new_path,
-					(how & LOOKUP_REVAL));
-	error = PTR_ERR(new_dentry);
-	if (IS_ERR(new_dentry))
-		goto out;
-
-	error = -EXDEV;
-	if (old_path.mnt != new_path.mnt)
-		goto out_dput;
-	error = may_linkat(&old_path);
-	if (unlikely(error))
-		goto out_dput;
-	error = security_path_link(old_path.dentry, &new_path, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		goto out_dput;
-	error = vfs_link(old_path.dentry, new_path.dentry->d_inode, new_dentry);
-out_dput:
-	done_path_create(&new_path, new_dentry);
-	if (retry_estale(error, how)) {
-		how |= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-		goto retry;
-	}
-out:
-	path_put(&old_path);
-
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE2(link, const char __user *, oldname, const char __user *, newname)
-{
-	return sys_linkat(AT_FDCWD, oldname, AT_FDCWD, newname, 0);
-}
-
-/*
- * The worst of all namespace operations - renaming directory. "Perverted"
- * doesn't even start to describe it. Somebody in UCB had a heck of a trip...
- * Problems:
- *	a) we can get into loop creation. Check is done in is_subdir().
- *	b) race potential - two innocent renames can create a loop together.
- *	   That's where 4.4 screws up. Current fix: serialization on
- *	   sb->s_vfs_rename_mutex. We might be more accurate, but that's another
- *	   story.
- *	c) we have to lock _three_ objects - parents and victim (if it exists).
- *	   And that - after we got ->i_mutex on parents (until then we don't know
- *	   whether the target exists).  Solution: try to be smart with locking
- *	   order for inodes.  We rely on the fact that tree topology may change
- *	   only under ->s_vfs_rename_mutex _and_ that parent of the object we
- *	   move will be locked.  Thus we can rank directories by the tree
- *	   (ancestors first) and rank all non-directories after them.
- *	   That works since everybody except rename does "lock parent, lookup,
- *	   lock child" and rename is under ->s_vfs_rename_mutex.
- *	   HOWEVER, it relies on the assumption that any object with ->lookup()
- *	   has no more than 1 dentry.  If "hybrid" objects will ever appear,
- *	   we'd better make sure that there's no link(2) for them.
- *	d) conversion from fhandle to dentry may come in the wrong moment - when
- *	   we are removing the target. Solution: we will have to grab ->i_mutex
- *	   in the fhandle_to_dentry code. [FIXME - current nfsfh.c relies on
- *	   ->i_mutex on parents, which works but leads to some truly excessive
- *	   locking].
- */
-static int vfs_rename_dir(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
-			  struct inode *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry)
-{
-	int error = 0;
-	struct inode *target = new_dentry->d_inode;
-	unsigned max_links = new_dir->i_sb->s_max_links;
-
-	/*
-	 * If we are going to change the parent - check write permissions,
-	 * we'll need to flip '..'.
-	 */
-	if (new_dir != old_dir) {
-		error = inode_permission(old_dentry->d_inode, MAY_WRITE);
-		if (error)
-			return error;
-	}
-
-	error = security_inode_rename(old_dir, old_dentry, new_dir, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	dget(new_dentry);
-	if (target)
-		mutex_lock(&target->i_mutex);
-
-	error = -EBUSY;
-	if (d_mountpoint(old_dentry) || d_mountpoint(new_dentry))
-		goto out;
-
-	error = -EMLINK;
-	if (max_links && !target && new_dir != old_dir &&
-	    new_dir->i_nlink >= max_links)
-		goto out;
-
-	if (target)
-		shrink_dcache_parent(new_dentry);
-	error = old_dir->i_op->rename(old_dir, old_dentry, new_dir, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		goto out;
-
-	if (target) {
-		target->i_flags |= S_DEAD;
-		dont_mount(new_dentry);
-	}
-out:
-	if (target)
-		mutex_unlock(&target->i_mutex);
-	dput(new_dentry);
-	if (!error)
-		if (!(old_dir->i_sb->s_type->fs_flags & FS_RENAME_DOES_D_MOVE))
-			d_move(old_dentry,new_dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-static int vfs_rename_other(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
-			    struct inode *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry)
-{
-	struct inode *target = new_dentry->d_inode;
-	int error;
-
-	error = security_inode_rename(old_dir, old_dentry, new_dir, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	dget(new_dentry);
-	if (target)
-		mutex_lock(&target->i_mutex);
-
-	error = -EBUSY;
-	if (d_mountpoint(old_dentry)||d_mountpoint(new_dentry))
-		goto out;
-
-	error = old_dir->i_op->rename(old_dir, old_dentry, new_dir, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		goto out;
-
-	if (target)
-		dont_mount(new_dentry);
-	if (!(old_dir->i_sb->s_type->fs_flags & FS_RENAME_DOES_D_MOVE))
-		d_move(old_dentry, new_dentry);
-out:
-	if (target)
-		mutex_unlock(&target->i_mutex);
-	dput(new_dentry);
-	return error;
-}
-
-int vfs_rename(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
-	       struct inode *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry)
-{
-	int error;
-	int is_dir = S_ISDIR(old_dentry->d_inode->i_mode);
-	const unsigned char *old_name;
-
-	if (old_dentry->d_inode == new_dentry->d_inode)
- 		return 0;
- 
-	error = may_delete(old_dir, old_dentry, is_dir);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (!new_dentry->d_inode)
-		error = may_create(new_dir, new_dentry);
-	else
-		error = may_delete(new_dir, new_dentry, is_dir);
-	if (error)
-		return error;
-
-	if (!old_dir->i_op->rename)
-		return -EPERM;
-
-	old_name = fsnotify_oldname_init(old_dentry->d_name.name);
-
-	if (is_dir)
-		error = vfs_rename_dir(old_dir,old_dentry,new_dir,new_dentry);
-	else
-		error = vfs_rename_other(old_dir,old_dentry,new_dir,new_dentry);
-	if (!error)
-		fsnotify_move(old_dir, new_dir, old_name, is_dir,
-			      new_dentry->d_inode, old_dentry);
-	fsnotify_oldname_free(old_name);
-
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE4(renameat, int, olddfd, const char __user *, oldname,
-		int, newdfd, const char __user *, newname)
-{
-	struct dentry *old_dir, *new_dir;
-	struct dentry *old_dentry, *new_dentry;
-	struct dentry *trap;
-	struct nameidata oldnd, newnd;
-	struct filename *from;
-	struct filename *to;
-	unsigned int lookup_flags = 0;
-	bool should_retry = false;
-	int error;
-retry:
-	from = user_path_parent(olddfd, oldname, &oldnd, lookup_flags);
-	if (IS_ERR(from)) {
-		error = PTR_ERR(from);
-		goto exit;
-	}
-
-	to = user_path_parent(newdfd, newname, &newnd, lookup_flags);
-	if (IS_ERR(to)) {
-		error = PTR_ERR(to);
-		goto exit1;
-	}
-
-	error = -EXDEV;
-	if (oldnd.path.mnt != newnd.path.mnt)
-		goto exit2;
-
-	old_dir = oldnd.path.dentry;
-	error = -EBUSY;
-	if (oldnd.last_type != LAST_NORM)
-		goto exit2;
-
-	new_dir = newnd.path.dentry;
-	if (newnd.last_type != LAST_NORM)
-		goto exit2;
-
-	error = mnt_want_write(oldnd.path.mnt);
-	if (error)
-		goto exit2;
-
-	oldnd.flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-	newnd.flags &= ~LOOKUP_PARENT;
-	newnd.flags |= LOOKUP_RENAME_TARGET;
-
-	trap = lock_rename(new_dir, old_dir);
-
-	old_dentry = lookup_hash(&oldnd);
-	error = PTR_ERR(old_dentry);
-	if (IS_ERR(old_dentry))
-		goto exit3;
-	/* source must exist */
-	error = -ENOENT;
-	if (!old_dentry->d_inode)
-		goto exit4;
-	/* unless the source is a directory trailing slashes give -ENOTDIR */
-	if (!S_ISDIR(old_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
-		error = -ENOTDIR;
-		if (oldnd.last.name[oldnd.last.len])
-			goto exit4;
-		if (newnd.last.name[newnd.last.len])
-			goto exit4;
-	}
-	/* source should not be ancestor of target */
-	error = -EINVAL;
-	if (old_dentry == trap)
-		goto exit4;
-	new_dentry = lookup_hash(&newnd);
-	error = PTR_ERR(new_dentry);
-	if (IS_ERR(new_dentry))
-		goto exit4;
-	/* target should not be an ancestor of source */
-	error = -ENOTEMPTY;
-	if (new_dentry == trap)
-		goto exit5;
-
-	error = security_path_rename(&oldnd.path, old_dentry,
-				     &newnd.path, new_dentry);
-	if (error)
-		goto exit5;
-	error = vfs_rename(old_dir->d_inode, old_dentry,
-				   new_dir->d_inode, new_dentry);
-exit5:
-	dput(new_dentry);
-exit4:
-	dput(old_dentry);
-exit3:
-	unlock_rename(new_dir, old_dir);
-	mnt_drop_write(oldnd.path.mnt);
-exit2:
-	if (retry_estale(error, lookup_flags))
-		should_retry = true;
-	path_put(&newnd.path);
-	putname(to);
-exit1:
-	path_put(&oldnd.path);
-	putname(from);
-	if (should_retry) {
-		should_retry = false;
-		lookup_flags |= LOOKUP_REVAL;
-		goto retry;
-	}
-exit:
-	return error;
-}
-
-SYSCALL_DEFINE2(rename, const char __user *, oldname, const char __user *, newname)
-{
-	return sys_renameat(AT_FDCWD, oldname, AT_FDCWD, newname);
-}
-
-int vfs_readlink(struct dentry *dentry, char __user *buffer, int buflen, const char \
*link)
-{
-	int len;
-
-	len = PTR_ERR(link);
-	if (IS_ERR(link))
-		goto out;
-
-	len = strlen(link);
-	if (len > (unsigned) buflen)
-		len = buflen;
-	if (copy_to_user(buffer, link, len))
-		len = -EFAULT;
-out:
-	return len;
-}
-
-/*
- * A helper for ->readlink().  This should be used *ONLY* for symlinks that
- * have ->follow_link() touching nd only in nd_set_link().  Using (or not
- * using) it for any given inode is up to filesystem.
- */
-int generic_readlink(struct dentry *dentry, char __user *buffer, int buflen)
-{
-	struct nameidata nd;
-	void *cookie;
-	int res;
-
-	nd.depth = 0;
-	cookie = dentry->d_inode->i_op->follow_link(dentry, &nd);
-	if (IS_ERR(cookie))
-		return PTR_ERR(cookie);
-
-	res = vfs_readlink(dentry, buffer, buflen, nd_get_link(&nd));
-	if (dentry->d_inode->i_op->put_link)
-		dentry->d_inode->i_op->put_link(dentry, &nd, cookie);
-	return res;
-}
-
-/* get the link contents into pagecache */
-static char *page_getlink(struct dentry * dentry, struct page **ppage)
-{
-	char *kaddr;
-	struct page *page;
-	struct address_space *mapping = dentry->d_inode->i_mapping;
-	page = read_mapping_page(mapping, 0, NULL);
-	if (IS_ERR(page))
-		return (char*)page;
-	*ppage = page;
-	kaddr = kmap(page);
-	nd_terminate_link(kaddr, dentry->d_inode->i_size, PAGE_SIZE - 1);
-	return kaddr;
-}
-
-int page_readlink(struct dentry *dentry, char __user *buffer, int buflen)
-{
-	struct page *page = NULL;
-	char *s = page_getlink(dentry, &page);
-	int res = vfs_readlink(dentry,buffer,buflen,s);
-	if (page) {
-		kunmap(page);
-		page_cache_release(page);
-	}
-	return res;
-}
-
-void *page_follow_link_light(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd)
-{
-	struct page *page = NULL;
-	nd_set_link(nd, page_getlink(dentry, &page));
-	return page;
-}
-
-void page_put_link(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd, void *cookie)
-{
-	struct page *page = cookie;
-
-	if (page) {
-		kunmap(page);
-		page_cache_release(page);
-	}
-}
-
-/*
- * The nofs argument instructs pagecache_write_begin to pass AOP_FLAG_NOFS
- */
-int __page_symlink(struct inode *inode, const char *symname, int len, int nofs)
-{
-	struct address_space *mapping = inode->i_mapping;
-	struct page *page;
-	void *fsdata;
-	int err;
-	char *kaddr;
-	unsigned int flags = AOP_FLAG_UNINTERRUPTIBLE;
-	if (nofs)
-		flags |= AOP_FLAG_NOFS;
-
-retry:
-	err = pagecache_write_begin(NULL, mapping, 0, len-1,
-				flags, &page, &fsdata);
-	if (err)
-		goto fail;
-
-	kaddr = kmap_atomic(page);
-	memcpy(kaddr, symname, len-1);
-	kunmap_atomic(kaddr);
-
-	err = pagecache_write_end(NULL, mapping, 0, len-1, len-1,
-							page, fsdata);
-	if (err < 0)
-		goto fail;
-	if (err < len-1)
-		goto retry;
-
-	mark_inode_dirty(inode);
-	return 0;
-fail:
-	return err;
-}
-
-int page_symlink(struct inode *inode, const char *symname, int len)
-{
-	return __page_symlink(inode, symname, len,
-			!(mapping_gfp_mask(inode->i_mapping) & __GFP_FS));
-}
-
-const struct inode_operations page_symlink_inode_operations = {
-	.readlink	= generic_readlink,
-	.follow_link	= page_follow_link_light,
-	.put_link	= page_put_link,
-};
-
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(user_path_at);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(follow_down_one);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(follow_down);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(follow_up);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_write_access); /* nfsd */
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(lock_rename);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(lookup_one_len);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_follow_link_light);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_put_link);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_readlink);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(__page_symlink);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_symlink);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_symlink_inode_operations);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(kern_path);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_path_lookup);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(inode_permission);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(unlock_rename);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_create);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_link);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_mkdir);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_mknod);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_permission);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_readlink);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_rename);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_rmdir);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_symlink);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfs_unlink);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(dentry_unhash);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_readlink);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/namespace.c linux-3.12.6/fs/namespace.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/namespace.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/namespace.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -54,6 +54,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(fs_kobj);
  * tree or hash is modified or when a vfsmount structure is modified.
  */
 DEFINE_BRLOCK(vfsmount_lock);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(vfsmount_lock);
 
 static inline unsigned long hash(struct vfsmount *mnt, struct dentry *dentry)
 {
@@ -427,6 +428,7 @@ void __mnt_drop_write(struct vfsmount *m
 	mnt_dec_writers(real_mount(mnt));
 	preempt_enable();
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(__mnt_drop_write);
 
 /**
  * mnt_drop_write - give up write access to a mount
@@ -1480,6 +1482,7 @@ int iterate_mounts(int (*f)(struct vfsmo
 	}
 	return 0;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(iterate_mounts);
 
 static void cleanup_group_ids(struct mount *mnt, struct mount *end)
 {
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/notify/group.c linux-3.12.6/fs/notify/group.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/notify/group.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/notify/group.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@
 #include <linux/srcu.h>
 #include <linux/rculist.h>
 #include <linux/wait.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
 
 #include <linux/fsnotify_backend.h>
 #include "fsnotify.h"
@@ -65,6 +66,7 @@ void fsnotify_get_group(struct fsnotify_
 {
 	atomic_inc(&group->refcnt);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsnotify_get_group);
 
 /*
  * Drop a reference to a group.  Free it if it's through.
@@ -74,6 +76,7 @@ void fsnotify_put_group(struct fsnotify_
 	if (atomic_dec_and_test(&group->refcnt))
 		fsnotify_final_destroy_group(group);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsnotify_put_group);
 
 /*
  * Create a new fsnotify_group and hold a reference for the group returned.
@@ -102,6 +105,7 @@ struct fsnotify_group *fsnotify_alloc_gr
 
 	return group;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsnotify_alloc_group);
 
 int fsnotify_fasync(int fd, struct file *file, int on)
 {
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/notify/mark.c linux-3.12.6/fs/notify/mark.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/notify/mark.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/notify/mark.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -109,6 +109,7 @@ void fsnotify_put_mark(struct fsnotify_m
 		mark->free_mark(mark);
 	}
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsnotify_put_mark);
 
 /*
  * Any time a mark is getting freed we end up here.
@@ -191,6 +192,7 @@ void fsnotify_destroy_mark(struct fsnoti
 	fsnotify_destroy_mark_locked(mark, group);
 	mutex_unlock(&group->mark_mutex);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsnotify_destroy_mark);
 
 void fsnotify_set_mark_mask_locked(struct fsnotify_mark *mark, __u32 mask)
 {
@@ -275,6 +277,7 @@ err:
 
 	return ret;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsnotify_add_mark);
 
 int fsnotify_add_mark(struct fsnotify_mark *mark, struct fsnotify_group *group,
 		      struct inode *inode, struct vfsmount *mnt, int allow_dups)
@@ -336,6 +339,7 @@ void fsnotify_init_mark(struct fsnotify_
 	atomic_set(&mark->refcnt, 1);
 	mark->free_mark = free_mark;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsnotify_init_mark);
 
 static int fsnotify_mark_destroy(void *ignored)
 {
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/open.c linux-3.12.6/fs/open.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/open.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/open.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -61,6 +61,7 @@ int do_truncate(struct dentry *dentry, l
 	mutex_unlock(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
 	return ret;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(do_truncate);
 
 long vfs_truncate(struct path *path, loff_t length)
 {
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/proc/nommu.c linux-3.12.6/fs/proc/nommu.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/proc/nommu.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/proc/nommu.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -45,7 +45,9 @@ static int nommu_region_show(struct seq_
 	file = region->vm_file;
 
 	if (file) {
-		struct inode *inode = file_inode(region->vm_file);
+		struct inode *inode;
+		file = vmr_pr_or_file(region);
+		inode = file_inode(file);
 		dev = inode->i_sb->s_dev;
 		ino = inode->i_ino;
 	}
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/proc/task_mmu.c linux-3.12.6/fs/proc/task_mmu.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/proc/task_mmu.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/proc/task_mmu.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -272,7 +272,9 @@ show_map_vma(struct seq_file *m, struct
 	const char *name = NULL;
 
 	if (file) {
-		struct inode *inode = file_inode(vma->vm_file);
+		struct inode *inode;
+		file = vma_pr_or_file(vma);
+		inode = file_inode(file);
 		dev = inode->i_sb->s_dev;
 		ino = inode->i_ino;
 		pgoff = ((loff_t)vma->vm_pgoff) << PAGE_SHIFT;
@@ -1412,6 +1414,7 @@ static int show_numa_map(struct seq_file
 	seq_printf(m, "%08lx %s", vma->vm_start, buffer);
 
 	if (file) {
+		file = vma_pr_or_file(vma);
 		seq_printf(m, " file=");
 		seq_path(m, &file->f_path, "\n\t= ");
 	} else if (vma->vm_start <= mm->brk && vma->vm_end >= mm->start_brk) {
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/proc/task_nommu.c linux-3.12.6/fs/proc/task_nommu.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/proc/task_nommu.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/proc/task_nommu.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -149,7 +149,9 @@ static int nommu_vma_show(struct seq_fil
 	file = vma->vm_file;
 
 	if (file) {
-		struct inode *inode = file_inode(vma->vm_file);
+		struct inode *inode;
+		file = vma_pr_or_file(file);
+		inode = file_inode(file);
 		dev = inode->i_sb->s_dev;
 		ino = inode->i_ino;
 		pgoff = (loff_t)vma->vm_pgoff << PAGE_SHIFT;
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/splice.c linux-3.12.6/fs/splice.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/fs/splice.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/fs/splice.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -1093,8 +1093,8 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_splice_sendpage);
 /*
  * Attempt to initiate a splice from pipe to file.
  */
-static long do_splice_from(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, struct file *out,
-			   loff_t *ppos, size_t len, unsigned int flags)
+long do_splice_from(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, struct file *out,
+		    loff_t *ppos, size_t len, unsigned int flags)
 {
 	ssize_t (*splice_write)(struct pipe_inode_info *, struct file *,
 				loff_t *, size_t, unsigned int);
@@ -1106,13 +1106,14 @@ static long do_splice_from(struct pipe_i
 
 	return splice_write(pipe, out, ppos, len, flags);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(do_splice_from);
 
 /*
  * Attempt to initiate a splice from a file to a pipe.
  */
-static long do_splice_to(struct file *in, loff_t *ppos,
-			 struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, size_t len,
-			 unsigned int flags)
+long do_splice_to(struct file *in, loff_t *ppos,
+		  struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, size_t len,
+		  unsigned int flags)
 {
 	ssize_t (*splice_read)(struct file *, loff_t *,
 			       struct pipe_inode_info *, size_t, unsigned int);
@@ -1132,6 +1133,7 @@ static long do_splice_to(struct file *in
 
 	return splice_read(in, ppos, pipe, len, flags);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(do_splice_to);
 
 /**
  * splice_direct_to_actor - splices data directly between two non-pipes
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/fs.h linux-3.12.6/include/linux/fs.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/fs.h	2014-01-01 09:01:40.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/include/linux/fs.h	2014-01-01 22:02:58.000000000 -0200
@@ -1626,6 +1626,10 @@ struct super_operations {
 	int (*bdev_try_to_free_page)(struct super_block*, struct page*, gfp_t);
 	long (*nr_cached_objects)(struct super_block *, int);
 	long (*free_cached_objects)(struct super_block *, long, int);
+#if defined(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP) ||  defined(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP_MODULE)
+	/* and aufs */
+	struct file *(*real_loop)(struct file *);
+#endif
 };
 
 /*
@@ -2596,6 +2600,7 @@ extern int inode_change_ok(const struct
 extern int inode_newsize_ok(const struct inode *, loff_t offset);
 extern void setattr_copy(struct inode *inode, const struct iattr *attr);
 
+extern int update_time(struct inode *, struct timespec *, int);
 extern int file_update_time(struct file *file);
 
 extern int generic_show_options(struct seq_file *m, struct dentry *root);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/mm.h linux-3.12.6/include/linux/mm.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/mm.h	2014-01-01 09:01:40.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/include/linux/mm.h	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -17,6 +17,9 @@
 #include <linux/pfn.h>
 #include <linux/bit_spinlock.h>
 #include <linux/shrinker.h>
+#include <linux/dcache.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
 
 struct mempolicy;
 struct anon_vma;
@@ -1017,6 +1020,87 @@ static inline int fixup_user_fault(struc
 }
 #endif
 
+/*
+ * Mainly for aufs which mmap(2) diffrent file and wants to print different path
+ * in /proc/PID/maps.
+ */
+/* #define AUFS_DEBUG_MMAP */
+static inline void aufs_trace(struct file *f, struct file *pr,
+			      const char func[], int line, const char func2[])
+{
+#ifdef AUFS_DEBUG_MMAP
+	if (pr)
+		pr_info("%s:%d: %s, %p\n", func, line, func2,
+			f ? (char *)f->f_dentry->d_name.name : "(null)");
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline struct file *vmr_do_pr_or_file(struct vm_region *region,
+					     const char func[], int line)
+{
+	struct file *f = region->vm_file, *pr = region->vm_prfile;
+	aufs_trace(f, pr, func, line, __func__);
+	return (f && pr) ? pr : f;
+}
+
+static inline void vmr_do_fput(struct vm_region *region,
+			       const char func[], int line)
+{
+	struct file *f = region->vm_file, *pr = region->vm_prfile;
+	aufs_trace(f, pr, func, line, __func__);
+	fput(f);
+	if (f && pr)
+		fput(pr);
+}
+
+static inline void vma_do_file_update_time(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+					   const char func[], int line)
+{
+	struct file *f = vma->vm_file, *pr = vma->vm_prfile;
+	aufs_trace(f, pr, func, line, __func__);
+	file_update_time(f);
+	if (f && pr)
+		file_update_time(pr);
+}
+
+static inline struct file *vma_do_pr_or_file(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+					     const char func[], int line)
+{
+	struct file *f = vma->vm_file, *pr = vma->vm_prfile;
+	aufs_trace(f, pr, func, line, __func__);
+	return (f && pr) ? pr : f;
+}
+
+static inline void vma_do_get_file(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+				   const char func[], int line)
+{
+	struct file *f = vma->vm_file, *pr = vma->vm_prfile;
+	aufs_trace(f, pr, func, line, __func__);
+	get_file(f);
+	if (f && pr)
+		get_file(pr);
+}
+
+static inline void vma_do_fput(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+			       const char func[], int line)
+{
+	struct file *f = vma->vm_file, *pr = vma->vm_prfile;
+	aufs_trace(f, pr, func, line, __func__);
+	fput(f);
+	if (f && pr)
+		fput(pr);
+}
+
+#define vmr_pr_or_file(region)		vmr_do_pr_or_file(region, __func__, \
+							  __LINE__)
+#define vmr_fput(region)		vmr_do_fput(region, __func__, __LINE__)
+#define vma_file_update_time(vma)	vma_do_file_update_time(vma, __func__, \
+								__LINE__)
+#define vma_pr_or_file(vma)		vma_do_pr_or_file(vma, __func__, \
+							  __LINE__)
+#define vma_get_file(vma)		vma_do_get_file(vma, __func__, __LINE__)
+#define vma_fput(vma)			vma_do_fput(vma, __func__, __LINE__)
+
 extern int access_process_vm(struct task_struct *tsk, unsigned long addr, void *buf, \
int len, int write);
 extern int access_remote_vm(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr,
 		void *buf, int len, int write);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/mm_types.h linux-3.12.6/include/linux/mm_types.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/mm_types.h	2014-01-01 09:01:47.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/include/linux/mm_types.h	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -213,6 +213,7 @@ struct vm_region {
 	unsigned long	vm_top;		/* region allocated to here */
 	unsigned long	vm_pgoff;	/* the offset in vm_file corresponding to vm_start */
 	struct file	*vm_file;	/* the backing file or NULL */
+	struct file	*vm_prfile;	/* the virtual backing file or NULL */
 
 	int		vm_usage;	/* region usage count (access under nommu_region_sem) */
 	bool		vm_icache_flushed : 1; /* true if the icache has been flushed for
@@ -281,6 +282,7 @@ struct vm_area_struct {
 	unsigned long vm_pgoff;		/* Offset (within vm_file) in PAGE_SIZE
 					   units, *not* PAGE_CACHE_SIZE */
 	struct file * vm_file;		/* File we map to (can be NULL). */
+	struct file *vm_prfile;		/* shadow of vm_file */
 	void * vm_private_data;		/* was vm_pte (shared mem) */
 
 #ifndef CONFIG_MMU
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/splice.h linux-3.12.6/include/linux/splice.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/include/linux/splice.h	2014-01-01 09:01:40.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/include/linux/splice.h	2014-01-01 22:02:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -92,4 +92,10 @@ extern void splice_shrink_spd(struct spl
 extern void spd_release_page(struct splice_pipe_desc *, unsigned int);
 
 extern const struct pipe_buf_operations page_cache_pipe_buf_ops;
+
+extern long do_splice_from(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, struct file *out,
+			   loff_t *ppos, size_t len, unsigned int flags);
+extern long do_splice_to(struct file *in, loff_t *ppos,
+			 struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, size_t len,
+			 unsigned int flags);
 #endif
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/include/uapi/linux/aufs_type.h linux-3.12.6/include/uapi/linux/aufs_type.h
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/include/uapi/linux/aufs_type.h	1969-12-31 21:00:00.000000000 \
-0300
+++ linux-3.12.6/include/uapi/linux/aufs_type.h	2014-01-01 22:00:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -0,0 +1,281 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Junjiro R. Okajima
+ *
+ * This program, aufs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+#ifndef __AUFS_TYPE_H__
+#define __AUFS_TYPE_H__
+
+#define AUFS_NAME	"aufs"
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+/*
+ * define it before including all other headers.
+ * sched.h may use pr_* macros before defining "current", so define the
+ * no-current version first, and re-define later.
+ */
+#define pr_fmt(fmt)	AUFS_NAME " %s:%d: " fmt, __func__, __LINE__
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#undef pr_fmt
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) \
+		AUFS_NAME " %s:%d:%.*s[%d]: " fmt, __func__, __LINE__, \
+		(int)sizeof(current->comm), current->comm, current->pid
+#else
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+
+#include <linux/limits.h>
+
+#define AUFS_VERSION	"3.12-20131223"
+
+/* todo? move this to linux-2.6.19/include/magic.h */
+#define AUFS_SUPER_MAGIC	('a' << 24 | 'u' << 16 | 'f' << 8 | 's')
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_127
+typedef int8_t aufs_bindex_t;
+#define AUFS_BRANCH_MAX 127
+#else
+typedef int16_t aufs_bindex_t;
+#ifdef CONFIG_AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_511
+#define AUFS_BRANCH_MAX 511
+#elif defined(CONFIG_AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_1023)
+#define AUFS_BRANCH_MAX 1023
+#elif defined(CONFIG_AUFS_BRANCH_MAX_32767)
+#define AUFS_BRANCH_MAX 32767
+#endif
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+#ifndef AUFS_BRANCH_MAX
+#error unknown CONFIG_AUFS_BRANCH_MAX value
+#endif
+#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#define AUFS_FSTYPE		AUFS_NAME
+
+#define AUFS_ROOT_INO		2
+#define AUFS_FIRST_INO		11
+
+#define AUFS_WH_PFX		".wh."
+#define AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN		((int)sizeof(AUFS_WH_PFX) - 1)
+#define AUFS_WH_TMP_LEN		4
+/* a limit for rmdir/rename a dir and copyup */
+#define AUFS_MAX_NAMELEN	(NAME_MAX \
+				- AUFS_WH_PFX_LEN * 2	/* doubly whiteouted */\
+				- 1			/* dot */\
+				- AUFS_WH_TMP_LEN)	/* hex */
+#define AUFS_XINO_FNAME		"." AUFS_NAME ".xino"
+#define AUFS_XINO_DEFPATH	"/tmp/" AUFS_XINO_FNAME
+#define AUFS_XINO_DEF_SEC	30 /* seconds */
+#define AUFS_XINO_DEF_TRUNC	45 /* percentage */
+#define AUFS_DIRWH_DEF		3
+#define AUFS_RDCACHE_DEF	10 /* seconds */
+#define AUFS_RDCACHE_MAX	3600 /* seconds */
+#define AUFS_RDBLK_DEF		512 /* bytes */
+#define AUFS_RDHASH_DEF		32
+#define AUFS_WKQ_NAME		AUFS_NAME "d"
+#define AUFS_MFS_DEF_SEC	30 /* seconds */
+#define AUFS_MFS_MAX_SEC	3600 /* seconds */
+#define AUFS_PLINK_WARN		50 /* number of plinks in a single bucket */
+
+/* pseudo-link maintenace under /proc */
+#define AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_NAME	"plink_maint"
+#define AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_DIR	"fs/" AUFS_NAME
+#define AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_PATH	AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_DIR "/" AUFS_PLINK_MAINT_NAME
+
+#define AUFS_DIROPQ_NAME	AUFS_WH_PFX ".opq" /* whiteouted doubly */
+#define AUFS_WH_DIROPQ		AUFS_WH_PFX AUFS_DIROPQ_NAME
+
+#define AUFS_BASE_NAME		AUFS_WH_PFX AUFS_NAME
+#define AUFS_PLINKDIR_NAME	AUFS_WH_PFX "plnk"
+#define AUFS_ORPHDIR_NAME	AUFS_WH_PFX "orph"
+
+/* doubly whiteouted */
+#define AUFS_WH_BASE		AUFS_WH_PFX AUFS_BASE_NAME
+#define AUFS_WH_PLINKDIR	AUFS_WH_PFX AUFS_PLINKDIR_NAME
+#define AUFS_WH_ORPHDIR		AUFS_WH_PFX AUFS_ORPHDIR_NAME
+
+/* branch permissions and attributes */
+#define AUFS_BRPERM_RW		"rw"
+#define AUFS_BRPERM_RO		"ro"
+#define AUFS_BRPERM_RR		"rr"
+#define AUFS_BRRATTR_WH		"wh"
+#define AUFS_BRWATTR_NLWH	"nolwh"
+#define AUFS_BRATTR_UNPIN	"unpin"
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* ioctl */
+enum {
+	/* readdir in userspace */
+	AuCtl_RDU,
+	AuCtl_RDU_INO,
+
+	/* pathconf wrapper */
+	AuCtl_WBR_FD,
+
+	/* busy inode */
+	AuCtl_IBUSY,
+
+	/* move-down */
+	AuCtl_MVDOWN
+};
+
+/* borrowed from linux/include/linux/kernel.h */
+#ifndef ALIGN
+#define ALIGN(x, a)		__ALIGN_MASK(x, (typeof(x))(a)-1)
+#define __ALIGN_MASK(x, mask)	(((x)+(mask))&~(mask))
+#endif
+
+/* borrowed from linux/include/linux/compiler-gcc3.h */
+#ifndef __aligned
+#define __aligned(x)			__attribute__((aligned(x)))
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __KERNEL__
+#ifndef __packed
+#define __packed			__attribute__((packed))
+#endif
+#endif
+
+struct au_rdu_cookie {
+	uint64_t	h_pos;
+	int16_t		bindex;
+	uint8_t		flags;
+	uint8_t		pad;
+	uint32_t	generation;
+} __aligned(8);
+
+struct au_rdu_ent {
+	uint64_t	ino;
+	int16_t		bindex;
+	uint8_t		type;
+	uint8_t		nlen;
+	uint8_t		wh;
+	char		name[0];
+} __aligned(8);
+
+static inline int au_rdu_len(int nlen)
+{
+	/* include the terminating NULL */
+	return ALIGN(sizeof(struct au_rdu_ent) + nlen + 1,
+		     sizeof(uint64_t));
+}
+
+union au_rdu_ent_ul {
+	struct au_rdu_ent __user	*e;
+	uint64_t			ul;
+};
+
+enum {
+	AufsCtlRduV_SZ,
+	AufsCtlRduV_End
+};
+
+struct aufs_rdu {
+	/* input */
+	union {
+		uint64_t	sz;	/* AuCtl_RDU */
+		uint64_t	nent;	/* AuCtl_RDU_INO */
+	};
+	union au_rdu_ent_ul	ent;
+	uint16_t		verify[AufsCtlRduV_End];
+
+	/* input/output */
+	uint32_t		blk;
+
+	/* output */
+	union au_rdu_ent_ul	tail;
+	/* number of entries which were added in a single call */
+	uint64_t		rent;
+	uint8_t			full;
+	uint8_t			shwh;
+
+	struct au_rdu_cookie	cookie;
+} __aligned(8);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct aufs_wbr_fd {
+	uint32_t	oflags;
+	int16_t		brid;
+} __aligned(8);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+struct aufs_ibusy {
+	uint64_t	ino, h_ino;
+	int16_t		bindex;
+} __aligned(8);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+/* error code for move-down */
+/* the actual message strings are implemented in aufs-util.git */
+enum {
+	EAU_MVDOWN_OPAQUE = 1,
+	EAU_MVDOWN_WHITEOUT,
+	EAU_MVDOWN_UPPER,
+	EAU_MVDOWN_BOTTOM,
+	EAU_MVDOWN_NOUPPER,
+	EAU_MVDOWN_NOLOWERBR,
+	EAU_Last
+};
+
+/* flags for move-down */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_DMSG	1
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_OWLOWER	(1 << 1)	/* overwrite lower */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_KUPPER	(1 << 2)	/* keep upper */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_ROLOWER	(1 << 3)	/* do even if lower is RO */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_ROLOWER_R	(1 << 4)	/* did on lower RO */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_ROUPPER	(1 << 5)	/* do even if upper is RO */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_ROUPPER_R	(1 << 6)	/* did on upper RO */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_BRID_UPPER	(1 << 7)	/* upper brid */
+#define AUFS_MVDOWN_BRID_LOWER	(1 << 8)	/* lower brid */
+/* will be added more */
+
+enum {
+	AUFS_MVDOWN_UPPER,
+	AUFS_MVDOWN_LOWER,
+	AUFS_MVDOWN_NARRAY
+};
+
+struct aufs_mvdown {
+	uint32_t	flags;
+	struct {
+		int16_t		bindex;
+		int16_t		brid;
+	} a[AUFS_MVDOWN_NARRAY];
+	int8_t		au_errno;
+	/* will be added more */
+} __aligned(8);
+
+/* ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */
+
+#define AuCtlType		'A'
+#define AUFS_CTL_RDU		_IOWR(AuCtlType, AuCtl_RDU, struct aufs_rdu)
+#define AUFS_CTL_RDU_INO	_IOWR(AuCtlType, AuCtl_RDU_INO, struct aufs_rdu)
+#define AUFS_CTL_WBR_FD		_IOW(AuCtlType, AuCtl_WBR_FD, \
+				     struct aufs_wbr_fd)
+#define AUFS_CTL_IBUSY		_IOWR(AuCtlType, AuCtl_IBUSY, struct aufs_ibusy)
+#define AUFS_CTL_MVDOWN		_IOWR(AuCtlType, AuCtl_MVDOWN, \
+				      struct aufs_mvdown)
+
+#endif /* __AUFS_TYPE_H__ */
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/include/uapi/linux/Kbuild linux-3.12.6/include/uapi/linux/Kbuild
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/include/uapi/linux/Kbuild	2014-01-01 09:01:39.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/include/uapi/linux/Kbuild	2014-01-01 22:02:52.000000000 -0200
@@ -56,6 +56,7 @@ header-y += atmppp.h
 header-y += atmsap.h
 header-y += atmsvc.h
 header-y += audit.h
+header-y += aufs_type.h
 header-y += auto_fs.h
 header-y += auto_fs4.h
 header-y += auxvec.h
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/kernel/fork.c linux-3.12.6/kernel/fork.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/kernel/fork.c	2014-01-01 09:01:31.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/kernel/fork.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -412,7 +412,7 @@ static int dup_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm
 			struct inode *inode = file_inode(file);
 			struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;
 
-			get_file(file);
+			vma_get_file(tmp);
 			if (tmp->vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE)
 				atomic_dec(&inode->i_writecount);
 			mutex_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_mutex);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/filemap.c linux-3.12.6/mm/filemap.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/filemap.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/mm/filemap.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -1735,7 +1735,7 @@ int filemap_page_mkwrite(struct vm_area_
 	int ret = VM_FAULT_LOCKED;
 
 	sb_start_pagefault(inode->i_sb);
-	file_update_time(vma->vm_file);
+	vma_file_update_time(vma);
 	lock_page(page);
 	if (page->mapping != inode->i_mapping) {
 		unlock_page(page);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/fremap.c linux-3.12.6/mm/fremap.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/fremap.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/mm/fremap.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -207,11 +207,12 @@ get_write_lock:
 		 */
 		if (mapping_cap_account_dirty(mapping)) {
 			unsigned long addr;
-			struct file *file = get_file(vma->vm_file);
+			struct file *file = vma->vm_file;
 
+			vma_get_file(vma);
 			addr = mmap_region(file, start, size,
 					vma->vm_flags, pgoff);
-			fput(file);
+			vma_fput(vma);
 			if (IS_ERR_VALUE(addr)) {
 				err = addr;
 			} else {
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/madvise.c linux-3.12.6/mm/madvise.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/madvise.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/mm/madvise.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -327,12 +327,12 @@ static long madvise_remove(struct vm_are
 	 * vma's reference to the file) can go away as soon as we drop
 	 * mmap_sem.
 	 */
-	get_file(f);
+	vma_get_file(vma);
 	up_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
 	error = do_fallocate(f,
 				FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLE | FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE,
 				offset, end - start);
-	fput(f);
+	vma_fput(vma);
 	down_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
 	return error;
 }
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/memory.c linux-3.12.6/mm/memory.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/memory.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/mm/memory.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -2745,7 +2745,7 @@ reuse:
 			set_page_dirty_balance(dirty_page, page_mkwrite);
 			/* file_update_time outside page_lock */
 			if (vma->vm_file)
-				file_update_time(vma->vm_file);
+				vma_file_update_time(vma);
 		}
 		put_page(dirty_page);
 		if (page_mkwrite) {
@@ -3456,7 +3456,7 @@ static int __do_fault(struct mm_struct *
 
 		/* file_update_time outside page_lock */
 		if (vma->vm_file && !page_mkwrite)
-			file_update_time(vma->vm_file);
+			vma_file_update_time(vma);
 	} else {
 		unlock_page(vmf.page);
 		if (anon)
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/mmap.c linux-3.12.6/mm/mmap.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/mmap.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/mm/mmap.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -250,7 +250,7 @@ static struct vm_area_struct *remove_vma
 	if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->close)
 		vma->vm_ops->close(vma);
 	if (vma->vm_file)
-		fput(vma->vm_file);
+		vma_fput(vma);
 	mpol_put(vma_policy(vma));
 	kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, vma);
 	return next;
@@ -860,7 +860,7 @@ again:			remove_next = 1 + (end > next->
 	if (remove_next) {
 		if (file) {
 			uprobe_munmap(next, next->vm_start, next->vm_end);
-			fput(file);
+			vma_fput(vma);
 		}
 		if (next->anon_vma)
 			anon_vma_merge(vma, next);
@@ -1622,8 +1622,8 @@ out:
 unmap_and_free_vma:
 	if (vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE)
 		allow_write_access(file);
+	vma_fput(vma);
 	vma->vm_file = NULL;
-	fput(file);
 
 	/* Undo any partial mapping done by a device driver. */
 	unmap_region(mm, vma, prev, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end);
@@ -2412,7 +2412,7 @@ static int __split_vma(struct mm_struct
 		goto out_free_mpol;
 
 	if (new->vm_file)
-		get_file(new->vm_file);
+		vma_get_file(new);
 
 	if (new->vm_ops && new->vm_ops->open)
 		new->vm_ops->open(new);
@@ -2431,7 +2431,7 @@ static int __split_vma(struct mm_struct
 	if (new->vm_ops && new->vm_ops->close)
 		new->vm_ops->close(new);
 	if (new->vm_file)
-		fput(new->vm_file);
+		vma_fput(new);
 	unlink_anon_vmas(new);
  out_free_mpol:
 	mpol_put(vma_policy(new));
@@ -2828,7 +2828,7 @@ struct vm_area_struct *copy_vma(struct v
 			if (anon_vma_clone(new_vma, vma))
 				goto out_free_mempol;
 			if (new_vma->vm_file)
-				get_file(new_vma->vm_file);
+				vma_get_file(new_vma);
 			if (new_vma->vm_ops && new_vma->vm_ops->open)
 				new_vma->vm_ops->open(new_vma);
 			vma_link(mm, new_vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/msync.c linux-3.12.6/mm/msync.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/msync.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/mm/msync.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -80,10 +80,10 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE3(msync, unsigned long, st
 		start = vma->vm_end;
 		if ((flags & MS_SYNC) && file &&
 				(vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED)) {
-			get_file(file);
+			vma_get_file(vma);
 			up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 			error = vfs_fsync(file, 0);
-			fput(file);
+			vma_fput(vma);
 			if (error || start >= end)
 				goto out;
 			down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/nommu.c linux-3.12.6/mm/nommu.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/mm/nommu.c	2014-01-01 09:00:35.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/mm/nommu.c	2014-01-01 22:03:03.000000000 -0200
@@ -652,7 +652,7 @@ static void __put_nommu_region(struct vm
 		up_write(&nommu_region_sem);
 
 		if (region->vm_file)
-			fput(region->vm_file);
+			vmr_fput(region);
 
 		/* IO memory and memory shared directly out of the pagecache
 		 * from ramfs/tmpfs mustn't be released here */
@@ -810,7 +810,7 @@ static void delete_vma(struct mm_struct
 	if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->close)
 		vma->vm_ops->close(vma);
 	if (vma->vm_file)
-		fput(vma->vm_file);
+		vma_fput(vma);
 	put_nommu_region(vma->vm_region);
 	kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, vma);
 }
@@ -1376,7 +1376,7 @@ unsigned long do_mmap_pgoff(struct file
 					goto error_just_free;
 				}
 			}
-			fput(region->vm_file);
+			vmr_fput(region);
 			kmem_cache_free(vm_region_jar, region);
 			region = pregion;
 			result = start;
@@ -1452,10 +1452,10 @@ error_just_free:
 	up_write(&nommu_region_sem);
 error:
 	if (region->vm_file)
-		fput(region->vm_file);
+		vmr_fput(region);
 	kmem_cache_free(vm_region_jar, region);
 	if (vma->vm_file)
-		fput(vma->vm_file);
+		vma_fput(vma);
 	kmem_cache_free(vm_area_cachep, vma);
 	kleave(" = %d", ret);
 	return ret;
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/security/commoncap.c linux-3.12.6/security/commoncap.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/security/commoncap.c	2014-01-01 09:01:31.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/security/commoncap.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -988,9 +988,11 @@ int cap_mmap_addr(unsigned long addr)
 	}
 	return ret;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(cap_mmap_addr);
 
 int cap_mmap_file(struct file *file, unsigned long reqprot,
 		  unsigned long prot, unsigned long flags)
 {
 	return 0;
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(cap_mmap_file);
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/security/device_cgroup.c linux-3.12.6/security/device_cgroup.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/security/device_cgroup.c	2014-01-01 09:01:31.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/security/device_cgroup.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 #include <linux/device_cgroup.h>
 #include <linux/cgroup.h>
 #include <linux/ctype.h>
+#include <linux/export.h>
 #include <linux/list.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 #include <linux/seq_file.h>
@@ -756,6 +757,7 @@ int __devcgroup_inode_permission(struct
 	return __devcgroup_check_permission(type, imajor(inode), iminor(inode),
 			access);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__devcgroup_inode_permission);
 
 int devcgroup_inode_mknod(int mode, dev_t dev)
 {
diff -Nurp linux-3.12.6.orig/security/security.c linux-3.12.6/security/security.c
--- linux-3.12.6.orig/security/security.c	2014-01-01 09:01:31.000000000 -0200
+++ linux-3.12.6/security/security.c	2014-01-01 22:03:24.000000000 -0200
@@ -407,6 +407,7 @@ int security_path_rmdir(struct path *dir
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->path_rmdir(dir, dentry);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_path_rmdir);
 
 int security_path_unlink(struct path *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
 {
@@ -423,6 +424,7 @@ int security_path_symlink(struct path *d
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->path_symlink(dir, dentry, old_name);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_path_symlink);
 
 int security_path_link(struct dentry *old_dentry, struct path *new_dir,
 		       struct dentry *new_dentry)
@@ -431,6 +433,7 @@ int security_path_link(struct dentry *ol
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->path_link(old_dentry, new_dir, new_dentry);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_path_link);
 
 int security_path_rename(struct path *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
 			 struct path *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry)
@@ -449,6 +452,7 @@ int security_path_truncate(struct path *
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->path_truncate(path);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_path_truncate);
 
 int security_path_chmod(struct path *path, umode_t mode)
 {
@@ -456,6 +460,7 @@ int security_path_chmod(struct path *pat
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->path_chmod(path, mode);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_path_chmod);
 
 int security_path_chown(struct path *path, kuid_t uid, kgid_t gid)
 {
@@ -463,6 +468,7 @@ int security_path_chown(struct path *pat
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->path_chown(path, uid, gid);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_path_chown);
 
 int security_path_chroot(struct path *path)
 {
@@ -539,6 +545,7 @@ int security_inode_readlink(struct dentr
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->inode_readlink(dentry);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_inode_readlink);
 
 int security_inode_follow_link(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd)
 {
@@ -553,6 +560,7 @@ int security_inode_permission(struct ino
 		return 0;
 	return security_ops->inode_permission(inode, mask);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_inode_permission);
 
 int security_inode_setattr(struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr *attr)
 {
@@ -675,6 +683,7 @@ int security_file_permission(struct file
 
 	return fsnotify_perm(file, mask);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_file_permission);
 
 int security_file_alloc(struct file *file)
 {
@@ -735,6 +744,7 @@ int security_mmap_file(struct file *file
 		return ret;
 	return ima_file_mmap(file, prot);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(security_mmap_file);
 
 int security_mmap_addr(unsigned long addr)
 {
Linux 3.9.4-r2 2478  70048 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.25.4-r1 4051  133017 Hopp...
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Linux 2.6.24-r1 4051  146428 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.22.1-r1 4051  121391 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.20.7-r1 4051  117945 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.20.4-r3 4051  151150 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.20-r1 4051  106429 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.18.3-r2 4051  111124 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.17.11-r1 4051  164053 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.17.3-r1 4051  165067 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.16.20-r1 4051  133625 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.13.2-r1 4051  56611 Jona...
The Linux Kernel.
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The Linux Kernel.
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Linux 2.6.11.9-r1 4051  98969 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
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The Linux Kernel.
Linux 2.6.11-r1 4051  99032 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
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Linux 2.6.7-r1 4051  22610 Luca...
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Linux 2.4.26-r1 4051  22359 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.