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view entry at GitHub | download recipe.bz2 file
01-gobohide.patch
02-unionfs-2.6.22.1-u3.patch
03-squashfs-3.2-r2.patch
04-squashfs-2.6.22.1_fix.patch
05-uvesafb-0.1-rc3-2.6.22.patch
Recipe
Resources/BuildInformation
Resources/Dependencies
Resources/Description
Resources/NewDependencies
i686/Recipe
i686/dot-config
ppc/Recipe
ppc/dot-config
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX b/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX
index 5717858..2ef035e 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX
@@ -84,6 +84,8 @@ udf.txt
 	- info and mount options for the UDF filesystem.
 ufs.txt
 	- info on the ufs filesystem.
+unionfs/
+	- info on the unionfs filesystem
 vfat.txt
 	- info on using the VFAT filesystem used in Windows NT and Windows 95
 vfs.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/00-INDEX b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/00-INDEX
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..96fdf67
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/00-INDEX
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+00-INDEX
+	- this file.
+concepts.txt
+	- A brief introduction of concepts.
+issues.txt
+	- A summary of known issues with unionfs.
+rename.txt
+	- Information regarding rename operations.
+usage.txt
+	- Usage information and examples.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/concepts.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/concepts.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..eb74aac
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/concepts.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,181 @@
+Unionfs 2.0 CONCEPTS:
+=====================
+
+This file describes the concepts needed by a namespace unification file
+system.
+
+
+Branch Priority:
+================
+
+Each branch is assigned a unique priority - starting from 0 (highest
+priority).  No two branches can have the same priority.
+
+
+Branch Mode:
+============
+
+Each branch is assigned a mode - read-write or read-only. This allows
+directories on media mounted read-write to be used in a read-only manner.
+
+
+Whiteouts:
+==========
+
+A whiteout removes a file name from the namespace. Whiteouts are needed when
+one attempts to remove a file on a read-only branch.
+
+Suppose we have a two-branch union, where branch 0 is read-write and branch
+1 is read-only. And a file 'foo' on branch 1:
+
+./b0/
+./b1/
+./b1/foo
+
+The unified view would simply be:
+
+./union/
+./union/foo
+
+Since 'foo' is stored on a read-only branch, it cannot be removed. A
+whiteout is used to remove the name 'foo' from the unified namespace. Again,
+since branch 1 is read-only, the whiteout cannot be created there. So, we
+try on a higher priority (lower numerically) branch and create the whiteout
+there.
+
+./b0/
+./b0/.wh.foo
+./b1/
+./b1/foo
+
+Later, when Unionfs traverses branches (due to lookup or readdir), it
+eliminate 'foo' from the namespace (as well as the whiteout itself.)
+
+
+Duplicate Elimination:
+======================
+
+It is possible for files on different branches to have the same name.
+Unionfs then has to select which instance of the file to show to the user.
+Given the fact that each branch has a priority associated with it, the
+simplest solution is to take the instance from the highest priority
+(numerically lowest value) and "hide" the others.
+
+
+Copyup:
+=======
+
+When a change is made to the contents of a file's data or meta-data, they
+have to be stored somewhere. The best way is to create a copy of the
+original file on a branch that is writable, and then redirect the write
+though to this copy. The copy must be made on a higher priority branch so
+that lookup and readdir return this newer "version" of the file rather than
+the original (see duplicate elimination).
+
+
+Cache Coherency:
+================
+
+Unionfs users often want to be able to modify files and directories directly
+on the lower branches, and have those changes be visible at the Unionfs
+level.  This means that data (e.g., pages) and meta-data (dentries, inodes,
+open files, etc.) have to be synchronized between the upper and lower
+layers.  In other words, the newest changes from a layer below have to be
+propagated to the Unionfs layer above.  If the two layers are not in sync, a
+cache incoherency ensues, which could lead to application failures and even
+oopses.  The Linux kernel, however, has a rather limited set of mechanisms
+to ensure this inter-layer cache coherency---so Unionfs has to do most of
+the hard work on its own.
+
+Maintaining Invariants:
+
+The way Unionfs ensures cache coherency is as follows.  At each entry point
+to a Unionfs file system method, we call a utility function to validate the
+primary objects of this method.  Generally, we call unionfs_file_revalidate
+on open files, and __Unionfs_d_revalidate_chain on dentries (which also
+validates inodes).  These utility functions check to see whether the upper
+Unionfs object is in sync with any of the lower objects that it represents.
+The checks we perform include whether the Unionfs superblock has a newer
+generation number, or if any of the lower objects mtime's or ctime's are
+newer.  (Note: generation numbers change when branch-management commands are
+issued, so in a way, maintaining cache coherency is also very important for
+branch-management.)  If indeed we determine that any Unionfs object is no
+longer in sync with its lower counterparts, then we rebuild that object
+similarly to how we do so for branch-management.
+
+While rebuilding Unionfs's objects, we also purge any page mappings and
+truncate inode pages (see fs/Unionfs/dentry.c:purge_inode_data).  This is to
+ensure that Unionfs will re-get the newer data from the lower branches.  We
+perform this purging only if the Unionfs operation in question is a reading
+operation; if Unionfs is performing a data writing operation (e.g., ->write,
+->commit_write, etc.) then we do NOT flush the lower mappings/pages: this is
+because (1) a self-deadlock could occur and (2) the upper Unionfs pages are
+considered more authoritative anyway, as they are newer and will overwrite
+any lower pages.
+
+Unionfs maintains the following important invariant regarding mtime's,
+ctime's, and atime's: the upper inode object's times are the max() of all of
+the lower ones.  For non-directory objects, there's only one object below,
+so the mapping is simple; for directory objects, there could me multiple
+lower objects and we have to sync up with the newest one of all the lower
+ones.  This invariant is important to maintain, especially for directories
+(besides, we need this to be POSIX compliant).  A union could comprise
+multiple writable branches, each of which could change.  If we don't reflect
+the newest possible mtime/ctime, some applications could fail.  For example,
+NFSv2/v3 exports check for newer directory mtimes on the server to determine
+if the client-side attribute cache should be purged.
+
+To maintain these important invariants, of course, Unionfs carefully
+synchronizes upper and lower times in various places.  For example, if we
+copy-up a file to a top-level branch, the parent directory where the file
+was copied up to will now have a new mtime: so after a successful copy-up,
+we sync up with the new top-level branch's parent directory mtime.
+
+Implementation:
+
+This cache-coherency implementation is efficient because it defers any
+synchronizing between the upper and lower layers until absolutely needed.
+Consider the example a common situation where users perform a lot of lower
+changes, such as untarring a whole package.  While these take place,
+typically the user doesn't access the files via Unionfs; only after the
+lower changes are done, does the user try to access the lower files.  With
+our cache-coherency implementation, the entirety of the changes to the lower
+branches will not result in a single CPU cycle spent at the Unionfs level
+until the user invokes a system call that goes through Unionfs.
+
+We have considered two alternate cache-coherency designs.  (1) Using the
+dentry/inode notify functionality to register interest in finding out about
+any lower changes.  This is a somewhat limited and also a heavy-handed
+approach which could result in many notifications to the Unionfs layer upon
+each small change at the lower layer (imagine a file being modified multiple
+times in rapid succession).  (2) Rewriting the VFS to support explicit
+callbacks from lower objects to upper objects.  We began exploring such an
+implementation, but found it to be very complicated--it would have resulted
+in massive VFS/MM changes which are unlikely to be accepted by the LKML
+community.  We therefore believe that our current cache-coherency design and
+implementation represent the best approach at this time.
+
+Limitations:
+
+Our implementation works in that as long as a user process will have caused
+Unionfs to be called, directly or indirectly, even to just do
+->d_revalidate; then we will have purged the current Unionfs data and the
+process will see the new data.  For example, a process that continually
+re-reads the same file's data will see the NEW data as soon as the lower
+file had changed, upon the next read(2) syscall (even if the file is still
+open!)  However, this doesn't work when the process re-reads the open file's
+data via mmap(2) (unless the user unmaps/closes the file and remaps/reopens
+it).  Once we respond to ->readpage(s), then the kernel maps the page into
+the process's address space and there doesn't appear to be a way to force
+the kernel to invalidate those pages/mappings, and force the process to
+re-issue ->readpage.  If there's a way to invalidate active mappings and
+force a ->readpage, let us know please (invalidate_inode_pages2 doesn't do
+the trick).
+
+Our current Unionfs code has to perform many file-revalidation calls.  It
+would be really nice if the VFS would export an optional file system hook
+->file_revalidate (similarly to dentry->d_revalidate) that will be called
+before each VFS op that has a "struct file" in it.
+
+
+For more information, see <http://unionfs.filesystems.org/>.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/issues.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/issues.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3644fea
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/issues.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+KNOWN Unionfs 2.0 ISSUES:
+=========================
+
+1. The NFS server returns -EACCES for read-only exports, instead of -EROFS.
+   This means we can't reliably detect a read-only NFS export.
+
+2. Unionfs should not use lookup_one_len() on the underlying f/s as it
+   confuses NFSv4.  Currently, unionfs_lookup() passes lookup intents to the
+   lower file-system, this eliminates part of the problem.  The remaining
+   calls to lookup_one_len may need to be changed to pass an intent.  We are
+   currently introducing VFS changes to fs/namei.c's do_path_lookup() to
+   allow proper file lookup and opening in stackable file systems.
+
+
+For more information, see <http://unionfs.filesystems.org/>.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/rename.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/rename.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e20bb82
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/rename.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+Rename is a complex beast. The following table shows which rename(2) operations
+should succeed and which should fail.
+
+o: success
+E: error (either unionfs or vfs)
+X: EXDEV
+
+none = file does not exist
+file = file is a file
+dir  = file is a empty directory
+child= file is a non-empty directory
+wh   = file is a directory containing only whiteouts; this makes it logically
+		empty
+
+                      none    file    dir     child   wh
+file                  o       o       E       E       E
+dir                   o       E       o       E       o
+child                 X       E       X       E       X
+wh                    o       E       o       E       o
+
+
+Renaming directories:
+=====================
+
+Whenever a empty (either physically or logically) directory is being renamed,
+the following sequence of events should take place:
+
+1) Remove whiteouts from both source and destination directory
+2) Rename source to destination
+3) Make destination opaque to prevent anything under it from showing up
+
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/usage.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/usage.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c035243
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/usage.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,97 @@
+Unionfs is a stackable unification file system, which can appear to merge
+the contents of several directories (branches), while keeping their physical
+content separate.  Unionfs is useful for unified source tree management,
+merged contents of split CD-ROM, merged separate software package
+directories, data grids, and more.  Unionfs allows any mix of read-only and
+read-write branches, as well as insertion and deletion of branches anywhere
+in the fan-out.  To maintain Unix semantics, Unionfs handles elimination of
+duplicates, partial-error conditions, and more.
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o branch-option[,union-options[,...]] none MOUNTPOINT
+
+The available branch-option for the mount command is:
+
+	dirs=branch[=ro|=rw][:...]
+
+specifies a separated list of which directories compose the union.
+Directories that come earlier in the list have a higher precedence than
+those which come later. Additionally, read-only or read-write permissions of
+the branch can be specified by appending =ro or =rw (default) to each
+directory.
+
+Syntax:
+
+	dirs=/branch1[=ro|=rw]:/branch2[=ro|=rw]:...:/branchN[=ro|=rw]
+
+Example:
+
+	dirs=/writable_branch=rw:/read-only_branch=ro
+
+
+DYNAMIC BRANCH MANAGEMENT AND REMOUNTS
+======================================
+
+You can remount a union and change its overall mode, or reconfigure the
+branches, as follows.
+
+To downgrade a union from read-write to read-only:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,ro none MOUNTPOINT
+
+To upgrade a union from read-only to read-write:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,rw none MOUNTPOINT
+
+To delete a branch /foo, regardless where it is in the current union:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,del=/foo none MOUNTPOINT
+
+To insert (add) a branch /foo before /bar:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,add=/bar:/foo none MOUNTPOINT
+
+To insert (add) a branch /foo (with the "rw" mode flag) before /bar:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,add=/bar:/foo=rw none MOUNTPOINT
+
+To insert (add) a branch /foo (in "rw" mode) at the very beginning (i.e., a
+new highest-priority branch), you can use the above syntax, or use a short
+hand version as follows:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,add=/foo none MOUNTPOINT
+
+To append a branch to the very end (new lowest-priority branch):
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,add=:/foo none MOUNTPOINT
+
+To append a branch to the very end (new lowest-priority branch), in
+read-only mode:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,add=:/foo:ro none MOUNTPOINT
+
+Finally, to change the mode of one existing branch, say /foo, from read-only
+to read-write, and change /bar from read-write to read-only:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,mode=/foo=rw,mode=/bar=ro none MOUNTPOINT
+
+
+CACHE CONSISTENCY
+=================
+
+If you modify any file on any of the lower branches directly, while there is
+a Unionfs 2.0 mounted above any of those branches, you should tell Unionfs
+to purge its caches and re-get the objects.  To do that, you have to
+increment the generation number of the superblock using the following
+command:
+
+# mount -t unionfs -o remount,incgen none MOUNTPOINT
+
+Note that the older way of incrementing the generation number using an
+ioctl, is no longer supported in Unionfs 2.0.  Ioctls in general are not
+encouraged.  Plus, an ioctl is per-file concept, whereas the generation
+number is a per-file-system concept.  Worse, such an ioctl requires an open
+file, which then has to be invalidated by the very nature of the generation
+number increase (read: the old generation increase ioctl was pretty racy).
+
+
+For more information, see <http://unionfs.filesystems.org/>.
diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
index df40a4e..161652b 100644
--- a/MAINTAINERS
+++ b/MAINTAINERS
@@ -3593,6 +3593,15 @@ L:	linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
 W:	http://www.kernel.dk
 S:	Maintained
 
+UNIONFS
+P:	Erez Zadok
+M:	ezk@cs.sunysb.edu
+P:	Josef "Jeff" Sipek
+M:	jsipek@cs.sunysb.edu
+L:	unionfs@filesystems.org
+W:	http://unionfs.filesystems.org
+S:	Maintained
+
 USB ACM DRIVER
 P:	Oliver Neukum
 M:	oliver@neukum.name
diff --git a/drivers/mtd/mtdsuper.c b/drivers/mtd/mtdsuper.c
index aca3319..e28f0fa 100644
--- a/drivers/mtd/mtdsuper.c
+++ b/drivers/mtd/mtdsuper.c
@@ -230,3 +230,5 @@ void kill_mtd_super(struct super_block *sb)
 }
 
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kill_mtd_super);
+
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
diff --git a/fs/Kconfig b/fs/Kconfig
index 0fa0c11..674cfa9 100644
--- a/fs/Kconfig
+++ b/fs/Kconfig
@@ -1030,6 +1030,41 @@ config CONFIGFS_FS
 
 endmenu
 
+menu "Layered filesystems"
+
+config ECRYPT_FS
+	tristate "eCrypt filesystem layer support (EXPERIMENTAL)"
+	depends on EXPERIMENTAL && KEYS && CRYPTO && NET
+	help
+	  Encrypted filesystem that operates on the VFS layer.  See
+	  <file:Documentation/ecryptfs.txt> to learn more about
+	  eCryptfs.  Userspace components are required and can be
+	  obtained from <http://ecryptfs.sf.net>.
+
+	  To compile this file system support as a module, choose M here: the
+	  module will be called ecryptfs.
+
+config UNION_FS
+	tristate "Union file system (EXPERIMENTAL)"
+	depends on EXPERIMENTAL
+	help
+	  Unionfs is a stackable unification file system, which appears to
+	  merge the contents of several directories (branches), while keeping
+	  their physical content separate.
+
+	  See <http://unionfs.filesystems.org> for details
+
+config UNION_FS_XATTR
+	bool "Unionfs extended attributes"
+	depends on UNION_FS
+	help
+	  Extended attributes are name:value pairs associated with inodes by
+	  the kernel or by users (see the attr(5) manual page).
+
+	  If unsure, say N.
+
+endmenu
+
 menu "Miscellaneous filesystems"
 
 config ADFS_FS
@@ -1082,18 +1117,6 @@ config AFFS_FS
 	  To compile this file system support as a module, choose M here: the
 	  module will be called affs.  If unsure, say N.
 
-config ECRYPT_FS
-	tristate "eCrypt filesystem layer support (EXPERIMENTAL)"
-	depends on EXPERIMENTAL && KEYS && CRYPTO && NET
-	help
-	  Encrypted filesystem that operates on the VFS layer.  See
-	  <file:Documentation/ecryptfs.txt> to learn more about
-	  eCryptfs.  Userspace components are required and can be
-	  obtained from <http://ecryptfs.sf.net>.
-
-	  To compile this file system support as a module, choose M here: the
-	  module will be called ecryptfs.
-
 config HFS_FS
 	tristate "Apple Macintosh file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)"
 	depends on BLOCK && EXPERIMENTAL
diff --git a/fs/Makefile b/fs/Makefile
index 720c29d..951f411 100644
--- a/fs/Makefile
+++ b/fs/Makefile
@@ -118,3 +118,4 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_HPPFS)		+= hppfs/
 obj-$(CONFIG_DEBUG_FS)		+= debugfs/
 obj-$(CONFIG_OCFS2_FS)		+= ocfs2/
 obj-$(CONFIG_GFS2_FS)           += gfs2/
+obj-$(CONFIG_UNION_FS)		+= unionfs/
diff --git a/fs/drop_caches.c b/fs/drop_caches.c
index 03ea769..6a7aa05 100644
--- a/fs/drop_caches.c
+++ b/fs/drop_caches.c
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
  */
 
 #include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
 #include <linux/mm.h>
 #include <linux/fs.h>
 #include <linux/writeback.h>
@@ -12,7 +13,7 @@
 /* A global variable is a bit ugly, but it keeps the code simple */
 int sysctl_drop_caches;
 
-static void drop_pagecache_sb(struct super_block *sb)
+void drop_pagecache_sb(struct super_block *sb)
 {
 	struct inode *inode;
 
@@ -24,6 +25,7 @@ static void drop_pagecache_sb(struct super_block *sb)
 	}
 	spin_unlock(&inode_lock);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(drop_pagecache_sb);
 
 void drop_pagecache(void)
 {
diff --git a/fs/ecryptfs/dentry.c b/fs/ecryptfs/dentry.c
index cb20b96..a8c1686 100644
--- a/fs/ecryptfs/dentry.c
+++ b/fs/ecryptfs/dentry.c
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ static int ecryptfs_d_revalidate(struct dentry *dentry, struct \
nameidata *nd)
 		struct inode *lower_inode =
 			ecryptfs_inode_to_lower(dentry->d_inode);
 
-		fsstack_copy_attr_all(dentry->d_inode, lower_inode, NULL);
+		fsstack_copy_attr_all(dentry->d_inode, lower_inode);
 	}
 out:
 	return rc;
diff --git a/fs/ecryptfs/inode.c b/fs/ecryptfs/inode.c
index 83e94fe..3949e5f 100644
--- a/fs/ecryptfs/inode.c
+++ b/fs/ecryptfs/inode.c
@@ -280,7 +280,9 @@ static struct dentry *ecryptfs_lookup(struct inode *dir, struct \
dentry *dentry,
 	int rc = 0;
 	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry;
 	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *dentry_save;
 	struct vfsmount *lower_mnt;
+	struct vfsmount *mnt_save;
 	char *encoded_name;
 	unsigned int encoded_namelen;
 	struct ecryptfs_crypt_stat *crypt_stat = NULL;
@@ -308,9 +310,13 @@ static struct dentry *ecryptfs_lookup(struct inode *dir, struct \
dentry *dentry,
 	}
 	ecryptfs_printk(KERN_DEBUG, "encoded_name = [%s]; encoded_namelen "
 			"= [%d]\n", encoded_name, encoded_namelen);
-	lower_dentry = lookup_one_len(encoded_name, lower_dir_dentry,
-				      encoded_namelen - 1);
+	dentry_save = nd->dentry;
+	mnt_save = nd->mnt;
+	lower_dentry = lookup_one_len_nd(encoded_name, lower_dir_dentry,
+					 (encoded_namelen - 1), nd);
 	kfree(encoded_name);
+	nd->mnt = mnt_save;
+	nd->dentry = dentry_save;
 	if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
 		ecryptfs_printk(KERN_ERR, "ERR from lower_dentry\n");
 		rc = PTR_ERR(lower_dentry);
@@ -597,9 +603,9 @@ ecryptfs_rename(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
 			lower_new_dir_dentry->d_inode, lower_new_dentry);
 	if (rc)
 		goto out_lock;
-	fsstack_copy_attr_all(new_dir, lower_new_dir_dentry->d_inode, NULL);
+	fsstack_copy_attr_all(new_dir, lower_new_dir_dentry->d_inode);
 	if (new_dir != old_dir)
-		fsstack_copy_attr_all(old_dir, lower_old_dir_dentry->d_inode, NULL);
+		fsstack_copy_attr_all(old_dir, lower_old_dir_dentry->d_inode);
 out_lock:
 	unlock_rename(lower_old_dir_dentry, lower_new_dir_dentry);
 	dput(lower_new_dentry->d_parent);
@@ -956,7 +962,7 @@ static int ecryptfs_setattr(struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr \
*ia)
 	}
 	rc = notify_change(lower_dentry, ia);
 out:
-	fsstack_copy_attr_all(inode, lower_inode, NULL);
+	fsstack_copy_attr_all(inode, lower_inode);
 	return rc;
 }
 
diff --git a/fs/ecryptfs/main.c b/fs/ecryptfs/main.c
index 606128f..5f99404 100644
--- a/fs/ecryptfs/main.c
+++ b/fs/ecryptfs/main.c
@@ -151,7 +151,7 @@ int ecryptfs_interpose(struct dentry *lower_dentry, struct dentry \
*dentry,
 		d_add(dentry, inode);
 	else
 		d_instantiate(dentry, inode);
-	fsstack_copy_attr_all(inode, lower_inode, NULL);
+	fsstack_copy_attr_all(inode, lower_inode);
 	/* This size will be overwritten for real files w/ headers and
 	 * other metadata */
 	fsstack_copy_inode_size(inode, lower_inode);
diff --git a/fs/namei.c b/fs/namei.c
index 5e2d98d..90d2a3a 100644
--- a/fs/namei.c
+++ b/fs/namei.c
@@ -1124,6 +1124,10 @@ static int fastcall do_path_lookup(int dfd, const char *name,
 		nd->mnt = mntget(fs->rootmnt);
 		nd->dentry = dget(fs->root);
 		read_unlock(&fs->lock);
+	} else if (flags & LOOKUP_ONE) {
+		/* nd->mnt and nd->dentry already set, just grab references */
+		mntget(nd->mnt);
+		dget(nd->dentry);
 	} else if (dfd == AT_FDCWD) {
 		read_lock(&fs->lock);
 		nd->mnt = mntget(fs->pwdmnt);
@@ -1325,7 +1329,8 @@ static inline int __lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct \
qstr *this, struct d
 	return 0;
 }
 
-struct dentry *lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)
+struct dentry *lookup_one_len_nd(const char *name, struct dentry *base, 
+				 int len, struct nameidata *nd)
 {
 	int err;
 	struct qstr this;
@@ -1333,7 +1338,7 @@ struct dentry *lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct dentry \
*base, int len)
 	err = __lookup_one_len(name, &this, base, len);
 	if (err)
 		return ERR_PTR(err);
-	return __lookup_hash(&this, base, NULL);
+	return __lookup_hash(&this, base, nd);
 }
 
 struct dentry *lookup_one_len_kern(const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)
@@ -2766,7 +2771,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(follow_up);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_write_access); /* binfmt_aout */
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(getname);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(lock_rename);
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(lookup_one_len);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(lookup_one_len_nd);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_follow_link_light);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_put_link);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_readlink);
diff --git a/fs/stack.c b/fs/stack.c
index 67716f6..56fd0df 100644
--- a/fs/stack.c
+++ b/fs/stack.c
@@ -1,8 +1,20 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
 #include <linux/module.h>
 #include <linux/fs.h>
 #include <linux/fs_stack.h>
 
-/* does _NOT_ require i_mutex to be held.
+/*
+ * does _NOT_ require i_mutex to be held.
  *
  * This function cannot be inlined since i_size_{read,write} is rather
  * heavy-weight on 32-bit systems
@@ -14,11 +26,11 @@ void fsstack_copy_inode_size(struct inode *dst, const struct \
inode *src)
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(fsstack_copy_inode_size);
 
-/* copy all attributes; get_nlinks is optional way to override the i_nlink
+/*
+ * copy all attributes; get_nlinks is optional way to override the i_nlink
  * copying
  */
-void fsstack_copy_attr_all(struct inode *dest, const struct inode *src,
-				int (*get_nlinks)(struct inode *))
+void fsstack_copy_attr_all(struct inode *dest, const struct inode *src)
 {
 	dest->i_mode = src->i_mode;
 	dest->i_uid = src->i_uid;
@@ -29,14 +41,6 @@ void fsstack_copy_attr_all(struct inode *dest, const struct inode \
*src,
 	dest->i_ctime = src->i_ctime;
 	dest->i_blkbits = src->i_blkbits;
 	dest->i_flags = src->i_flags;
-
-	/*
-	 * Update the nlinks AFTER updating the above fields, because the
-	 * get_links callback may depend on them.
-	 */
-	if (!get_nlinks)
-		dest->i_nlink = src->i_nlink;
-	else
-		dest->i_nlink = (*get_nlinks)(dest);
+	dest->i_nlink = src->i_nlink;
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(fsstack_copy_attr_all);
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/Makefile b/fs/unionfs/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7c18a3c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+obj-$(CONFIG_UNION_FS) += unionfs.o
+
+unionfs-y := subr.o dentry.o file.o inode.o main.o super.o \
+	rdstate.o copyup.o dirhelper.o rename.o \
+	unlink.o lookup.o commonfops.o dirfops.o sioq.o \
+	mmap.o
+
+unionfs-$(CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR) += xattr.o
+
+# If you want debugging output, please uncomment the following line
+# or put your options in a separate file in linux-x.y.z/fs/unionfs/local.mk
+#CONFIG_UNIONFS_DEBUG=y
+
+# Allow users to override debug options in a separate file
+-include fs/unionfs/local.mk
+
+ifeq ($(CONFIG_UNIONFS_DEBUG),y)
+unionfs-y += debug.o
+EXTRA_CFLAGS += -DUNIONFS_DEBUG=1
+endif
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/commonfops.c b/fs/unionfs/commonfops.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..baa6a37
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/commonfops.c
@@ -0,0 +1,833 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * 1) Copyup the file
+ * 2) Rename the file to '.unionfs<original inode#><counter>' - obviously
+ * stolen from NFS's silly rename
+ */
+static int copyup_deleted_file(struct file *file, struct dentry *dentry,
+			       int bstart, int bindex)
+{
+	static unsigned int counter;
+	const int i_inosize = sizeof(dentry->d_inode->i_ino) * 2;
+	const int countersize = sizeof(counter) * 2;
+	const int nlen = sizeof(".unionfs") + i_inosize + countersize - 1;
+	char name[nlen + 1];
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *tmp_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry = NULL;
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bstart);
+
+	sprintf(name, ".unionfs%*.*lx",
+		i_inosize, i_inosize, lower_dentry->d_inode->i_ino);
+
+	/*
+	 * Loop, looking for an unused temp name to copyup to.
+	 *
+	 * It's somewhat silly that we look for a free temp tmp name in the
+	 * source branch (bstart) instead of the dest branch (bindex), where
+	 * the final name will be created.  We _will_ catch it if somehow
+	 * the name exists in the dest branch, but it'd be nice to catch it
+	 * sooner than later.
+	 */
+retry:
+	tmp_dentry = NULL;
+	do {
+		char *suffix = name + nlen - countersize;
+
+		dput(tmp_dentry);
+		counter++;
+		sprintf(suffix, "%*.*x", countersize, countersize, counter);
+
+		printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: trying to rename %s to %s\n",
+		       dentry->d_name.name, name);
+
+		tmp_dentry = lookup_one_len(name, lower_dentry->d_parent,
+					    nlen);
+		if (IS_ERR(tmp_dentry)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(tmp_dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+		/* don't dput here because of do-while condition eval order */
+	} while (tmp_dentry->d_inode != NULL);	/* need negative dentry */
+	dput(tmp_dentry);
+
+	err = copyup_named_file(dentry->d_parent->d_inode, file, name, bstart,
+				bindex, file->f_path.dentry->d_inode->i_size);
+	if (err) {
+		if (err == -EEXIST)
+			goto retry;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* bring it to the same state as an unlinked file */
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, dbstart(dentry));
+	if (!unionfs_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex)) {
+		atomic_inc(&lower_dentry->d_inode->i_count);
+		unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex,
+					    lower_dentry->d_inode);
+	}
+	lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+	err = vfs_unlink(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode, lower_dentry);
+	unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+
+out:
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * put all references held by upper struct file and free lower file pointer
+ * array
+ */
+static void cleanup_file(struct file *file)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	struct file **lf;
+	struct super_block *sb = file->f_path.dentry->d_sb;
+
+	lf = UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files;
+	bstart = fbstart(file);
+	bend = fbend(file);
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		if (unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex)) {
+			/*
+			 * Find new index of matching branch with an open
+			 * file, since branches could have been added or
+			 * deleted causing the one with open files to shift.
+			 */
+			int i;	/* holds (possibly) updated branch index */
+			int old_bid;
+
+			old_bid = UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids[bindex];
+			i = branch_id_to_idx(sb, old_bid);
+			if (i < 0)
+				printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: no superblock for "
+				       "file %p\n", file);
+			else {
+				/* decrement count of open files */
+				branchput(sb, i);
+				/*
+				 * fput will perform an mntput for us on the
+				 * correct branch.  Although we're using the
+				 * file's old branch configuration, bindex,
+				 * which is the old index, correctly points
+				 * to the right branch in the file's branch
+				 * list.  In other words, we're going to
+				 * mntput the correct branch even if
+				 * branches have been added/removed.
+				 */
+				fput(unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex));
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files = NULL;
+	kfree(lf);
+	kfree(UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids);
+	/* set to NULL because caller needs to know if to kfree on error */
+	UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids = NULL;
+}
+
+/* open all lower files for a given file */
+static int open_all_files(struct file *file)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend, err = 0;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	struct super_block *sb = dentry->d_sb;
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		dget(lower_dentry);
+		unionfs_mntget(dentry, bindex);
+		branchget(sb, bindex);
+
+		lower_file =
+			dentry_open(lower_dentry,
+				    unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex),
+				    file->f_flags);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_file)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(lower_file);
+			goto out;
+		} else
+			unionfs_set_lower_file_idx(file, bindex, lower_file);
+	}
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* open the highest priority file for a given upper file */
+static int open_highest_file(struct file *file, int willwrite)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend, err = 0;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	struct inode *parent_inode = dentry->d_parent->d_inode;
+	struct super_block *sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	size_t inode_size = dentry->d_inode->i_size;
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+	if (willwrite && IS_WRITE_FLAG(file->f_flags) && is_robranch(dentry)) {
+		for (bindex = bstart - 1; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+			err = copyup_file(parent_inode, file, bstart, bindex,
+					  inode_size);
+			if (!err)
+				break;
+		}
+		atomic_set(&UNIONFS_F(file)->generation,
+			   atomic_read(&UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->
+				       generation));
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	dget(lower_dentry);
+	unionfs_mntget(dentry, bstart);
+	lower_file = dentry_open(lower_dentry,
+				 unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bstart),
+				 file->f_flags);
+	if (IS_ERR(lower_file)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(lower_file);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	branchget(sb, bstart);
+	unionfs_set_lower_file(file, lower_file);
+	/* Fix up the position. */
+	lower_file->f_pos = file->f_pos;
+
+	memcpy(&lower_file->f_ra, &file->f_ra, sizeof(struct file_ra_state));
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* perform a delayed copyup of a read-write file on a read-only branch */
+static int do_delayed_copyup(struct file *file)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend, err = 0;
+	struct dentry *dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	struct inode *parent_inode = dentry->d_parent->d_inode;
+	loff_t inode_size = dentry->d_inode->i_size;
+
+	bstart = fbstart(file);
+	bend = fbend(file);
+
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISREG(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	for (bindex = bstart - 1; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+		if (!d_deleted(dentry))
+			err = copyup_file(parent_inode, file, bstart,
+					  bindex, inode_size);
+		else
+			err = copyup_deleted_file(file, dentry, bstart,
+						  bindex);
+
+		if (!err)
+			break;
+	}
+	if (err || (bstart <= fbstart(file)))
+		goto out;
+	bend = fbend(file);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		if (unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex)) {
+			branchput(dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+			fput(unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex));
+			unionfs_set_lower_file_idx(file, bindex, NULL);
+		}
+		if (unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex)) {
+			unionfs_mntput(dentry, bindex);
+			unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+		}
+		if (unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex)) {
+			BUG_ON(!dentry->d_inode);
+			iput(unionfs_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex));
+			unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex,
+						    NULL);
+			dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex));
+			unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+		}
+	}
+	/* for reg file, we only open it "once" */
+	fbend(file) = fbstart(file);
+	set_dbend(dentry, dbstart(dentry));
+	ibend(dentry->d_inode) = ibstart(dentry->d_inode);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Revalidate the struct file
+ * @file: file to revalidate
+ * @willwrite: 1 if caller may cause changes to the file; 0 otherwise.
+ */
+int unionfs_file_revalidate(struct file *file, int willwrite)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	int sbgen, fgen, dgen;
+	int bstart, bend;
+	int size;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+
+	/*
+	 * First revalidate the dentry inside struct file,
+	 * but not unhashed dentries.
+	 */
+	if (!d_deleted(dentry) &&
+	    !__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, willwrite)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out_nofree;
+	}
+
+	sbgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->generation);
+	dgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_D(dentry)->generation);
+	fgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_F(file)->generation);
+
+	BUG_ON(sbgen > dgen);
+
+	/*
+	 * There are two cases we are interested in.  The first is if the
+	 * generation is lower than the super-block.  The second is if
+	 * someone has copied up this file from underneath us, we also need
+	 * to refresh things.
+	 */
+	if (!d_deleted(dentry) &&
+	    (sbgen > fgen || dbstart(dentry) != fbstart(file))) {
+		int orig_brid =	/* save orig branch ID */
+			UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids[fbstart(file)];
+
+		/* First we throw out the existing files. */
+		cleanup_file(file);
+
+		/* Now we reopen the file(s) as in unionfs_open. */
+		bstart = fbstart(file) = dbstart(dentry);
+		bend = fbend(file) = dbend(dentry);
+
+		size = sizeof(struct file *) * sbmax(sb);
+		UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files = kzalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files) {
+			err = -ENOMEM;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		size = sizeof(int) * sbmax(sb);
+		UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids = kzalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids) {
+			err = -ENOMEM;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		if (S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+			/* We need to open all the files. */
+			err = open_all_files(file);
+			if (err)
+				goto out;
+		} else {
+			int new_brid;
+			/* We only open the highest priority branch. */
+			err = open_highest_file(file, willwrite);
+			if (err)
+				goto out;
+			new_brid = UNIONFS_F(file)->
+			  saved_branch_ids[fbstart(file)];
+			if (new_brid != orig_brid && sbgen > fgen) {
+				/*
+				 * If we re-opened the file on a different
+				 * branch than the original one, and this
+				 * was due to a new branch inserted, then
+				 * update the mnt counts of the old and new
+				 * branches accordingly.
+				 */
+				unionfs_mntget(dentry, bstart);	/* new branch */
+				unionfs_mntput(sb->s_root, /* orig branch */
+					       branch_id_to_idx(sb, orig_brid));
+			}
+		}
+		atomic_set(&UNIONFS_F(file)->generation,
+			   atomic_read(&UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->
+				       generation));
+	}
+
+	/* Copyup on the first write to a file on a readonly branch. */
+	if (willwrite && IS_WRITE_FLAG(file->f_flags) &&
+	    !IS_WRITE_FLAG(unionfs_lower_file(file)->f_flags) &&
+	    is_robranch(dentry)) {
+		printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: doing delayed copyup of a "
+		       "read-write file on a read-only branch\n");
+		err = do_delayed_copyup(file);
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (err) {
+		kfree(UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files);
+		kfree(UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids);
+	}
+out_nofree:
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_check_file(file);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* unionfs_open helper function: open a directory */
+static int __open_dir(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+
+	bstart = fbstart(file) = dbstart(file->f_path.dentry);
+	bend = fbend(file) = dbend(file->f_path.dentry);
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry =
+			unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(file->f_path.dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		dget(lower_dentry);
+		unionfs_mntget(file->f_path.dentry, bindex);
+		lower_file = dentry_open(lower_dentry,
+					 unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(file->f_path.dentry,
+							       bindex),
+					 file->f_flags);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_file))
+			return PTR_ERR(lower_file);
+
+		unionfs_set_lower_file_idx(file, bindex, lower_file);
+
+		/*
+		 * The branchget goes after the open, because otherwise
+		 * we would miss the reference on release.
+		 */
+		branchget(inode->i_sb, bindex);
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* unionfs_open helper function: open a file */
+static int __open_file(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	int lower_flags;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(file->f_path.dentry);
+	lower_flags = file->f_flags;
+
+	bstart = fbstart(file) = dbstart(file->f_path.dentry);
+	bend = fbend(file) = dbend(file->f_path.dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * check for the permission for lower file.  If the error is
+	 * COPYUP_ERR, copyup the file.
+	 */
+	if (lower_dentry->d_inode && is_robranch(file->f_path.dentry)) {
+		/*
+		 * if the open will change the file, copy it up otherwise
+		 * defer it.
+		 */
+		if (lower_flags & O_TRUNC) {
+			int size = 0;
+			int err = -EROFS;
+
+			/* copyup the file */
+			for (bindex = bstart - 1; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+				err = copyup_file(
+					file->f_path.dentry->d_parent->d_inode,
+					file, bstart, bindex, size);
+				if (!err)
+					break;
+			}
+			return err;
+		} else
+			lower_flags &= ~(OPEN_WRITE_FLAGS);
+	}
+
+	dget(lower_dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * dentry_open will decrement mnt refcnt if err.
+	 * otherwise fput() will do an mntput() for us upon file close.
+	 */
+	unionfs_mntget(file->f_path.dentry, bstart);
+	lower_file =
+		dentry_open(lower_dentry,
+			    unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(file->f_path.dentry, bstart),
+			    lower_flags);
+	if (IS_ERR(lower_file))
+		return PTR_ERR(lower_file);
+
+	unionfs_set_lower_file(file, lower_file);
+	branchget(inode->i_sb, bstart);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int unionfs_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct file *lower_file = NULL;
+	struct dentry *dentry = NULL;
+	int bindex = 0, bstart = 0, bend = 0;
+	int size;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(inode->i_sb);
+
+	file->private_data =
+		kzalloc(sizeof(struct unionfs_file_info), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!UNIONFS_F(file)) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_nofree;
+	}
+	fbstart(file) = -1;
+	fbend(file) = -1;
+	atomic_set(&UNIONFS_F(file)->generation,
+		   atomic_read(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->generation));
+
+	size = sizeof(struct file *) * sbmax(inode->i_sb);
+	UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files = kzalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	size = sizeof(int) * sbmax(inode->i_sb);
+	UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids = kzalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	bstart = fbstart(file) = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = fbend(file) = dbend(dentry);
+
+	/* increment, so that we can flush appropriately */
+	atomic_inc(&UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->totalopens);
+
+	/*
+	 * open all directories and make the unionfs file struct point to
+	 * these lower file structs
+	 */
+	if (S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
+		err = __open_dir(inode, file);	/* open a dir */
+	else
+		err = __open_file(inode, file);	/* open a file */
+
+	/* freeing the allocated resources, and fput the opened files */
+	if (err) {
+		atomic_dec(&UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->totalopens);
+		for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			lower_file = unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex);
+			if (!lower_file)
+				continue;
+
+			branchput(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+			/* fput calls dput for lower_dentry */
+			fput(lower_file);
+		}
+	}
+
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+
+out:
+	if (err) {
+		kfree(UNIONFS_F(file)->lower_files);
+		kfree(UNIONFS_F(file)->saved_branch_ids);
+		kfree(UNIONFS_F(file));
+	}
+out_nofree:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(inode->i_sb);
+	unionfs_check_inode(inode);
+	if (!err) {
+		unionfs_check_file(file);
+		unionfs_check_dentry(file->f_path.dentry->d_parent);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * release all lower object references & free the file info structure
+ *
+ * No need to grab sb info's rwsem.
+ */
+int unionfs_file_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+	struct file *lower_file = NULL;
+	struct unionfs_file_info *fileinfo;
+	struct unionfs_inode_info *inodeinfo;
+	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	int fgen, err = 0;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(sb);
+	/*
+	 * Yes, we have to revalidate this file even if it's being released.
+	 * This is important for open-but-unlinked files, as well as mmap
+	 * support.
+	 */
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	fileinfo = UNIONFS_F(file);
+	BUG_ON(file->f_path.dentry->d_inode != inode);
+	inodeinfo = UNIONFS_I(inode);
+
+	/* fput all the lower files */
+	fgen = atomic_read(&fileinfo->generation);
+	bstart = fbstart(file);
+	bend = fbend(file);
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_file = unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex);
+
+		if (lower_file) {
+			fput(lower_file);
+			branchput(sb, bindex);
+		}
+	}
+	kfree(fileinfo->lower_files);
+	kfree(fileinfo->saved_branch_ids);
+
+	if (fileinfo->rdstate) {
+		fileinfo->rdstate->access = jiffies;
+		printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: saving rdstate with cookie "
+		       "%u [%d.%lld]\n",
+		       fileinfo->rdstate->cookie,
+		       fileinfo->rdstate->bindex,
+		       (long long)fileinfo->rdstate->dirpos);
+		spin_lock(&inodeinfo->rdlock);
+		inodeinfo->rdcount++;
+		list_add_tail(&fileinfo->rdstate->cache,
+			      &inodeinfo->readdircache);
+		mark_inode_dirty(inode);
+		spin_unlock(&inodeinfo->rdlock);
+		fileinfo->rdstate = NULL;
+	}
+	kfree(fileinfo);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* pass the ioctl to the lower fs */
+static long do_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	int err;
+
+	lower_file = unionfs_lower_file(file);
+
+	err = security_file_ioctl(lower_file, cmd, arg);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -ENOTTY;
+	if (!lower_file || !lower_file->f_op)
+		goto out;
+	if (lower_file->f_op->unlocked_ioctl) {
+		err = lower_file->f_op->unlocked_ioctl(lower_file, cmd, arg);
+	} else if (lower_file->f_op->ioctl) {
+		lock_kernel();
+		err = lower_file->f_op->ioctl(lower_file->f_path.dentry->d_inode,
+					      lower_file, cmd, arg);
+		unlock_kernel();
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * return to user-space the branch indices containing the file in question
+ *
+ * We use fd_set and therefore we are limited to the number of the branches
+ * to FD_SETSIZE, which is currently 1024 - plenty for most people
+ */
+static int unionfs_ioctl_queryfile(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+				   unsigned long arg)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	fd_set branchlist;
+	int bstart = 0, bend = 0, bindex = 0;
+	int orig_bstart, orig_bend;
+	struct dentry *dentry, *lower_dentry;
+	struct vfsmount *mnt;
+
+	dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+	orig_bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	orig_bend = dbend(dentry);
+	if ((err = unionfs_partial_lookup(dentry)))
+		goto out;
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+	FD_ZERO(&branchlist);
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+		if (lower_dentry->d_inode)
+			FD_SET(bindex, &branchlist);
+		/* purge any lower objects after partial_lookup */
+		if (bindex < orig_bstart || bindex > orig_bend) {
+			dput(lower_dentry);
+			unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+			iput(unionfs_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex));
+			unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex,
+						    NULL);
+			mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex);
+			if (!mnt)
+				continue;
+			unionfs_mntput(dentry, bindex);
+			unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+		}
+	}
+	/* restore original dentry's offsets */
+	set_dbstart(dentry, orig_bstart);
+	set_dbend(dentry, orig_bend);
+	ibstart(dentry->d_inode) = orig_bstart;
+	ibend(dentry->d_inode) = orig_bend;
+
+	err = copy_to_user((void __user *)arg, &branchlist, sizeof(fd_set));
+	if (err)
+		err = -EFAULT;
+
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	return err < 0 ? err : bend;
+}
+
+long unionfs_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	long err;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1)))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* check if asked for local commands */
+	switch (cmd) {
+	case UNIONFS_IOCTL_INCGEN:
+		/* Increment the superblock generation count */
+		printk("unionfs: incgen ioctl deprecated; "
+		       "use \"-o remount,incgen\"\n");
+		err = -ENOSYS;
+		break;
+
+	case UNIONFS_IOCTL_QUERYFILE:
+		/* Return list of branches containing the given file */
+		err = unionfs_ioctl_queryfile(file, cmd, arg);
+		break;
+
+	default:
+		/* pass the ioctl down */
+		err = do_ioctl(file, cmd, arg);
+		break;
+	}
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct file *lower_file = NULL;
+	struct dentry *dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	if (!atomic_dec_and_test(&UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->totalopens))
+		goto out;
+
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	bstart = fbstart(file);
+	bend = fbend(file);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_file = unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex);
+
+		if (lower_file && lower_file->f_op &&
+		    lower_file->f_op->flush) {
+			err = lower_file->f_op->flush(lower_file, id);
+			if (err)
+				goto out_lock;
+
+			/* if there are no more refs to the dentry, dput it */
+			if (d_deleted(dentry)) {
+				dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex));
+				unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex,
+							     NULL);
+			}
+		}
+
+	}
+
+	/* on success, update our times */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_inode);
+	/* parent time could have changed too (async) */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+
+out_lock:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	return err;
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/copyup.c b/fs/unionfs/copyup.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..eb5d5a0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/copyup.c
@@ -0,0 +1,868 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * For detailed explanation of copyup see:
+ * Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/concepts.txt
+ */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR
+/* copyup all extended attrs for a given dentry */
+static int copyup_xattrs(struct dentry *old_lower_dentry,
+			 struct dentry *new_lower_dentry)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	ssize_t list_size = -1;
+	char *name_list = NULL;
+	char *attr_value = NULL;
+	char *name_list_orig = NULL;
+
+	list_size = vfs_listxattr(old_lower_dentry, NULL, 0);
+
+	if (list_size <= 0) {
+		err = list_size;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	name_list = unionfs_xattr_alloc(list_size + 1, XATTR_LIST_MAX);
+	if (!name_list || IS_ERR(name_list)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name_list);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	list_size = vfs_listxattr(old_lower_dentry, name_list, list_size);
+	attr_value = unionfs_xattr_alloc(XATTR_SIZE_MAX, XATTR_SIZE_MAX);
+	if (!attr_value || IS_ERR(attr_value)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name_list);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	name_list_orig = name_list;
+	while (*name_list) {
+		ssize_t size;
+
+		/* Lock here since vfs_getxattr doesn't lock for us */
+		mutex_lock(&old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
+		size = vfs_getxattr(old_lower_dentry, name_list,
+				    attr_value, XATTR_SIZE_MAX);
+		mutex_unlock(&old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
+		if (size < 0) {
+			err = size;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		if (size > XATTR_SIZE_MAX) {
+			err = -E2BIG;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		/* Don't lock here since vfs_setxattr does it for us. */
+		err = vfs_setxattr(new_lower_dentry, name_list, attr_value,
+				   size, 0);
+
+		if (err < 0)
+			goto out;
+		name_list += strlen(name_list) + 1;
+	}
+out:
+	name_list = name_list_orig;
+
+	if (name_list)
+		unionfs_xattr_free(name_list, list_size + 1);
+	if (attr_value)
+		unionfs_xattr_free(attr_value, XATTR_SIZE_MAX);
+	/* It is no big deal if this fails, we just roll with the punches. */
+	if (err == -ENOTSUPP || err == -EOPNOTSUPP)
+		err = 0;
+	return err;
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR */
+
+/*
+ * Determine the mode based on the copyup flags, and the existing dentry.
+ *
+ * Handle file systems which may not support certain options.  For example
+ * jffs2 doesn't allow one to chmod a symlink.  So we ignore such harmless
+ * errors, rather than propagating them up, which results in copyup errors
+ * and errors returned back to users.
+ */
+static int copyup_permissions(struct super_block *sb,
+			      struct dentry *old_lower_dentry,
+			      struct dentry *new_lower_dentry)
+{
+	struct inode *i = old_lower_dentry->d_inode;
+	struct iattr newattrs;
+	int err;
+
+	newattrs.ia_atime = i->i_atime;
+	newattrs.ia_mtime = i->i_mtime;
+	newattrs.ia_ctime = i->i_ctime;
+	newattrs.ia_gid = i->i_gid;
+	newattrs.ia_uid = i->i_uid;
+	newattrs.ia_valid = ATTR_CTIME | ATTR_ATIME | ATTR_MTIME |
+		ATTR_ATIME_SET | ATTR_MTIME_SET | ATTR_FORCE |
+		ATTR_GID | ATTR_UID;
+	err = notify_change(new_lower_dentry, &newattrs);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* now try to change the mode and ignore EOPNOTSUPP on symlinks */
+	newattrs.ia_mode = i->i_mode;
+	newattrs.ia_valid = ATTR_MODE | ATTR_FORCE;
+	err = notify_change(new_lower_dentry, &newattrs);
+	if (err == -EOPNOTSUPP &&
+	    S_ISLNK(new_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING
+		       "unionfs: changing \"%s\" symlink mode unsupported\n",
+		       new_lower_dentry->d_name.name);
+		err = 0;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * create the new device/file/directory - use copyup_permission to copyup
+ * times, and mode
+ *
+ * if the object being copied up is a regular file, the file is only created,
+ * the contents have to be copied up separately
+ */
+static int __copyup_ndentry(struct dentry *old_lower_dentry,
+			    struct dentry *new_lower_dentry,
+			    struct dentry *new_lower_parent_dentry,
+			    char *symbuf)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	umode_t old_mode = old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode;
+	struct sioq_args args;
+
+	if (S_ISDIR(old_mode)) {
+		args.mkdir.parent = new_lower_parent_dentry->d_inode;
+		args.mkdir.dentry = new_lower_dentry;
+		args.mkdir.mode = old_mode;
+
+		run_sioq(__unionfs_mkdir, &args);
+		err = args.err;
+	} else if (S_ISLNK(old_mode)) {
+		args.symlink.parent = new_lower_parent_dentry->d_inode;
+		args.symlink.dentry = new_lower_dentry;
+		args.symlink.symbuf = symbuf;
+		args.symlink.mode = old_mode;
+
+		run_sioq(__unionfs_symlink, &args);
+		err = args.err;
+	} else if (S_ISBLK(old_mode) || S_ISCHR(old_mode) ||
+		   S_ISFIFO(old_mode) || S_ISSOCK(old_mode)) {
+		args.mknod.parent = new_lower_parent_dentry->d_inode;
+		args.mknod.dentry = new_lower_dentry;
+		args.mknod.mode = old_mode;
+		args.mknod.dev = old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_rdev;
+
+		run_sioq(__unionfs_mknod, &args);
+		err = args.err;
+	} else if (S_ISREG(old_mode)) {
+		args.create.parent = new_lower_parent_dentry->d_inode;
+		args.create.dentry = new_lower_dentry;
+		args.create.mode = old_mode;
+		args.create.nd = NULL;
+
+		run_sioq(__unionfs_create, &args);
+		err = args.err;
+	} else {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: unknown inode type %d\n",
+		       old_mode);
+		BUG();
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int __copyup_reg_data(struct dentry *dentry,
+			     struct dentry *new_lower_dentry, int new_bindex,
+			     struct dentry *old_lower_dentry, int old_bindex,
+			     struct file **copyup_file, loff_t len)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	struct file *input_file;
+	struct file *output_file;
+	struct vfsmount *output_mnt;
+	mm_segment_t old_fs;
+	char *buf = NULL;
+	ssize_t read_bytes, write_bytes;
+	loff_t size;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	/* open old file */
+	unionfs_mntget(dentry, old_bindex);
+	branchget(sb, old_bindex);
+	/* dentry_open calls dput and mntput if it returns an error */
+	input_file = dentry_open(old_lower_dentry,
+				 unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, old_bindex),
+				 O_RDONLY | O_LARGEFILE);
+	if (IS_ERR(input_file)) {
+		dput(old_lower_dentry);
+		err = PTR_ERR(input_file);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (!input_file->f_op || !input_file->f_op->read) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out_close_in;
+	}
+
+	/* open new file */
+	dget(new_lower_dentry);
+	output_mnt = unionfs_mntget(sb->s_root, new_bindex);
+	branchget(sb, new_bindex);
+	output_file = dentry_open(new_lower_dentry, output_mnt,
+				  O_RDWR | O_LARGEFILE);
+	if (IS_ERR(output_file)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(output_file);
+		goto out_close_in2;
+	}
+	if (!output_file->f_op || !output_file->f_op->write) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out_close_out;
+	}
+
+	/* allocating a buffer */
+	buf = kmalloc(PAGE_SIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_close_out;
+	}
+
+	input_file->f_pos = 0;
+	output_file->f_pos = 0;
+
+	old_fs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+
+	size = len;
+	err = 0;
+	do {
+		if (len >= PAGE_SIZE)
+			size = PAGE_SIZE;
+		else if ((len < PAGE_SIZE) && (len > 0))
+			size = len;
+
+		len -= PAGE_SIZE;
+
+		read_bytes =
+			input_file->f_op->read(input_file,
+					       (char __user *)buf, size,
+					       &input_file->f_pos);
+		if (read_bytes <= 0) {
+			err = read_bytes;
+			break;
+		}
+
+		write_bytes =
+			output_file->f_op->write(output_file,
+						 (char __user *)buf,
+						 read_bytes,
+						 &output_file->f_pos);
+		if ((write_bytes < 0) || (write_bytes < read_bytes)) {
+			err = write_bytes;
+			break;
+		}
+	} while ((read_bytes > 0) && (len > 0));
+
+	set_fs(old_fs);
+
+	kfree(buf);
+
+	if (!err)
+		err = output_file->f_op->fsync(output_file,
+					       new_lower_dentry, 0);
+
+	if (err)
+		goto out_close_out;
+
+	if (copyup_file) {
+		*copyup_file = output_file;
+		goto out_close_in;
+	}
+
+out_close_out:
+	fput(output_file);
+
+out_close_in2:
+	branchput(sb, new_bindex);
+
+out_close_in:
+	fput(input_file);
+
+out:
+	branchput(sb, old_bindex);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * dput the lower references for old and new dentry & clear a lower dentry
+ * pointer
+ */
+static void __clear(struct dentry *dentry, struct dentry *old_lower_dentry,
+		    int old_bstart, int old_bend,
+		    struct dentry *new_lower_dentry, int new_bindex)
+{
+	/* get rid of the lower dentry and all its traces */
+	unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, new_bindex, NULL);
+	set_dbstart(dentry, old_bstart);
+	set_dbend(dentry, old_bend);
+
+	dput(new_lower_dentry);
+	dput(old_lower_dentry);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Copy up a dentry to a file of specified name.
+ *
+ * @dir: used to pull the ->i_sb to access other branches
+ * @dentry: the non-negative dentry whose lower_inode we should copy
+ * @bstart: the branch of the lower_inode to copy from
+ * @new_bindex: the branch to create the new file in
+ * @name: the name of the file to create
+ * @namelen: length of @name
+ * @copyup_file: the "struct file" to return (optional)
+ * @len: how many bytes to copy-up?
+ */
+int copyup_dentry(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, int bstart,
+		  int new_bindex, const char *name, int namelen,
+		  struct file **copyup_file, loff_t len)
+{
+	struct dentry *new_lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *old_lower_dentry = NULL;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	int err = 0;
+	int old_bindex;
+	int old_bstart;
+	int old_bend;
+	struct dentry *new_lower_parent_dentry = NULL;
+	mm_segment_t oldfs;
+	char *symbuf = NULL;
+
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+
+	old_bindex = bstart;
+	old_bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	old_bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+	BUG_ON(new_bindex < 0);
+	BUG_ON(new_bindex >= old_bindex);
+
+	sb = dir->i_sb;
+
+	if ((err = is_robranch_super(sb, new_bindex)))
+		goto out;
+
+	/* Create the directory structure above this dentry. */
+	new_lower_dentry = create_parents(dir, dentry, name, new_bindex);
+	if (IS_ERR(new_lower_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(new_lower_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	old_lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, old_bindex);
+	/* we conditionally dput this old_lower_dentry at end of function */
+	dget(old_lower_dentry);
+
+	/* For symlinks, we must read the link before we lock the directory. */
+	if (S_ISLNK(old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+
+		symbuf = kmalloc(PATH_MAX, GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!symbuf) {
+			__clear(dentry, old_lower_dentry,
+				old_bstart, old_bend,
+				new_lower_dentry, new_bindex);
+			err = -ENOMEM;
+			goto out_free;
+		}
+
+		oldfs = get_fs();
+		set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+		err = old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_op->readlink(
+			old_lower_dentry,
+			(char __user *)symbuf,
+			PATH_MAX);
+		set_fs(oldfs);
+		if (err < 0) {
+			__clear(dentry, old_lower_dentry,
+				old_bstart, old_bend,
+				new_lower_dentry, new_bindex);
+			goto out_free;
+		}
+		symbuf[err] = '\0';
+	}
+
+	/* Now we lock the parent, and create the object in the new branch. */
+	new_lower_parent_dentry = lock_parent(new_lower_dentry);
+
+	/* create the new inode */
+	err = __copyup_ndentry(old_lower_dentry, new_lower_dentry,
+			       new_lower_parent_dentry, symbuf);
+
+	if (err) {
+		__clear(dentry, old_lower_dentry,
+			old_bstart, old_bend,
+			new_lower_dentry, new_bindex);
+		goto out_unlock;
+	}
+
+	/* We actually copyup the file here. */
+	if (S_ISREG(old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = __copyup_reg_data(dentry, new_lower_dentry, new_bindex,
+					old_lower_dentry, old_bindex,
+					copyup_file, len);
+	if (err)
+		goto out_unlink;
+
+	/* Set permissions. */
+	if ((err = copyup_permissions(sb, old_lower_dentry,
+				      new_lower_dentry)))
+		goto out_unlink;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR
+	/* Selinux uses extended attributes for permissions. */
+	if ((err = copyup_xattrs(old_lower_dentry, new_lower_dentry)))
+		goto out_unlink;
+#endif /* CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR */
+
+	/* do not allow files getting deleted to be re-interposed */
+	if (!d_deleted(dentry))
+		unionfs_reinterpose(dentry);
+
+	goto out_unlock;
+
+out_unlink:
+	/*
+	 * copyup failed, because we possibly ran out of space or
+	 * quota, or something else happened so let's unlink; we don't
+	 * really care about the return value of vfs_unlink
+	 */
+	vfs_unlink(new_lower_parent_dentry->d_inode, new_lower_dentry);
+
+	if (copyup_file) {
+		/* need to close the file */
+
+		fput(*copyup_file);
+		branchput(sb, new_bindex);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * TODO: should we reset the error to something like -EIO?
+	 *
+	 * If we don't reset, the user may get some nonsensical errors, but
+	 * on the other hand, if we reset to EIO, we guarantee that the user
+	 * will get a "confusing" error message.
+	 */
+
+out_unlock:
+	unlock_dir(new_lower_parent_dentry);
+
+out_free:
+	/*
+	 * If old_lower_dentry was a directory, we need to dput it.  If it
+	 * was a file, then it was already dput indirectly by other
+	 * functions we call above which operate on regular files.
+	 */
+	if (old_lower_dentry && old_lower_dentry->d_inode &&
+	    (S_ISDIR(old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode) ||
+	     S_ISLNK(old_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)))
+		dput(old_lower_dentry);
+	kfree(symbuf);
+
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+	if (!S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+		unionfs_purge_extras(dentry);
+		if (!unionfs_lower_inode(dentry->d_inode)) {
+			/*
+			 * If we got here, then we copied up to an
+			 * unlinked-open file, whose name is .unionfsXXXXX.
+			 */
+			struct inode *inode = new_lower_dentry->d_inode;
+			atomic_inc(&inode->i_count);
+			unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode,
+						    ibstart(dentry->d_inode),
+						    inode);
+		}
+	}
+	unionfs_inherit_mnt(dentry);
+	/* sync inode times from copied-up inode to our inode */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_inode);
+	unionfs_check_inode(dir);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function creates a copy of a file represented by 'file' which
+ * currently resides in branch 'bstart' to branch 'new_bindex.'  The copy
+ * will be named "name".
+ */
+int copyup_named_file(struct inode *dir, struct file *file, char *name,
+		      int bstart, int new_bindex, loff_t len)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct file *output_file = NULL;
+
+	err = copyup_dentry(dir, file->f_path.dentry, bstart, new_bindex,
+			    name, strlen(name), &output_file, len);
+	if (!err) {
+		fbstart(file) = new_bindex;
+		unionfs_set_lower_file_idx(file, new_bindex, output_file);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function creates a copy of a file represented by 'file' which
+ * currently resides in branch 'bstart' to branch 'new_bindex'.
+ */
+int copyup_file(struct inode *dir, struct file *file, int bstart,
+		int new_bindex, loff_t len)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct file *output_file = NULL;
+	struct dentry *dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+
+	err = copyup_dentry(dir, dentry, bstart, new_bindex,
+			    dentry->d_name.name, dentry->d_name.len,
+			    &output_file, len);
+	if (!err) {
+		fbstart(file) = new_bindex;
+		unionfs_set_lower_file_idx(file, new_bindex, output_file);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* purge a dentry's lower-branch states (dput/mntput, etc.) */
+static void __cleanup_dentry(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex,
+			     int old_bstart, int old_bend)
+{
+	int loop_start;
+	int loop_end;
+	int new_bstart = -1;
+	int new_bend = -1;
+	int i;
+
+	loop_start = min(old_bstart, bindex);
+	loop_end = max(old_bend, bindex);
+
+	/*
+	 * This loop sets the bstart and bend for the new dentry by
+	 * traversing from left to right.  It also dputs all negative
+	 * dentries except bindex
+	 */
+	for (i = loop_start; i <= loop_end; i++) {
+		if (!unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, i))
+			continue;
+
+		if (i == bindex) {
+			new_bend = i;
+			if (new_bstart < 0)
+				new_bstart = i;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if (!unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, i)->d_inode) {
+			dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, i));
+			unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, i, NULL);
+
+			unionfs_mntput(dentry, i);
+			unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, i, NULL);
+		} else {
+			if (new_bstart < 0)
+				new_bstart = i;
+			new_bend = i;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (new_bstart < 0)
+		new_bstart = bindex;
+	if (new_bend < 0)
+		new_bend = bindex;
+	set_dbstart(dentry, new_bstart);
+	set_dbend(dentry, new_bend);
+
+}
+
+/* set lower inode ptr and update bstart & bend if necessary */
+static void __set_inode(struct dentry *upper, struct dentry *lower,
+			int bindex)
+{
+	unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(upper->d_inode, bindex,
+				    igrab(lower->d_inode));
+	if (likely(ibstart(upper->d_inode) > bindex))
+		ibstart(upper->d_inode) = bindex;
+	if (likely(ibend(upper->d_inode) < bindex))
+		ibend(upper->d_inode) = bindex;
+
+}
+
+/* set lower dentry ptr and update bstart & bend if necessary */
+static void __set_dentry(struct dentry *upper, struct dentry *lower,
+			 int bindex)
+{
+	unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(upper, bindex, lower);
+	if (likely(dbstart(upper) > bindex))
+		set_dbstart(upper, bindex);
+	if (likely(dbend(upper) < bindex))
+		set_dbend(upper, bindex);
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function replicates the directory structure up-to given dentry
+ * in the bindex branch.
+ */
+struct dentry *create_parents(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+			      const char *name, int bindex)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *child_dentry;
+	struct dentry *parent_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_parent_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	const char *childname;
+	unsigned int childnamelen;
+	int nr_dentry;
+	int count = 0;
+	int old_bstart;
+	int old_bend;
+	struct dentry **path = NULL;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+
+	if ((err = is_robranch_super(dir->i_sb, bindex))) {
+		lower_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	old_bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	old_bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+	lower_dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+
+	/* There is no sense allocating any less than the minimum. */
+	nr_dentry = 1;
+	path = kmalloc(nr_dentry * sizeof(struct dentry *), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!path)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* assume the negative dentry of unionfs as the parent dentry */
+	parent_dentry = dentry;
+
+	/*
+	 * This loop finds the first parent that exists in the given branch.
+	 * We start building the directory structure from there.  At the end
+	 * of the loop, the following should hold:
+	 *  - child_dentry is the first nonexistent child
+	 *  - parent_dentry is the first existent parent
+	 *  - path[0] is the = deepest child
+	 *  - path[count] is the first child to create
+	 */
+	do {
+		child_dentry = parent_dentry;
+
+		/* find the parent directory dentry in unionfs */
+		parent_dentry = child_dentry->d_parent;
+		unionfs_lock_dentry(parent_dentry);
+
+		/* find out the lower_parent_dentry in the given branch */
+		lower_parent_dentry =
+			unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(parent_dentry, bindex);
+
+		/* grow path table */
+		if (count == nr_dentry) {
+			void *p;
+
+			nr_dentry *= 2;
+			p = krealloc(path, nr_dentry * sizeof(struct dentry *),
+				     GFP_KERNEL);
+			if (!p) {
+				lower_dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+				goto out;
+			}
+			path = p;
+		}
+
+		/* store the child dentry */
+		path[count++] = child_dentry;
+	} while (!lower_parent_dentry);
+	count--;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+
+	/*
+	 * This code goes between the begin/end labels and basically
+	 * emulates a while(child_dentry != dentry), only cleaner and
+	 * shorter than what would be a much longer while loop.
+	 */
+begin:
+	/* get lower parent dir in the current branch */
+	lower_parent_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(parent_dentry, bindex);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(parent_dentry);
+
+	/* init the values to lookup */
+	childname = child_dentry->d_name.name;
+	childnamelen = child_dentry->d_name.len;
+
+	if (child_dentry != dentry) {
+		/* lookup child in the underlying file system */
+		lower_dentry = lookup_one_len(childname, lower_parent_dentry,
+					      childnamelen);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry))
+			goto out;
+	} else {
+		/*
+		 * Is the name a whiteout of the child name ?  lookup the
+		 * whiteout child in the underlying file system
+		 */
+		lower_dentry = lookup_one_len(name, lower_parent_dentry,
+					      strlen(name));
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry))
+			goto out;
+
+		/* Replace the current dentry (if any) with the new one */
+		dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex));
+		unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex,
+					     lower_dentry);
+
+		__cleanup_dentry(dentry, bindex, old_bstart, old_bend);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (lower_dentry->d_inode) {
+		/*
+		 * since this already exists we dput to avoid
+		 * multiple references on the same dentry
+		 */
+		dput(lower_dentry);
+	} else {
+		struct sioq_args args;
+
+		/* it's a negative dentry, create a new dir */
+		lower_parent_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+
+		args.mkdir.parent = lower_parent_dentry->d_inode;
+		args.mkdir.dentry = lower_dentry;
+		args.mkdir.mode = child_dentry->d_inode->i_mode;
+
+		run_sioq(__unionfs_mkdir, &args);
+		err = args.err;
+
+		if (!err)
+			err = copyup_permissions(dir->i_sb, child_dentry,
+						 lower_dentry);
+		unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+		if (err) {
+			struct inode *inode = lower_dentry->d_inode;
+			/*
+			 * If we get here, it means that we created a new
+			 * dentry+inode, but copying permissions failed.
+			 * Therefore, we should delete this inode and dput
+			 * the dentry so as not to leave cruft behind.
+			 */
+			if (lower_dentry->d_op && lower_dentry->d_op->d_iput)
+				lower_dentry->d_op->d_iput(lower_dentry,
+							   inode);
+			else
+				iput(inode);
+			lower_dentry->d_inode = NULL;
+			dput(lower_dentry);
+			lower_dentry = ERR_PTR(err);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+	}
+
+	__set_inode(child_dentry, lower_dentry, bindex);
+	__set_dentry(child_dentry, lower_dentry, bindex);
+	/*
+	 * update times of this dentry, but also the parent, because if
+	 * we changed, the parent may have changed too.
+	 */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(parent_dentry->d_inode);
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(child_dentry->d_inode);
+
+	parent_dentry = child_dentry;
+	child_dentry = path[--count];
+	goto begin;
+out:
+	/* cleanup any leftover locks from the do/while loop above */
+	if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry))
+		while (count)
+			unionfs_unlock_dentry(path[count--]);
+	kfree(path);
+	return lower_dentry;
+}
+
+/* set lower mnt of dentry+parents to the first parent node that has an mnt */
+void unionfs_inherit_mnt(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct dentry *parent, *hasone;
+	int bindex = dbstart(dentry);
+
+	if (unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex))
+		return;
+	hasone = dentry->d_parent;
+	/* this loop should stop at root dentry */
+	while (!unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(hasone, bindex)) {
+		hasone = hasone->d_parent;
+	}
+	parent = dentry;
+	while (!unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(parent, bindex)) {
+		unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(parent, bindex,
+					  unionfs_mntget(hasone, bindex));
+		parent = parent->d_parent;
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * Regular files should have only one lower object(s).  On copyup, we may
+ * have leftover objects from previous branches.  So purge all such extra
+ * objects and keep only the most recent, leftmost, copied-up one.
+ */
+void unionfs_purge_extras(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int bindex;
+
+	BUG_ON(S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+	for (bindex=dbstart(dentry)+1; bindex<=dbend(dentry); bindex++) {
+		if (unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex)) {
+			unionfs_mntput(dentry, bindex);
+			unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+		}
+		if (unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex)) {
+			dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex));
+			unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+			iput(unionfs_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex));
+			unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex,
+						    NULL);
+		}
+	}
+	bindex = dbstart(dentry);
+	set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+	ibend(dentry->d_inode) = ibstart(dentry->d_inode) = bindex;
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/debug.c b/fs/unionfs/debug.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..94f0e84
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/debug.c
@@ -0,0 +1,494 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * Helper debugging functions for maintainers (and for users to report back
+ * useful information back to maintainers)
+ */
+
+/* it's always useful to know what part of the code called us */
+#define PRINT_CALLER()						\
+	do {							\
+		if (!printed_caller) {				\
+			printk("PC:%s:%s:%d\n",fname,fxn,line);	\
+			printed_caller = 1;			\
+		}						\
+	} while (0)
+
+/*
+ * __unionfs_check_{inode,dentry,file} perform exhaustive sanity checking on
+ * the fan-out of various Unionfs objects.  We check that no lower objects
+ * exist  outside the start/end branch range; that all objects within are
+ * non-NULL (with some allowed exceptions); that for every lower file
+ * there's a lower dentry+inode; that the start/end ranges match for all
+ * corresponding lower objects; that open files/symlinks have only one lower
+ * objects, but directories can have several; and more.
+ */
+void __unionfs_check_inode(const struct inode *inode,
+			   const char *fname, const char *fxn, int line)
+{
+	int bindex;
+	int istart, iend;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	int printed_caller = 0;
+
+	/* for inodes now */
+	BUG_ON(!inode);
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	istart = ibstart(inode);
+	iend = ibend(inode);
+	if (istart > iend) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" Ci0: inode=%p istart/end=%d:%d\n",
+		       inode, istart, iend);
+	}
+	if ((istart == -1 && iend != -1) ||
+	    (istart != -1 && iend == -1)) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" Ci1: inode=%p istart/end=%d:%d\n",
+		       inode, istart, iend);
+	}
+	if (!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
+		if (iend != istart) {
+			PRINT_CALLER();
+			printk(" Ci2: inode=%p istart=%d iend=%d\n",
+			       inode, istart, iend);
+		}
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = sbstart(sb); bindex < sbmax(sb); bindex++) {
+		if (!UNIONFS_I(inode)) {
+			PRINT_CALLER();
+			printk(" Ci3: no inode_info %p\n", inode);
+			return;
+		}
+		if (!UNIONFS_I(inode)->lower_inodes) {
+			PRINT_CALLER();
+			printk(" Ci4: no lower_inodes %p\n", inode);
+			return;
+		}
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (lower_inode) {
+			if (bindex < istart || bindex > iend) {
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" Ci5: inode/linode=%p:%p bindex=%d "
+				       "istart/end=%d:%d\n", inode,
+				       lower_inode, bindex, istart, iend);
+			} else if ((int)lower_inode == 0x5a5a5a5a) {
+				/* freed inode! */
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" Ci6: inode/linode=%p:%p bindex=%d "
+				       "istart/end=%d:%d\n", inode,
+				       lower_inode, bindex, istart, iend);
+			}
+		} else {	/* lower_inode == NULL */
+			if (bindex >= istart && bindex <= iend) {
+				/*
+				 * directories can have NULL lower inodes in
+				 * b/t start/end, but NOT if at the
+				 * start/end range.
+				 */
+				if (!(S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode) &&
+				      bindex > istart && bindex < iend)) {
+					PRINT_CALLER();
+					printk(" Ci7: inode/linode=%p:%p "
+					       "bindex=%d istart/end=%d:%d\n",
+					       inode, lower_inode, bindex,
+					       istart, iend);
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+void __unionfs_check_dentry(const struct dentry *dentry,
+			    const char *fname, const char *fxn, int line)
+{
+	int bindex;
+	int dstart, dend, istart, iend;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct inode *inode, *lower_inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct vfsmount *lower_mnt;
+	int printed_caller = 0;
+
+	BUG_ON(!dentry);
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	dstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	dend = dbend(dentry);
+	BUG_ON(dstart > dend);
+
+	if ((dstart == -1 && dend != -1) ||
+	    (dstart != -1 && dend == -1)) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" CD0: dentry=%p dstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+		       dentry, dstart, dend);
+	}
+	/*
+	 * check for NULL dentries inside the start/end range, or
+	 * non-NULL dentries outside the start/end range.
+	 */
+	for (bindex = sbstart(sb); bindex < sbmax(sb); bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (lower_dentry) {
+			if (bindex < dstart || bindex > dend) {
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" CD1: dentry/lower=%p:%p(%p) "
+				       "bindex=%d dstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+				       dentry, lower_dentry,
+				       (lower_dentry ? lower_dentry->d_inode :
+					(void *) 0xffffffff),
+				       bindex, dstart, dend);
+			}
+		} else {	/* lower_dentry == NULL */
+			if (bindex >= dstart && bindex <= dend) {
+				/*
+				 * Directories can have NULL lower inodes in
+				 * b/t start/end, but NOT if at the
+				 * start/end range.  Ignore this rule,
+				 * however, if this is a NULL dentry or a
+				 * deleted dentry.
+				 */
+				if (!d_deleted((struct dentry *) dentry) &&
+				    inode &&
+				    !(inode && S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode) &&
+				      bindex > dstart && bindex < dend)) {
+					PRINT_CALLER();
+					printk(" CD2: dentry/lower=%p:%p(%p) "
+					       "bindex=%d dstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+					       dentry, lower_dentry,
+					       (lower_dentry ?
+						lower_dentry->d_inode :
+						(void *) 0xffffffff),
+					       bindex, dstart, dend);
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* check for vfsmounts same as for dentries */
+	for (bindex = sbstart(sb); bindex < sbmax(sb); bindex++) {
+		lower_mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (lower_mnt) {
+			if (bindex < dstart || bindex > dend) {
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" CM0: dentry/lmnt=%p:%p bindex=%d "
+				       "dstart/end=%d:%d\n", dentry,
+				       lower_mnt, bindex, dstart, dend);
+			}
+		} else {	/* lower_mnt == NULL */
+			if (bindex >= dstart && bindex <= dend) {
+				/*
+				 * Directories can have NULL lower inodes in
+				 * b/t start/end, but NOT if at the
+				 * start/end range.  Ignore this rule,
+				 * however, if this is a NULL dentry.
+				 */
+				if (inode &&
+				    !(inode && S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode) &&
+				      bindex > dstart && bindex < dend)) {
+					PRINT_CALLER();
+					printk(" CM1: dentry/lmnt=%p:%p "
+					       "bindex=%d dstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+					       dentry, lower_mnt, bindex,
+					       dstart, dend);
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* for inodes now */
+	if (!inode)
+		return;
+	istart = ibstart(inode);
+	iend = ibend(inode);
+	BUG_ON(istart > iend);
+	if ((istart == -1 && iend != -1) ||
+	    (istart != -1 && iend == -1)) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" CI0: dentry/inode=%p:%p istart/end=%d:%d\n",
+		       dentry, inode, istart, iend);
+	}
+	if (istart != dstart) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" CI1: dentry/inode=%p:%p istart=%d dstart=%d\n",
+		       dentry, inode, istart, dstart);
+	}
+	if (iend != dend) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" CI2: dentry/inode=%p:%p iend=%d dend=%d\n",
+		       dentry, inode, iend, dend);
+	}
+
+	if (!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
+		if (dend != dstart) {
+			PRINT_CALLER();
+			printk(" CI3: dentry/inode=%p:%p dstart=%d dend=%d\n",
+			       dentry, inode, dstart, dend);
+		}
+		if (iend != istart) {
+			PRINT_CALLER();
+			printk(" CI4: dentry/inode=%p:%p istart=%d iend=%d\n",
+			       dentry, inode, istart, iend);
+		}
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = sbstart(sb); bindex < sbmax(sb); bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (lower_inode) {
+			if (bindex < istart || bindex > iend) {
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" CI5: dentry/linode=%p:%p bindex=%d "
+				       "istart/end=%d:%d\n", dentry,
+				       lower_inode, bindex, istart, iend);
+			} else if ((int)lower_inode == 0x5a5a5a5a) {
+				/* freed inode! */
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" CI6: dentry/linode=%p:%p bindex=%d "
+				       "istart/end=%d:%d\n", dentry,
+				       lower_inode, bindex, istart, iend);
+			}
+		} else {	/* lower_inode == NULL */
+			if (bindex >= istart && bindex <= iend) {
+				/*
+				 * directories can have NULL lower inodes in
+				 * b/t start/end, but NOT if at the
+				 * start/end range.
+				 */
+				if (!(S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode) &&
+				      bindex > istart && bindex < iend)) {
+					PRINT_CALLER();
+					printk(" CI7: dentry/linode=%p:%p "
+					       "bindex=%d istart/end=%d:%d\n",
+					       dentry, lower_inode, bindex,
+					       istart, iend);
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If it's a directory, then intermediate objects b/t start/end can
+	 * be NULL.  But, check that all three are NULL: lower dentry, mnt,
+	 * and inode.
+	 */
+	if (S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
+		for (bindex = dstart+1; bindex < dend; bindex++) {
+			lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+			lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry,
+								bindex);
+			lower_mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex);
+			if (!((lower_inode && lower_dentry && lower_mnt) ||
+			      (!lower_inode && !lower_dentry && !lower_mnt))) {
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" Cx: lmnt/ldentry/linode=%p:%p:%p "
+				       "bindex=%d dstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+				       lower_mnt, lower_dentry, lower_inode,
+				       bindex, dstart, dend);
+			}
+		}
+	/* check if lower inode is newer than upper one (it shouldn't) */
+	if (is_newer_lower(dentry)) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		for (bindex=ibstart(inode); bindex <= ibend(inode); bindex++) {
+			lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+			if (!lower_inode)
+				continue;
+			printk(" CI8: bindex=%d mtime/lmtime=%lu.%lu/%lu.%lu "
+			       "ctime/lctime=%lu.%lu/%lu.%lu\n",
+			       bindex,
+			       inode->i_mtime.tv_sec,
+			       inode->i_mtime.tv_nsec,
+			       lower_inode->i_mtime.tv_sec,
+			       lower_inode->i_mtime.tv_nsec,
+			       inode->i_ctime.tv_sec,
+			       inode->i_ctime.tv_nsec,
+			       lower_inode->i_ctime.tv_sec,
+			       lower_inode->i_ctime.tv_nsec);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+void __unionfs_check_file(const struct file *file,
+			  const char *fname, const char *fxn, int line)
+{
+	int bindex;
+	int dstart, dend, fstart, fend;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	int printed_caller = 0;
+
+	BUG_ON(!file);
+	dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+	dstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	dend = dbend(dentry);
+	BUG_ON(dstart > dend);
+	fstart = fbstart(file);
+	fend = fbend(file);
+	BUG_ON(fstart > fend);
+
+	if ((fstart == -1 && fend != -1) ||
+	    (fstart != -1 && fend == -1)) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" CF0: file/dentry=%p:%p fstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+		       file, dentry, fstart, fend);
+	}
+	if (fstart != dstart) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" CF1: file/dentry=%p:%p fstart=%d dstart=%d\n",
+		       file, dentry, fstart, dstart);
+	}
+	if (fend != dend) {
+		PRINT_CALLER();
+		printk(" CF2: file/dentry=%p:%p fend=%d dend=%d\n",
+		       file, dentry, fend, dend);
+	}
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
+		if (fend != fstart) {
+			PRINT_CALLER();
+			printk(" CF3: file/inode=%p:%p fstart=%d fend=%d\n",
+			       file, inode, fstart, fend);
+		}
+		if (dend != dstart) {
+			PRINT_CALLER();
+			printk(" CF4: file/dentry=%p:%p dstart=%d dend=%d\n",
+			       file, dentry, dstart, dend);
+		}
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * check for NULL dentries inside the start/end range, or
+	 * non-NULL dentries outside the start/end range.
+	 */
+	for (bindex = sbstart(sb); bindex < sbmax(sb); bindex++) {
+		lower_file = unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex);
+		if (lower_file) {
+			if (bindex < fstart || bindex > fend) {
+				PRINT_CALLER();
+				printk(" CF5: file/lower=%p:%p bindex=%d "
+				       "fstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+				       file, lower_file, bindex, fstart, fend);
+			}
+		} else {	/* lower_file == NULL */
+			if (bindex >= fstart && bindex <= fend) {
+				/*
+				 * directories can have NULL lower inodes in
+				 * b/t start/end, but NOT if at the
+				 * start/end range.
+				 */
+				if (!(S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode) &&
+				      bindex > fstart && bindex < fend)) {
+					PRINT_CALLER();
+					printk(" CF6: file/lower=%p:%p "
+					       "bindex=%d fstart/end=%d:%d\n",
+					       file, lower_file, bindex,
+					       fstart, fend);
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	__unionfs_check_dentry(dentry,fname,fxn,line);
+}
+
+/* useful to track vfsmount leaks that could cause EBUSY on unmount */
+void __show_branch_counts(const struct super_block *sb,
+			  const char *file, const char *fxn, int line)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct vfsmount *mnt;
+
+	printk("BC:");
+	for (i=0; i<sbmax(sb); i++) {
+		if (sb->s_root)
+			mnt = UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->lower_paths[i].mnt;
+		else
+			mnt = NULL;
+		printk("%d:", (mnt ? atomic_read(&mnt->mnt_count) : -99));
+	}
+	printk("%s:%s:%d\n",file,fxn,line);
+}
+
+void __show_inode_times(const struct inode *inode,
+			const char *file, const char *fxn, int line)
+{
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	int bindex;
+
+	for (bindex=ibstart(inode); bindex <= ibend(inode); bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (!lower_inode)
+			continue;
+		printk("IT(%lu:%d): ", inode->i_ino, bindex);
+		printk("%s:%s:%d ",file,fxn,line);
+		printk("um=%lu/%lu lm=%lu/%lu ",
+		       inode->i_mtime.tv_sec, inode->i_mtime.tv_nsec,
+		       lower_inode->i_mtime.tv_sec,
+		       lower_inode->i_mtime.tv_nsec);
+		printk("uc=%lu/%lu lc=%lu/%lu\n",
+		       inode->i_ctime.tv_sec, inode->i_ctime.tv_nsec,
+		       lower_inode->i_ctime.tv_sec,
+		       lower_inode->i_ctime.tv_nsec);
+	}
+}
+
+void __show_dinode_times(const struct dentry *dentry,
+			const char *file, const char *fxn, int line)
+{
+	struct inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	int bindex;
+
+	for (bindex=ibstart(inode); bindex <= ibend(inode); bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (!lower_inode)
+			continue;
+		printk("DT(%s:%lu:%d): ", dentry->d_name.name, inode->i_ino, bindex);
+		printk("%s:%s:%d ",file,fxn,line);
+		printk("um=%lu/%lu lm=%lu/%lu ",
+		       inode->i_mtime.tv_sec, inode->i_mtime.tv_nsec,
+		       lower_inode->i_mtime.tv_sec,
+		       lower_inode->i_mtime.tv_nsec);
+		printk("uc=%lu/%lu lc=%lu/%lu\n",
+		       inode->i_ctime.tv_sec, inode->i_ctime.tv_nsec,
+		       lower_inode->i_ctime.tv_sec,
+		       lower_inode->i_ctime.tv_nsec);
+	}
+}
+
+void __show_inode_counts(const struct inode *inode,
+			const char *file, const char *fxn, int line)
+{
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	int bindex;
+
+	if (!inode) {
+		printk("SiC: Null inode\n");
+		return;
+	}
+	for (bindex=sbstart(inode->i_sb); bindex <= sbend(inode->i_sb); bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (!lower_inode)
+			continue;
+		printk("SIC(%lu:%d:%d): ", inode->i_ino, bindex,
+		       atomic_read(&(inode)->i_count));
+		printk("lc=%d ", atomic_read(&(lower_inode)->i_count));
+		printk("%s:%s:%d\n",file,fxn,line);
+	}
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/dentry.c b/fs/unionfs/dentry.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..11d898d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/dentry.c
@@ -0,0 +1,475 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * Revalidate a single dentry.
+ * Assume that dentry's info node is locked.
+ * Assume that parent(s) are all valid already, but
+ * the child may not yet be valid.
+ * Returns 1 if valid, 0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int __unionfs_d_revalidate_one(struct dentry *dentry,
+				      struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	int valid = 1;		/* default is valid (1); invalid is 0. */
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	int sbgen, dgen;
+	int positive = 0;
+	int locked = 0;
+	int interpose_flag;
+	struct nameidata lowernd; /* TODO: be gentler to the stack */
+
+	if (nd)
+		memcpy(&lowernd, nd, sizeof(struct nameidata));
+	else
+		memset(&lowernd, 0, sizeof(struct nameidata));
+
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+
+	/* if the dentry is unhashed, do NOT revalidate */
+	if (d_deleted(dentry)) {
+		printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: unhashed dentry being "
+		       "revalidated: %*s\n",
+		       dentry->d_name.len, dentry->d_name.name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(dbstart(dentry) == -1);
+	if (dentry->d_inode)
+		positive = 1;
+	dgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_D(dentry)->generation);
+	sbgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(dentry->d_sb)->generation);
+	/*
+	 * If we are working on an unconnected dentry, then there is no
+	 * revalidation to be done, because this file does not exist within
+	 * the namespace, and Unionfs operates on the namespace, not data.
+	 */
+	if (sbgen != dgen) {
+		struct dentry *result;
+		int pdgen;
+
+		/* The root entry should always be valid */
+		BUG_ON(IS_ROOT(dentry));
+
+		/* We can't work correctly if our parent isn't valid. */
+		pdgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_D(dentry->d_parent)->generation);
+		BUG_ON(pdgen != sbgen);	/* should never happen here */
+
+		/* Free the pointers for our inodes and this dentry. */
+		bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+		bend = dbend(dentry);
+		if (bstart >= 0) {
+			struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+			for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+				lower_dentry =
+					unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry,
+								 bindex);
+				dput(lower_dentry);
+			}
+		}
+		set_dbstart(dentry, -1);
+		set_dbend(dentry, -1);
+
+		interpose_flag = INTERPOSE_REVAL_NEG;
+		if (positive) {
+			interpose_flag = INTERPOSE_REVAL;
+			/*
+			 * During BRM, the VFS could already hold a lock on
+			 * a file being read, so don't lock it again
+			 * (deadlock), but if you lock it in this function,
+			 * then release it here too.
+			 */
+			if (!mutex_is_locked(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex)) {
+				mutex_lock(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
+				locked = 1;
+			}
+
+			bstart = ibstart(dentry->d_inode);
+			bend = ibend(dentry->d_inode);
+			if (bstart >= 0) {
+				struct inode *lower_inode;
+				for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend;
+				     bindex++) {
+					lower_inode =
+						unionfs_lower_inode_idx(
+							dentry->d_inode,
+							bindex);
+					iput(lower_inode);
+				}
+			}
+			kfree(UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->lower_inodes);
+			UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->lower_inodes = NULL;
+			ibstart(dentry->d_inode) = -1;
+			ibend(dentry->d_inode) = -1;
+			if (locked)
+				mutex_unlock(&dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
+		}
+
+		result = unionfs_lookup_backend(dentry, &lowernd,
+						interpose_flag);
+		if (result) {
+			if (IS_ERR(result)) {
+				valid = 0;
+				goto out;
+			}
+			/*
+			 * current unionfs_lookup_backend() doesn't return
+			 * a valid dentry
+			 */
+			dput(dentry);
+			dentry = result;
+		}
+
+		if (positive && UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->stale) {
+			make_bad_inode(dentry->d_inode);
+			d_drop(dentry);
+			valid = 0;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* The revalidation must occur across all branches */
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+	BUG_ON(bstart == -1);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry || !lower_dentry->d_op
+		    || !lower_dentry->d_op->d_revalidate)
+			continue;
+		if (!lower_dentry->d_op->d_revalidate(lower_dentry,
+						      &lowernd))
+			valid = 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!dentry->d_inode)
+		valid = 0;
+
+	if (valid) {
+		/*
+		 * If we get here, and we copy the meta-data from the lower
+		 * inode to our inode, then it is vital that we have already
+		 * purged all unionfs-level file data.  We do that in the
+		 * caller (__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain) by calling
+		 * purge_inode_data.
+		 */
+		unionfs_copy_attr_all(dentry->d_inode,
+				      unionfs_lower_inode(dentry->d_inode));
+		fsstack_copy_inode_size(dentry->d_inode,
+					unionfs_lower_inode(dentry->d_inode));
+	}
+
+out:
+	return valid;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Determine if the lower inode objects have changed from below the unionfs
+ * inode.  Return 1 if changed, 0 otherwise.
+ */
+int is_newer_lower(const struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int bindex;
+	struct inode *inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+
+	if (!inode)
+		return 0;
+
+	for (bindex = ibstart(inode); bindex <= ibend(inode); bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (!lower_inode)
+			continue;
+		/*
+		 * We may want to apply other tests to determine if the
+		 * lower inode's data has changed, but checking for changed
+		 * ctime and mtime on the lower inode should be enough.
+		 */
+		if (timespec_compare(&inode->i_mtime,
+				     &lower_inode->i_mtime) < 0) {
+			printk("unionfs: new lower inode mtime "
+			       "(bindex=%d, name=%s)\n", bindex,
+			       dentry->d_name.name);
+			show_dinode_times(dentry);
+			return 1; /* mtime changed! */
+		}
+		if (timespec_compare(&inode->i_ctime,
+				     &lower_inode->i_ctime) < 0) {
+			printk("unionfs: new lower inode ctime "
+			       "(bindex=%d, name=%s)\n", bindex,
+			       dentry->d_name.name);
+			show_dinode_times(dentry);
+			return 1; /* ctime changed! */
+		}
+	}
+	return 0;		/* default: lower is not newer */
+}
+
+/*
+ * Purge/remove/unmap all date pages of a unionfs inode.  This is called
+ * when the lower inode has changed, and we have to force processes to get
+ * the new data.
+ *
+ * XXX: Our implementation works in that as long as a user process will have
+ * caused Unionfs to be called, directly or indirectly, even to just do
+ * ->d_revalidate; then we will have purged the current Unionfs data and the
+ * process will see the new data.  For example, a process that continually
+ * re-reads the same file's data will see the NEW data as soon as the lower
+ * file had changed, upon the next read(2) syscall (even if the file is
+ * still open!)  However, this doesn't work when the process re-reads the
+ * open file's data via mmap(2) (unless the user unmaps/closes the file and
+ * remaps/reopens it).  Once we respond to ->readpage(s), then the kernel
+ * maps the page into the process's address space and there doesn't appear
+ * to be a way to force the kernel to invalidate those pages/mappings, and
+ * force the process to re-issue ->readpage.  If there's a way to invalidate
+ * active mappings and force a ->readpage, let us know please
+ * (invalidate_inode_pages2 doesn't do the trick).
+ */
+static inline void purge_inode_data(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	/* remove all non-private mappings */
+	unmap_mapping_range(dentry->d_inode->i_mapping, 0, 0, 0);
+
+	if (dentry->d_inode->i_data.nrpages)
+		truncate_inode_pages(&dentry->d_inode->i_data, 0);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Revalidate a parent chain of dentries, then the actual node.
+ * Assumes that dentry is locked, but will lock all parents if/when needed.
+ *
+ * If 'willwrite' is 1, and the lower inode times are not in sync, then
+ * *don't* purge_inode_data, as it could deadlock if ->write calls us and we
+ * try to truncate a locked page.  Besides, if unionfs is about to write
+ * data to a file, then there's the data unionfs is about to write is more
+ * authoritative than what's below, therefore we can safely overwrite the
+ * lower inode times and data.
+ */
+int __unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd,
+				 int willwrite)
+{
+	int valid = 0;		/* default is invalid (0); valid is 1. */
+	struct dentry **chain = NULL; /* chain of dentries to reval */
+	int chain_len = 0;
+	struct dentry *dtmp;
+	int sbgen, dgen, i;
+	int saved_bstart, saved_bend, bindex;
+
+	/* find length of chain needed to revalidate */
+	/* XXX: should I grab some global (dcache?) lock? */
+	chain_len = 0;
+	sbgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(dentry->d_sb)->generation);
+	dtmp = dentry->d_parent;
+	dgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_D(dtmp)->generation);
+	/* XXX: should we check if is_newer_lower all the way up? */
+	if (is_newer_lower(dtmp)) {
+		/*
+		 * Special case: the root dentry's generation number must
+		 * always be valid, but its lower inode times don't have to
+		 * be, so sync up the times only.
+		 */
+		if (IS_ROOT(dtmp))
+			unionfs_copy_attr_times(dtmp->d_inode);
+		else {
+			/*
+			 * reset generation number to zero, guaranteed to be
+			 * "old"
+			 */
+			dgen = 0;
+			atomic_set(&UNIONFS_D(dtmp)->generation, dgen);
+		}
+		purge_inode_data(dtmp);
+	}
+	while (sbgen != dgen) {
+		/* The root entry should always be valid */
+		BUG_ON(IS_ROOT(dtmp));
+		chain_len++;
+		dtmp = dtmp->d_parent;
+		dgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_D(dtmp)->generation);
+	}
+	if (chain_len == 0)
+		goto out_this;	/* shortcut if parents are OK */
+
+	/*
+	 * Allocate array of dentries to reval.  We could use linked lists,
+	 * but the number of entries we need to alloc here is often small,
+	 * and short lived, so locality will be better.
+	 */
+	chain = kzalloc(chain_len * sizeof(struct dentry *), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!chain) {
+		printk("unionfs: no more memory in %s\n", __FUNCTION__);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * lock all dentries in chain, in child to parent order.
+	 * if failed, then sleep for a little, then retry.
+	 */
+	dtmp = dentry->d_parent;
+	for (i=chain_len-1; i>=0; i--) {
+		chain[i] = dget(dtmp);
+		dtmp = dtmp->d_parent;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * call __unionfs_d_revalidate_one() on each dentry, but in parent
+	 * to child order.
+	 */
+	for (i=0; i<chain_len; i++) {
+		unionfs_lock_dentry(chain[i]);
+		saved_bstart = dbstart(chain[i]);
+		saved_bend = dbend(chain[i]);
+		sbgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(dentry->d_sb)->generation);
+		dgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_D(chain[i])->generation);
+
+		valid = __unionfs_d_revalidate_one(chain[i], nd);
+		/* XXX: is this the correct mntput condition?! */
+		if (valid && chain_len > 0 &&
+		    sbgen != dgen && chain[i]->d_inode &&
+		    S_ISDIR(chain[i]->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+			for (bindex = saved_bstart; bindex <= saved_bend;
+			     bindex++)
+				unionfs_mntput(chain[i], bindex);
+		}
+		unionfs_unlock_dentry(chain[i]);
+
+		if (!valid)
+			goto out_free;
+	}
+
+
+out_this:
+	/* finally, lock this dentry and revalidate it */
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+	dgen = atomic_read(&UNIONFS_D(dentry)->generation);
+	if (is_newer_lower(dentry)) {
+		/* root dentry special case as aforementioned */
+		if (IS_ROOT(dentry))
+			unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_inode);
+		else {
+			/*
+			 * reset generation number to zero, guaranteed to be
+			 * "old"
+			 */
+			dgen = 0;
+			atomic_set(&UNIONFS_D(dentry)->generation, dgen);
+		}
+		if (!willwrite)
+			purge_inode_data(dentry);
+	}
+	valid = __unionfs_d_revalidate_one(dentry, nd);
+
+	/*
+	 * If __unionfs_d_revalidate_one() succeeded above, then it will
+	 * have incremented the refcnt of the mnt's, but also the branch
+	 * indices of the dentry will have been updated (to take into
+	 * account any branch insertions/deletion.  So the current
+	 * dbstart/dbend match the current, and new, indices of the mnts
+	 * which __unionfs_d_revalidate_one has incremented.  Note: the "if"
+	 * test below does not depend on whether chain_len was 0 or greater.
+	 */
+	if (valid && sbgen != dgen)
+		for (bindex = dbstart(dentry);
+		     bindex <= dbend(dentry);
+		     bindex++)
+			unionfs_mntput(dentry, bindex);
+
+out_free:
+	/* unlock/dput all dentries in chain and return status */
+	if (chain_len > 0) {
+		for (i=0; i<chain_len; i++)
+			dput(chain[i]);
+		kfree(chain);
+	}
+out:
+	return valid;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_d_revalidate(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+	err = __unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, nd, 0);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * At this point no one can reference this dentry, so we don't have to be
+ * careful about concurrent access.
+ */
+static void unionfs_d_release(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	/* this could be a negative dentry, so check first */
+	if (!UNIONFS_D(dentry)) {
+		printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: dentry without private data: %.*s",
+		       dentry->d_name.len, dentry->d_name.name);
+		goto out;
+	} else if (dbstart(dentry) < 0) {
+		/* this is due to a failed lookup */
+		printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: dentry without lower "
+		       "dentries: %.*s",
+		       dentry->d_name.len, dentry->d_name.name);
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+
+	/* Release all the lower dentries */
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex));
+		unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+		/* NULL lower mnt is ok if this is a negative dentry */
+		if (!dentry->d_inode && !unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry,bindex))
+			continue;
+		unionfs_mntput(dentry, bindex);
+		unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+	}
+	/* free private data (unionfs_dentry_info) here */
+	kfree(UNIONFS_D(dentry)->lower_paths);
+	UNIONFS_D(dentry)->lower_paths = NULL;
+
+out_free:
+	/* No need to unlock it, because it is disappeared. */
+	free_dentry_private_data(dentry);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return;
+}
+
+struct dentry_operations unionfs_dops = {
+	.d_revalidate	= unionfs_d_revalidate,
+	.d_release	= unionfs_d_release,
+};
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/dirfops.c b/fs/unionfs/dirfops.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..980f125
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/dirfops.c
@@ -0,0 +1,278 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/* Make sure our rdstate is playing by the rules. */
+static void verify_rdstate_offset(struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate)
+{
+	BUG_ON(rdstate->offset >= DIREOF);
+	BUG_ON(rdstate->cookie >= MAXRDCOOKIE);
+}
+
+struct unionfs_getdents_callback {
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate;
+	void *dirent;
+	int entries_written;
+	int filldir_called;
+	int filldir_error;
+	filldir_t filldir;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+};
+
+/* based on generic filldir in fs/readir.c */
+static int unionfs_filldir(void *dirent, const char *name, int namelen,
+			   loff_t offset, u64 ino, unsigned int d_type)
+{
+	struct unionfs_getdents_callback *buf = dirent;
+	struct filldir_node *found = NULL;
+	int err = 0;
+	int is_wh_entry = 0;
+
+	buf->filldir_called++;
+
+	if ((namelen > UNIONFS_WHLEN) &&
+	    !strncmp(name, UNIONFS_WHPFX, UNIONFS_WHLEN)) {
+		name += UNIONFS_WHLEN;
+		namelen -= UNIONFS_WHLEN;
+		is_wh_entry = 1;
+	}
+
+	found = find_filldir_node(buf->rdstate, name, namelen);
+
+	if (found)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* if 'name' isn't a whiteout, filldir it. */
+	if (!is_wh_entry) {
+		off_t pos = rdstate2offset(buf->rdstate);
+		u64 unionfs_ino = ino;
+
+		if (!err) {
+			err = buf->filldir(buf->dirent, name, namelen, pos,
+					   unionfs_ino, d_type);
+			buf->rdstate->offset++;
+			verify_rdstate_offset(buf->rdstate);
+		}
+	}
+	/*
+	 * If we did fill it, stuff it in our hash, otherwise return an
+	 * error.
+	 */
+	if (err) {
+		buf->filldir_error = err;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	buf->entries_written++;
+	if ((err = add_filldir_node(buf->rdstate, name, namelen,
+				    buf->rdstate->bindex, is_wh_entry)))
+		buf->filldir_error = err;
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_readdir(struct file *file, void *dirent, filldir_t filldir)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct file *lower_file = NULL;
+	struct inode *inode = NULL;
+	struct unionfs_getdents_callback buf;
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *uds;
+	int bend;
+	loff_t offset;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 0)))
+		goto out;
+
+	inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
+
+	uds = UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate;
+	if (!uds) {
+		if (file->f_pos == DIREOF) {
+			goto out;
+		} else if (file->f_pos > 0) {
+			uds = find_rdstate(inode, file->f_pos);
+			if (!uds) {
+				err = -ESTALE;
+				goto out;
+			}
+			UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate = uds;
+		} else {
+			init_rdstate(file);
+			uds = UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate;
+		}
+	}
+	bend = fbend(file);
+
+	while (uds->bindex <= bend) {
+		lower_file = unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, uds->bindex);
+		if (!lower_file) {
+			uds->bindex++;
+			uds->dirpos = 0;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* prepare callback buffer */
+		buf.filldir_called = 0;
+		buf.filldir_error = 0;
+		buf.entries_written = 0;
+		buf.dirent = dirent;
+		buf.filldir = filldir;
+		buf.rdstate = uds;
+		buf.sb = inode->i_sb;
+
+		/* Read starting from where we last left off. */
+		offset = vfs_llseek(lower_file, uds->dirpos, SEEK_SET);
+		if (offset < 0) {
+			err = offset;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		err = vfs_readdir(lower_file, unionfs_filldir, &buf);
+
+		/* Save the position for when we continue. */
+		offset = vfs_llseek(lower_file, 0, SEEK_CUR);
+		if (offset < 0) {
+			err = offset;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		uds->dirpos = offset;
+
+		/* Copy the atime. */
+		fsstack_copy_attr_atime(inode, lower_file->f_path.dentry->d_inode);
+
+		if (err < 0)
+			goto out;
+
+		if (buf.filldir_error)
+			break;
+
+		if (!buf.entries_written) {
+			uds->bindex++;
+			uds->dirpos = 0;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!buf.filldir_error && uds->bindex >= bend) {
+		/* Save the number of hash entries for next time. */
+		UNIONFS_I(inode)->hashsize = uds->hashentries;
+		free_rdstate(uds);
+		UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate = NULL;
+		file->f_pos = DIREOF;
+	} else
+		file->f_pos = rdstate2offset(uds);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This is not meant to be a generic repositioning function.  If you do
+ * things that aren't supported, then we return EINVAL.
+ *
+ * What is allowed:
+ *  (1) seeking to the same position that you are currently at
+ *	This really has no effect, but returns where you are.
+ *  (2) seeking to the beginning of the file
+ *	This throws out all state, and lets you begin again.
+ */
+static loff_t unionfs_dir_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin)
+{
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate;
+	loff_t err;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 0)))
+		goto out;
+
+	rdstate = UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate;
+
+	/*
+	 * we let users seek to their current position, but not anywhere
+	 * else.
+	 */
+	if (!offset) {
+		switch (origin) {
+		case SEEK_SET:
+			if (rdstate) {
+				free_rdstate(rdstate);
+				UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate = NULL;
+			}
+			init_rdstate(file);
+			err = 0;
+			break;
+		case SEEK_CUR:
+			err = file->f_pos;
+			break;
+		case SEEK_END:
+			/* Unsupported, because we would break everything.  */
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			break;
+		}
+	} else {
+		switch (origin) {
+		case SEEK_SET:
+			if (rdstate) {
+				if (offset == rdstate2offset(rdstate))
+					err = offset;
+				else if (file->f_pos == DIREOF)
+					err = DIREOF;
+				else
+					err = -EINVAL;
+			} else {
+				rdstate = find_rdstate(file->f_path.dentry->d_inode,
+						       offset);
+				if (rdstate) {
+					UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate = rdstate;
+					err = rdstate->offset;
+				} else
+					err = -EINVAL;
+			}
+			break;
+		case SEEK_CUR:
+		case SEEK_END:
+			/* Unsupported, because we would break everything.  */
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Trimmed directory options, we shouldn't pass everything down since
+ * we don't want to operate on partial directories.
+ */
+struct file_operations unionfs_dir_fops = {
+	.llseek		= unionfs_dir_llseek,
+	.read		= generic_read_dir,
+	.readdir	= unionfs_readdir,
+	.unlocked_ioctl	= unionfs_ioctl,
+	.open		= unionfs_open,
+	.release	= unionfs_file_release,
+	.flush		= unionfs_flush,
+	.fsync		= unionfs_fsync,
+	.fasync		= unionfs_fasync,
+};
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/dirhelper.c b/fs/unionfs/dirhelper.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a72f711
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/dirhelper.c
@@ -0,0 +1,271 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * Delete all of the whiteouts in a given directory for rmdir.
+ *
+ * lower directory inode should be locked
+ */
+int do_delete_whiteouts(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex,
+			struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	char *name = NULL, *p;
+	struct inode *lower_dir;
+	int i;
+	struct list_head *pos;
+	struct filldir_node *cursor;
+
+	/* Find out lower parent dentry */
+	lower_dir_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+	lower_dir = lower_dir_dentry->d_inode;
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(lower_dir->i_mode));
+
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	name = __getname();
+	if (!name)
+		goto out;
+	strcpy(name, UNIONFS_WHPFX);
+	p = name + UNIONFS_WHLEN;
+
+	err = 0;
+	for (i = 0; !err && i < namelist->size; i++) {
+		list_for_each(pos, &namelist->list[i]) {
+			cursor =
+				list_entry(pos, struct filldir_node,
+					   file_list);
+			/* Only operate on whiteouts in this branch. */
+			if (cursor->bindex != bindex)
+				continue;
+			if (!cursor->whiteout)
+				continue;
+
+			strcpy(p, cursor->name);
+			lower_dentry =
+				lookup_one_len(name, lower_dir_dentry,
+					       cursor->namelen +
+					       UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+			if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+				err = PTR_ERR(lower_dentry);
+				break;
+			}
+			if (lower_dentry->d_inode)
+				err = vfs_unlink(lower_dir, lower_dentry);
+			dput(lower_dentry);
+			if (err)
+				break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	__putname(name);
+
+	/* After all of the removals, we should copy the attributes once. */
+	fsstack_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_inode, lower_dir_dentry->d_inode);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* delete whiteouts in a dir (for rmdir operation) using sioq if necessary */
+int delete_whiteouts(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex,
+		     struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry;
+	struct inode *lower_dir;
+	struct sioq_args args;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+	BUG_ON(bindex < dbstart(dentry));
+	BUG_ON(bindex > dbend(dentry));
+	err = is_robranch_super(sb, bindex);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	lower_dir_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+	lower_dir = lower_dir_dentry->d_inode;
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(lower_dir->i_mode));
+
+	mutex_lock(&lower_dir->i_mutex);
+	if (!permission(lower_dir, MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC, NULL))
+		err = do_delete_whiteouts(dentry, bindex, namelist);
+	else {
+		args.deletewh.namelist = namelist;
+		args.deletewh.dentry = dentry;
+		args.deletewh.bindex = bindex;
+		run_sioq(__delete_whiteouts, &args);
+		err = args.err;
+	}
+	mutex_unlock(&lower_dir->i_mutex);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+#define RD_NONE 0
+#define RD_CHECK_EMPTY 1
+/* The callback structure for check_empty. */
+struct unionfs_rdutil_callback {
+	int err;
+	int filldir_called;
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate;
+	int mode;
+};
+
+/* This filldir function makes sure only whiteouts exist within a directory. */
+static int readdir_util_callback(void *dirent, const char *name, int namelen,
+				 loff_t offset, u64 ino, unsigned int d_type)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct unionfs_rdutil_callback *buf = dirent;
+	int whiteout = 0;
+	struct filldir_node *found;
+
+	buf->filldir_called = 1;
+
+	if (name[0] == '.' && (namelen == 1 ||
+			       (name[1] == '.' && namelen == 2)))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (namelen > UNIONFS_WHLEN &&
+	    !strncmp(name, UNIONFS_WHPFX, UNIONFS_WHLEN)) {
+		namelen -= UNIONFS_WHLEN;
+		name += UNIONFS_WHLEN;
+		whiteout = 1;
+	}
+
+	found = find_filldir_node(buf->rdstate, name, namelen);
+	/* If it was found in the table there was a previous whiteout. */
+	if (found)
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * if it wasn't found and isn't a whiteout, the directory isn't
+	 * empty.
+	 */
+	err = -ENOTEMPTY;
+	if ((buf->mode == RD_CHECK_EMPTY) && !whiteout)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = add_filldir_node(buf->rdstate, name, namelen,
+			       buf->rdstate->bindex, whiteout);
+
+out:
+	buf->err = err;
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* Is a directory logically empty? */
+int check_empty(struct dentry *dentry, struct unionfs_dir_state **namelist)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	struct unionfs_rdutil_callback *buf = NULL;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend, bopaque;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+
+
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode));
+
+	if ((err = unionfs_partial_lookup(dentry)))
+		goto out;
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+	bopaque = dbopaque(dentry);
+	if (0 <= bopaque && bopaque < bend)
+		bend = bopaque;
+
+	buf = kmalloc(sizeof(struct unionfs_rdutil_callback), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	buf->err = 0;
+	buf->mode = RD_CHECK_EMPTY;
+	buf->rdstate = alloc_rdstate(dentry->d_inode, bstart);
+	if (!buf->rdstate) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* Process the lower directories with rdutil_callback as a filldir. */
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+		if (!lower_dentry->d_inode)
+			continue;
+		if (!S_ISDIR(lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+			continue;
+
+		dget(lower_dentry);
+		unionfs_mntget(dentry, bindex);
+		branchget(sb, bindex);
+		lower_file =
+			dentry_open(lower_dentry,
+				    unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex),
+				    O_RDONLY);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_file)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(lower_file);
+			dput(lower_dentry);
+			branchput(sb, bindex);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		do {
+			buf->filldir_called = 0;
+			buf->rdstate->bindex = bindex;
+			err = vfs_readdir(lower_file,
+					  readdir_util_callback, buf);
+			if (buf->err)
+				err = buf->err;
+		} while ((err >= 0) && buf->filldir_called);
+
+		/* fput calls dput for lower_dentry */
+		fput(lower_file);
+		branchput(sb, bindex);
+
+		if (err < 0)
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (buf) {
+		if (namelist && !err)
+			*namelist = buf->rdstate;
+		else if (buf->rdstate)
+			free_rdstate(buf->rdstate);
+		kfree(buf);
+	}
+
+
+	return err;
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/fanout.h b/fs/unionfs/fanout.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e7407f0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/fanout.h
@@ -0,0 +1,318 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _FANOUT_H_
+#define _FANOUT_H_
+
+/*
+ * Inode to private data
+ *
+ * Since we use containers and the struct inode is _inside_ the
+ * unionfs_inode_info structure, UNIONFS_I will always (given a non-NULL
+ * inode pointer), return a valid non-NULL pointer.
+ */
+static inline struct unionfs_inode_info *UNIONFS_I(const struct inode *inode)
+{
+	return container_of(inode, struct unionfs_inode_info, vfs_inode);
+}
+
+#define ibstart(ino) (UNIONFS_I(ino)->bstart)
+#define ibend(ino) (UNIONFS_I(ino)->bend)
+
+/* Superblock to private data */
+#define UNIONFS_SB(super) ((struct unionfs_sb_info *)(super)->s_fs_info)
+#define sbstart(sb) 0
+#define sbend(sb) (UNIONFS_SB(sb)->bend)
+#define sbmax(sb) (UNIONFS_SB(sb)->bend + 1)
+#define sbhbid(sb) (UNIONFS_SB(sb)->high_branch_id)
+
+/* File to private Data */
+#define UNIONFS_F(file) ((struct unionfs_file_info *)((file)->private_data))
+#define fbstart(file) (UNIONFS_F(file)->bstart)
+#define fbend(file) (UNIONFS_F(file)->bend)
+
+/* macros to manipulate branch IDs in stored in our superblock */
+static inline int branch_id(struct super_block *sb, int index)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].branch_id;
+}
+
+static inline void set_branch_id(struct super_block *sb, int index, int val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].branch_id = val;
+}
+
+static inline void new_branch_id(struct super_block *sb, int index)
+{
+	set_branch_id(sb, index, ++UNIONFS_SB(sb)->high_branch_id);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Find new index of matching branch with an existing superblock of a known
+ * (possibly old) id.  This is needed because branches could have been
+ * added/deleted causing the branches of any open files to shift.
+ *
+ * @sb: the new superblock which may have new/different branch IDs
+ * @id: the old/existing id we're looking for
+ * Returns index of newly found branch (0 or greater), -1 otherwise.
+ */
+static inline int branch_id_to_idx(struct super_block *sb, int id)
+{
+	int i;
+	for (i = 0; i < sbmax(sb); i++) {
+		if (branch_id(sb, i) == id)
+			return i;
+	}
+	/* in the non-ODF code, this  should really never happen */
+	printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: cannot find branch with id %d\n", id);
+	return -1;
+}
+
+/* File to lower file. */
+static inline struct file *unionfs_lower_file(const struct file *f)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_F(f)->lower_files[fbstart(f)];
+}
+
+static inline struct file *unionfs_lower_file_idx(const struct file *f,
+						  int index)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_F(f)->lower_files[index];
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_file_idx(struct file *f, int index,
+					      struct file *val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_F(f)->lower_files[index] = val;
+	/* save branch ID (may be redundant?) */
+	UNIONFS_F(f)->saved_branch_ids[index] =
+		branch_id((f)->f_dentry->d_sb, index);
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_file(struct file *f, struct file *val)
+{
+	unionfs_set_lower_file_idx((f), fbstart(f), (val));
+}
+
+/* Inode to lower inode. */
+static inline struct inode *unionfs_lower_inode(const struct inode *i)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_I(i)->lower_inodes[ibstart(i)];
+}
+
+static inline struct inode *unionfs_lower_inode_idx(const struct inode *i,
+						    int index)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_I(i)->lower_inodes[index];
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(struct inode *i, int index,
+					       struct inode *val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_I(i)->lower_inodes[index] = val;
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_inode(struct inode *i, struct inode *val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_I(i)->lower_inodes[ibstart(i)] = val;
+}
+
+/* Superblock to lower superblock. */
+static inline struct super_block *unionfs_lower_super(
+	const struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[sbstart(sb)].sb;
+}
+
+static inline struct super_block *unionfs_lower_super_idx(
+	const struct super_block *sb,
+	int index)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].sb;
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_super_idx(struct super_block *sb,
+					       int index,
+					       struct super_block *val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].sb = val;
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_super(struct super_block *sb,
+					   struct super_block *val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[sbstart(sb)].sb = val;
+}
+
+/* Branch count macros. */
+static inline int branch_count(const struct super_block *sb, int index)
+{
+	return atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].open_files);
+}
+
+static inline void set_branch_count(struct super_block *sb, int index, int val)
+{
+	atomic_set(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].open_files, val);
+}
+
+static inline void branchget(struct super_block *sb, int index)
+{
+	atomic_inc(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].open_files);
+}
+
+static inline void branchput(struct super_block *sb, int index)
+{
+	atomic_dec(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].open_files);
+}
+
+/* Dentry macros */
+static inline struct unionfs_dentry_info *UNIONFS_D(const struct dentry *dent)
+{
+	return dent->d_fsdata;
+}
+
+static inline int dbstart(const struct dentry *dent)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_D(dent)->bstart;
+}
+
+static inline void set_dbstart(struct dentry *dent, int val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_D(dent)->bstart = val;
+}
+
+static inline int dbend(const struct dentry *dent)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_D(dent)->bend;
+}
+
+static inline void set_dbend(struct dentry *dent, int val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_D(dent)->bend = val;
+}
+
+static inline int dbopaque(const struct dentry *dent)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_D(dent)->bopaque;
+}
+
+static inline void set_dbopaque(struct dentry *dent, int val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_D(dent)->bopaque = val;
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(struct dentry *dent, int index,
+						struct dentry *val)
+{
+	UNIONFS_D(dent)->lower_paths[index].dentry = val;
+}
+
+static inline struct dentry *unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(
+	const struct dentry *dent,
+	int index)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_D(dent)->lower_paths[index].dentry;
+}
+
+static inline struct dentry *unionfs_lower_dentry(const struct dentry *dent)
+{
+	return unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dent, dbstart(dent));
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(struct dentry *dent, int index,
+					     struct vfsmount *mnt)
+{
+	UNIONFS_D(dent)->lower_paths[index].mnt = mnt;
+}
+
+static inline struct vfsmount *unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(
+	const struct dentry *dent,
+	int index)
+{
+	return UNIONFS_D(dent)->lower_paths[index].mnt;
+}
+
+static inline struct vfsmount *unionfs_lower_mnt(const struct dentry *dent)
+{
+	return unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dent, dbstart(dent));
+}
+
+/* Macros for locking a dentry. */
+static inline void unionfs_lock_dentry(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	mutex_lock(&UNIONFS_D(d)->lock);
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_unlock_dentry(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	mutex_unlock(&UNIONFS_D(d)->lock);
+}
+
+static inline void verify_locked(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	BUG_ON(!mutex_is_locked(&UNIONFS_D(d)->lock));
+}
+
+/* copy a/m/ctime from the lower branch with the newest times */
+static inline void unionfs_copy_attr_times(struct inode *upper)
+{
+	int bindex;
+	struct inode *lower;
+
+	if (!upper)
+		return;
+	for (bindex=ibstart(upper); bindex <= ibend(upper); bindex++) {
+		lower = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(upper, bindex);
+		if (!lower)
+			continue; /* not all lower dir objects may exist */
+		if (timespec_compare(&upper->i_mtime, &lower->i_mtime) < 0)
+			upper->i_mtime = lower->i_mtime;
+		if (timespec_compare(&upper->i_ctime, &lower->i_ctime) < 0)
+			upper->i_ctime = lower->i_ctime;
+		if (timespec_compare(&upper->i_atime, &lower->i_atime) < 0)
+			upper->i_atime = lower->i_atime;
+		/* XXX: should we notify_change on our upper inode? */
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * A unionfs/fanout version of fsstack_copy_attr_all.  Uses a
+ * unionfs_get_nlinks to properly calcluate the number of links to a file.
+ * Also, copies the max() of all a/m/ctimes for all lower inodes (which is
+ * important if the lower inode is a directory type)
+ */
+static inline void unionfs_copy_attr_all(struct inode *dest,
+					 const struct inode *src)
+{
+	dest->i_mode = src->i_mode;
+	dest->i_uid = src->i_uid;
+	dest->i_gid = src->i_gid;
+	dest->i_rdev = src->i_rdev;
+
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(dest);
+
+	dest->i_blkbits = src->i_blkbits;
+	dest->i_flags = src->i_flags;
+
+	/*
+	 * Update the nlinks AFTER updating the above fields, because the
+	 * get_links callback may depend on them.
+	 */
+	dest->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(dest);
+}
+
+#endif	/* not _FANOUT_H */
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/file.c b/fs/unionfs/file.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3f6b2d0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/file.c
@@ -0,0 +1,250 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+static ssize_t unionfs_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
+			    size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 0)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	err = do_sync_read(file, buf, count, ppos);
+
+	if (err >= 0)
+		touch_atime(unionfs_lower_mnt(file->f_path.dentry),
+			    unionfs_lower_dentry(file->f_path.dentry));
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t unionfs_aio_read(struct kiocb *iocb, const struct iovec *iov,
+				unsigned long nr_segs, loff_t pos)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct file *file = iocb->ki_filp;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 0)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	err = generic_file_aio_read(iocb, iov, nr_segs, pos);
+
+	if (err == -EIOCBQUEUED)
+		err = wait_on_sync_kiocb(iocb);
+
+	if (err >= 0)
+		touch_atime(unionfs_lower_mnt(file->f_path.dentry),
+			    unionfs_lower_dentry(file->f_path.dentry));
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static ssize_t unionfs_write(struct file *file, const char __user *buf,
+			     size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	err = do_sync_write(file, buf, count, ppos);
+	/* update our inode times upon a successful lower write */
+	if (err >= 0) {
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(file->f_path.dentry->d_inode);
+		unionfs_check_file(file);
+	}
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_file_readdir(struct file *file, void *dirent,
+				filldir_t filldir)
+{
+	return -ENOTDIR;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_mmap(struct file *file, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	int willwrite;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+
+	/* This might be deferred to mmap's writepage */
+	willwrite = ((vma->vm_flags | VM_SHARED | VM_WRITE) == vma->vm_flags);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, willwrite)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	/*
+	 * File systems which do not implement ->writepage may use
+	 * generic_file_readonly_mmap as their ->mmap op.  If you call
+	 * generic_file_readonly_mmap with VM_WRITE, you'd get an -EINVAL.
+	 * But we cannot call the lower ->mmap op, so we can't tell that
+	 * writeable mappings won't work.  Therefore, our only choice is to
+	 * check if the lower file system supports the ->writepage, and if
+	 * not, return EINVAL (the same error that
+	 * generic_file_readonly_mmap returns in that case).
+	 */
+	lower_file = unionfs_lower_file(file);
+	if (willwrite && !lower_file->f_mapping->a_ops->writepage) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		printk("unionfs: branch %d file system does not support "
+		       "writeable mmap\n", fbstart(file));
+	} else {
+		err = generic_file_mmap(file, vma);
+		if (err)
+			printk("unionfs: generic_file_mmap failed %d\n", err);
+	}
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if (!err) {
+		/* copyup could cause parent dir times to change */
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(file->f_path.dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+		unionfs_check_file(file);
+		unionfs_check_dentry(file->f_path.dentry->d_parent);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_fsync(struct file *file, struct dentry *dentry, int datasync)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct inode *lower_inode, *inode;
+	int err = -EINVAL;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	bstart = fbstart(file);
+	bend = fbend(file);
+	if (bstart < 0 || bend < 0)
+		goto out;
+
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!inode) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR
+		       "unionfs: null lower inode in unionfs_fsync\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (!lower_inode || !lower_inode->i_fop->fsync)
+			continue;
+		lower_file = unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex);
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		mutex_lock(&lower_inode->i_mutex);
+		err = lower_inode->i_fop->fsync(lower_file,
+						lower_dentry,
+						datasync);
+		mutex_unlock(&lower_inode->i_mutex);
+		if (err)
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(inode);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_fasync(int fd, struct file *file, int flag)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	struct inode *lower_inode, *inode;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	bstart = fbstart(file);
+	bend = fbend(file);
+	if (bstart < 0 || bend < 0)
+		goto out;
+
+	dentry = file->f_path.dentry;
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+	if (!inode) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR
+		       "unionfs: null lower inode in unionfs_fasync\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (!lower_inode || !lower_inode->i_fop->fasync)
+			continue;
+		lower_file = unionfs_lower_file_idx(file, bindex);
+		mutex_lock(&lower_inode->i_mutex);
+		err = lower_inode->i_fop->fasync(fd, lower_file, flag);
+		mutex_unlock(&lower_inode->i_mutex);
+		if (err)
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(inode);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct file_operations unionfs_main_fops = {
+	.llseek		= generic_file_llseek,
+	.read		= unionfs_read,
+	.aio_read       = unionfs_aio_read,
+	.write		= unionfs_write,
+	.aio_write      = generic_file_aio_write,
+	.readdir	= unionfs_file_readdir,
+	.unlocked_ioctl	= unionfs_ioctl,
+	.mmap		= unionfs_mmap,
+	.open		= unionfs_open,
+	.flush		= unionfs_flush,
+	.release	= unionfs_file_release,
+	.fsync		= unionfs_fsync,
+	.fasync		= unionfs_fasync,
+	.sendfile	= generic_file_sendfile,
+};
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/inode.c b/fs/unionfs/inode.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..401c62b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/inode.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1222 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+static int unionfs_create(struct inode *parent, struct dentry *dentry,
+			  int mode, struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *new_lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_parent_dentry = NULL;
+	int bindex = 0, bstart;
+	char *name = NULL;
+	int valid = 0;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry->d_parent);
+	valid = __unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry->d_parent, nd, 0);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry->d_parent);
+	if (!valid) {
+		err = -ESTALE;	/* same as what real_lookup does */
+		goto out;
+	}
+	valid = __unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, nd, 0);
+	/*
+	 * It's only a bug if this dentry was not negative and couldn't be
+	 * revalidated (shouldn't happen).
+	 */
+	BUG_ON(!valid && dentry->d_inode);
+
+	/* We start out in the leftmost branch. */
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * check if whiteout exists in this branch, i.e. lookup .wh.foo
+	 * first.
+	 */
+	name = alloc_whname(dentry->d_name.name, dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(name)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	wh_dentry = lookup_one_len(name, lower_dentry->d_parent,
+				   dentry->d_name.len + UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(wh_dentry);
+		wh_dentry = NULL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (wh_dentry->d_inode) {
+		/*
+		 * .wh.foo has been found.
+		 * First truncate it and then rename it to foo (hence having
+		 * the same overall effect as a normal create.
+		 */
+		struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry;
+		struct iattr newattrs;
+
+		mutex_lock(&wh_dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
+		newattrs.ia_valid = ATTR_CTIME | ATTR_MODE | ATTR_ATIME
+			| ATTR_MTIME | ATTR_UID | ATTR_GID | ATTR_FORCE
+			| ATTR_KILL_SUID | ATTR_KILL_SGID;
+
+		newattrs.ia_mode = mode & ~current->fs->umask;
+		newattrs.ia_uid = current->fsuid;
+		newattrs.ia_gid = current->fsgid;
+
+		if (wh_dentry->d_inode->i_size != 0) {
+			newattrs.ia_valid |= ATTR_SIZE;
+			newattrs.ia_size = 0;
+		}
+
+		err = notify_change(wh_dentry, &newattrs);
+
+		mutex_unlock(&wh_dentry->d_inode->i_mutex);
+
+		if (err)
+			printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: %s:%d: notify_change "
+			       "failed: %d, ignoring..\n",
+			       __FILE__, __LINE__, err);
+
+		new_lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+		dget(new_lower_dentry);
+
+		lower_dir_dentry = dget_parent(wh_dentry);
+		lock_rename(lower_dir_dentry, lower_dir_dentry);
+
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bstart))) {
+			err = vfs_rename(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					 wh_dentry,
+					 lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					 new_lower_dentry);
+		}
+		if (!err) {
+			fsstack_copy_attr_times(parent,
+						new_lower_dentry->d_parent->
+						d_inode);
+			fsstack_copy_inode_size(parent,
+						new_lower_dentry->d_parent->
+						d_inode);
+			parent->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(parent);
+		}
+
+		unlock_rename(lower_dir_dentry, lower_dir_dentry);
+		dput(lower_dir_dentry);
+
+		dput(new_lower_dentry);
+
+		if (err) {
+			/* exit if the error returned was NOT -EROFS */
+			if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+				goto out;
+			/*
+			 * We were not able to create the file in this
+			 * branch, so, we try to create it in one branch to
+			 * left
+			 */
+			bstart--;
+		} else {
+			/*
+			 * reset the unionfs dentry to point to the .wh.foo
+			 * entry.
+			 */
+
+			/* Discard any old reference. */
+			dput(unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry));
+
+			/* Trade one reference to another. */
+			unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bstart,
+						     wh_dentry);
+			wh_dentry = NULL;
+
+			/*
+			 * Only INTERPOSE_LOOKUP can return a value other
+			 * than 0 on err.
+			 */
+			err = PTR_ERR(unionfs_interpose(dentry,
+							parent->i_sb, 0));
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry) {
+			/*
+			 * if lower_dentry is NULL, create the entire
+			 * dentry directory structure in branch 'bindex'.
+			 * lower_dentry will NOT be null when bindex == bstart
+			 * because lookup passed as a negative unionfs dentry
+			 * pointing to a lone negative underlying dentry.
+			 */
+			lower_dentry = create_parents(parent, dentry,
+						      dentry->d_name.name,
+						      bindex);
+			if (!lower_dentry || IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+				if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry))
+					err = PTR_ERR(lower_dentry);
+				continue;
+			}
+		}
+
+		lower_parent_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_parent_dentry)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(lower_parent_dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+		/* We shouldn't create things in a read-only branch. */
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bindex)))
+			err = vfs_create(lower_parent_dentry->d_inode,
+					 lower_dentry, mode, nd);
+
+		if (err || !lower_dentry->d_inode) {
+			unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+
+			/* break out of for loop if the error wasn't  -EROFS */
+			if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+				break;
+		} else {
+			/*
+			 * Only INTERPOSE_LOOKUP can return a value other
+			 * than 0 on err.
+			 */
+			err = PTR_ERR(unionfs_interpose(dentry,
+							parent->i_sb, 0));
+			if (!err) {
+				unionfs_copy_attr_times(parent);
+				fsstack_copy_inode_size(parent,
+							lower_parent_dentry->
+							d_inode);
+				/* update no. of links on parent directory */
+				parent->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(parent);
+			}
+			unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	dput(wh_dentry);
+	kfree(name);
+
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_inherit_mnt(dentry);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	unionfs_check_inode(parent);
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_check_dentry(dentry->d_parent);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * unionfs_lookup is the only special function which takes a dentry, yet we
+ * do NOT want to call __unionfs_d_revalidate_chain because by definition,
+ * we don't have a valid dentry here yet.
+ */
+static struct dentry *unionfs_lookup(struct inode *parent,
+				     struct dentry *dentry,
+				     struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	struct path path_save;
+	struct dentry *ret;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	/* save the dentry & vfsmnt from namei */
+	if (nd) {
+		path_save.dentry = nd->dentry;
+		path_save.mnt = nd->mnt;
+	}
+
+	/* The locking is done by unionfs_lookup_backend. */
+	ret = unionfs_lookup_backend(dentry, nd, INTERPOSE_LOOKUP);
+
+	/* restore the dentry & vfsmnt in namei */
+	if (nd) {
+		nd->dentry = path_save.dentry;
+		nd->mnt = path_save.mnt;
+	}
+	if (!IS_ERR(ret)) {
+		if (ret)
+			dentry = ret;
+		/* parent times may have changed */
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+	}
+
+	unionfs_check_inode(parent);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry->d_parent);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_link(struct dentry *old_dentry, struct inode *dir,
+			struct dentry *new_dentry)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_old_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_new_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *whiteout_dentry;
+	char *name = NULL;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(old_dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_double_lock_dentry(new_dentry, old_dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(old_dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (new_dentry->d_inode &&
+	    !__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(new_dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_new_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(new_dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * check if whiteout exists in the branch of new dentry, i.e. lookup
+	 * .wh.foo first. If present, delete it
+	 */
+	name = alloc_whname(new_dentry->d_name.name, new_dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(name)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	whiteout_dentry = lookup_one_len(name, lower_new_dentry->d_parent,
+					 new_dentry->d_name.len +
+					 UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+	if (IS_ERR(whiteout_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(whiteout_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!whiteout_dentry->d_inode) {
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+		whiteout_dentry = NULL;
+	} else {
+		/* found a .wh.foo entry, unlink it and then call vfs_link() */
+		lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(whiteout_dentry);
+		err = is_robranch_super(new_dentry->d_sb, dbstart(new_dentry));
+		if (!err)
+			err = vfs_unlink(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					 whiteout_dentry);
+
+		fsstack_copy_attr_times(dir, lower_dir_dentry->d_inode);
+		dir->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(dir);
+		unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+		lower_dir_dentry = NULL;
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+		if (err)
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (dbstart(old_dentry) != dbstart(new_dentry)) {
+		lower_new_dentry = create_parents(dir, new_dentry,
+						  new_dentry->d_name.name,
+						  dbstart(old_dentry));
+		err = PTR_ERR(lower_new_dentry);
+		if (IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+			goto docopyup;
+		if (!lower_new_dentry || IS_ERR(lower_new_dentry))
+			goto out;
+	}
+	lower_new_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(new_dentry);
+	lower_old_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(old_dentry);
+
+	BUG_ON(dbstart(old_dentry) != dbstart(new_dentry));
+	lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(lower_new_dentry);
+	if (!(err = is_robranch(old_dentry)))
+		err = vfs_link(lower_old_dentry, lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+			       lower_new_dentry);
+	unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+
+docopyup:
+	if (IS_COPYUP_ERR(err)) {
+		int old_bstart = dbstart(old_dentry);
+		int bindex;
+
+		for (bindex = old_bstart - 1; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+			err = copyup_dentry(old_dentry->d_parent->d_inode,
+					    old_dentry, old_bstart,
+					    bindex, old_dentry->d_name.name,
+					    old_dentry->d_name.len, NULL,
+					    old_dentry->d_inode->i_size);
+			if (!err) {
+				lower_new_dentry =
+					create_parents(dir, new_dentry,
+						       new_dentry->d_name.name,
+						       bindex);
+				lower_old_dentry =
+					unionfs_lower_dentry(old_dentry);
+				lower_dir_dentry =
+					lock_parent(lower_new_dentry);
+				/* do vfs_link */
+				err = vfs_link(lower_old_dentry,
+					       lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					       lower_new_dentry);
+				unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+				goto check_link;
+			}
+		}
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+check_link:
+	if (err || !lower_new_dentry->d_inode)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* Its a hard link, so use the same inode */
+	new_dentry->d_inode = igrab(old_dentry->d_inode);
+	d_instantiate(new_dentry, new_dentry->d_inode);
+	unionfs_copy_attr_all(dir, lower_new_dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+	fsstack_copy_inode_size(dir, lower_new_dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+
+	/* propagate number of hard-links */
+	old_dentry->d_inode->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(old_dentry->d_inode);
+	/* new dentry's ctime may have changed due to hard-link counts */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(new_dentry->d_inode);
+
+out:
+	if (!new_dentry->d_inode)
+		d_drop(new_dentry);
+
+	kfree(name);
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_inherit_mnt(new_dentry);
+
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(new_dentry);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(old_dentry);
+
+	unionfs_check_inode(dir);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(new_dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(old_dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(old_dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_symlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+			   const char *symname)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *whiteout_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry = NULL;
+	umode_t mode;
+	int bindex = 0, bstart;
+	char *name = NULL;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (dentry->d_inode &&
+	    !__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* We start out in the leftmost branch. */
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * check if whiteout exists in this branch, i.e. lookup .wh.foo
+	 * first. If present, delete it
+	 */
+	name = alloc_whname(dentry->d_name.name, dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(name)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	whiteout_dentry =
+		lookup_one_len(name, lower_dentry->d_parent,
+			       dentry->d_name.len + UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+	if (IS_ERR(whiteout_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(whiteout_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!whiteout_dentry->d_inode) {
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+		whiteout_dentry = NULL;
+	} else {
+		/*
+		 * found a .wh.foo entry, unlink it and then call
+		 * vfs_symlink().
+		 */
+		lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(whiteout_dentry);
+
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bstart)))
+			err = vfs_unlink(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					 whiteout_dentry);
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+
+		fsstack_copy_attr_times(dir, lower_dir_dentry->d_inode);
+		/* propagate number of hard-links */
+		dir->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(dir);
+
+		unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+
+		if (err) {
+			/* exit if the error returned was NOT -EROFS */
+			if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+				goto out;
+			/*
+			 * should now try to create symlink in the another
+			 * branch.
+			 */
+			bstart--;
+		}
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * deleted whiteout if it was present, now do a normal vfs_symlink()
+	 * with possible recursive directory creation
+	 */
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry) {
+			/*
+			 * if lower_dentry is NULL, create the entire
+			 * dentry directory structure in branch 'bindex'.
+			 * lower_dentry will NOT be null when bindex ==
+			 * bstart because lookup passed as a negative
+			 * unionfs dentry pointing to a lone negative
+			 * underlying dentry
+			 */
+			lower_dentry = create_parents(dir, dentry,
+						      dentry->d_name.name,
+						      bindex);
+			if (!lower_dentry || IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+				if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry))
+					err = PTR_ERR(lower_dentry);
+
+				printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: lower dentry "
+				       "NULL (or error) for bindex = %d\n",
+				       bindex);
+				continue;
+			}
+		}
+
+		lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bindex))) {
+			mode = S_IALLUGO;
+			err =
+				vfs_symlink(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					    lower_dentry, symname, mode);
+		}
+		unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+
+		if (err || !lower_dentry->d_inode) {
+			/*
+			 * break out of for loop if error returned was NOT
+			 * -EROFS.
+			 */
+			if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+				break;
+		} else {
+			/*
+			 * Only INTERPOSE_LOOKUP can return a value other
+			 * than 0 on err.
+			 */
+			err = PTR_ERR(unionfs_interpose(dentry,
+							dir->i_sb, 0));
+			if (!err) {
+				fsstack_copy_attr_times(dir,
+							lower_dir_dentry->
+							d_inode);
+				fsstack_copy_inode_size(dir,
+							lower_dir_dentry->
+							d_inode);
+				/*
+				 * update number of links on parent
+				 * directory.
+				 */
+				dir->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(dir);
+			}
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (!dentry->d_inode)
+		d_drop(dentry);
+
+	kfree(name);
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_inherit_mnt(dentry);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	unionfs_check_inode(dir);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_mkdir(struct inode *parent, struct dentry *dentry, int mode)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL, *whiteout_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_parent_dentry = NULL;
+	int bindex = 0, bstart;
+	char *name = NULL;
+	int whiteout_unlinked = 0;
+	struct sioq_args args;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (dentry->d_inode &&
+	    !__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * check if whiteout exists in this branch, i.e. lookup .wh.foo
+	 * first.
+	 */
+	name = alloc_whname(dentry->d_name.name, dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(name)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	whiteout_dentry = lookup_one_len(name, lower_dentry->d_parent,
+					 dentry->d_name.len + UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+	if (IS_ERR(whiteout_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(whiteout_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!whiteout_dentry->d_inode) {
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+		whiteout_dentry = NULL;
+	} else {
+		lower_parent_dentry = lock_parent(whiteout_dentry);
+
+		/* found a.wh.foo entry, remove it then do vfs_mkdir */
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bstart))) {
+			args.unlink.parent = lower_parent_dentry->d_inode;
+			args.unlink.dentry = whiteout_dentry;
+			run_sioq(__unionfs_unlink, &args);
+			err = args.err;
+		}
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+
+		unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+
+		if (err) {
+			/* exit if the error returned was NOT -EROFS */
+			if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+				goto out;
+			bstart--;
+		} else
+			whiteout_unlinked = 1;
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+		int i;
+		int bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+		if (is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bindex))
+			continue;
+
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry) {
+			lower_dentry = create_parents(parent, dentry,
+						      dentry->d_name.name,
+						      bindex);
+			if (!lower_dentry || IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+				printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: lower dentry "
+				       " NULL for bindex = %d\n", bindex);
+				continue;
+			}
+		}
+
+		lower_parent_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_parent_dentry)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(lower_parent_dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		err = vfs_mkdir(lower_parent_dentry->d_inode, lower_dentry,
+				mode);
+
+		unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+
+		/* did the mkdir succeed? */
+		if (err)
+			break;
+
+		for (i = bindex + 1; i < bend; i++) {
+			if (unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, i)) {
+				dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, i));
+				unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, i, NULL);
+			}
+		}
+		set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+
+		/*
+		 * Only INTERPOSE_LOOKUP can return a value other than 0 on
+		 * err.
+		 */
+		err = PTR_ERR(unionfs_interpose(dentry, parent->i_sb, 0));
+		if (!err) {
+			unionfs_copy_attr_times(parent);
+			fsstack_copy_inode_size(parent,
+						lower_parent_dentry->d_inode);
+
+			/* update number of links on parent directory */
+			parent->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(parent);
+		}
+
+		err = make_dir_opaque(dentry, dbstart(dentry));
+		if (err) {
+			printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: mkdir: error creating "
+			       ".wh.__dir_opaque: %d\n", err);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		/* we are done! */
+		break;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (!dentry->d_inode)
+		d_drop(dentry);
+
+	kfree(name);
+
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_inode);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_inode(parent);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_mknod(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, int mode,
+			 dev_t dev)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL, *whiteout_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_parent_dentry = NULL;
+	int bindex = 0, bstart;
+	char *name = NULL;
+	int whiteout_unlinked = 0;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (dentry->d_inode &&
+	    !__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * check if whiteout exists in this branch, i.e. lookup .wh.foo
+	 * first.
+	 */
+	name = alloc_whname(dentry->d_name.name, dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(name)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	whiteout_dentry = lookup_one_len(name, lower_dentry->d_parent,
+					 dentry->d_name.len + UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+	if (IS_ERR(whiteout_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(whiteout_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!whiteout_dentry->d_inode) {
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+		whiteout_dentry = NULL;
+	} else {
+		/* found .wh.foo, unlink it */
+		lower_parent_dentry = lock_parent(whiteout_dentry);
+
+		/* found a.wh.foo entry, remove it then do vfs_mkdir */
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bstart)))
+			err = vfs_unlink(lower_parent_dentry->d_inode,
+					 whiteout_dentry);
+		dput(whiteout_dentry);
+
+		unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+
+		if (err) {
+			if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+				goto out;
+			bstart--;
+		} else
+			whiteout_unlinked = 1;
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+		if (is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bindex))
+			continue;
+
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry) {
+			lower_dentry = create_parents(dir, dentry,
+						      dentry->d_name.name,
+						      bindex);
+			if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+				printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: failed to create "
+				       "parents on %d, err = %ld\n",
+				       bindex, PTR_ERR(lower_dentry));
+				continue;
+			}
+		}
+
+		lower_parent_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_parent_dentry)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(lower_parent_dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		err = vfs_mknod(lower_parent_dentry->d_inode,
+				lower_dentry, mode, dev);
+
+		if (err) {
+			unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+			break;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * Only INTERPOSE_LOOKUP can return a value other than 0 on
+		 * err.
+		 */
+		err = PTR_ERR(unionfs_interpose(dentry, dir->i_sb, 0));
+		if (!err) {
+			fsstack_copy_attr_times(dir,
+						lower_parent_dentry->d_inode);
+			fsstack_copy_inode_size(dir,
+						lower_parent_dentry->d_inode);
+			/* update number of links on parent directory */
+			dir->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(dir);
+		}
+		unlock_dir(lower_parent_dentry);
+
+		break;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (!dentry->d_inode)
+		d_drop(dentry);
+
+	kfree(name);
+
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_inherit_mnt(dentry);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	unionfs_check_inode(dir);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_readlink(struct dentry *dentry, char __user *buf,
+			    int bufsiz)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!lower_dentry->d_inode->i_op ||
+	    !lower_dentry->d_inode->i_op->readlink) {
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	err = lower_dentry->d_inode->i_op->readlink(lower_dentry,
+						    buf, bufsiz);
+	if (err > 0)
+		fsstack_copy_attr_atime(dentry->d_inode,
+					lower_dentry->d_inode);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * unionfs_follow_link takes a dentry, but it is simple.  It only needs to
+ * allocate some memory and then call our ->readlink method.  Our
+ * unionfs_readlink *does* lock our dentry and revalidate the dentry.
+ * Therefore, we do not have to lock our dentry here, to prevent a deadlock;
+ * nor do we need to revalidate it either.  It is safe to not lock our
+ * dentry here, nor revalidate it, because unionfs_follow_link does not do
+ * anything (prior to calling ->readlink) which could become inconsistent
+ * due to branch management.
+ */
+static void *unionfs_follow_link(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	char *buf;
+	int len = PAGE_SIZE, err;
+	mm_segment_t old_fs;
+
+ 	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	/* This is freed by the put_link method assuming a successful call. */
+	buf = kmalloc(len, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* read the symlink, and then we will follow it */
+	old_fs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	err = dentry->d_inode->i_op->readlink(dentry, (char __user *)buf, len);
+	set_fs(old_fs);
+	if (err < 0) {
+		kfree(buf);
+		buf = NULL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	buf[err] = 0;
+	nd_set_link(nd, buf);
+	err = 0;
+
+out:
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+ 	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return ERR_PTR(err);
+}
+
+/* FIXME: We may not have to lock here */
+static void unionfs_put_link(struct dentry *dentry, struct nameidata *nd,
+			     void *cookie)
+{
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, nd, 0))
+		printk("unionfs: put_link failed to revalidate dentry\n");
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	kfree(nd_get_link(nd));
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Basically copied from the kernel vfs permission(), but we've changed
+ * the following:
+ *   (1) the IS_RDONLY check is skipped, and
+ *   (2) if you set the mount option `mode=nfsro', we assume that -EACCES
+ *   means that the export is read-only and we should check standard Unix
+ *   permissions.  This means that NFS ACL checks (or other advanced
+ *   permission features) are bypassed. Note however, that we do call
+ *   security_inode_permission, and therefore security inside SELinux, etc.
+ *   are performed.
+ */
+static int inode_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask,
+			    struct nameidata *nd, int bindex)
+{
+	int retval, submask;
+
+	if (mask & MAY_WRITE) {
+		/* The first branch is allowed to be really readonly. */
+		if (bindex == 0) {
+			umode_t mode = inode->i_mode;
+			if (IS_RDONLY(inode) &&
+			    (S_ISREG(mode) || S_ISDIR(mode) || S_ISLNK(mode)))
+				return -EROFS;
+		}
+		/*
+		 * Nobody gets write access to an immutable file.
+		 */
+		if (IS_IMMUTABLE(inode))
+			return -EACCES;
+	}
+
+	/* Ordinary permission routines do not understand MAY_APPEND. */
+	submask = mask & ~MAY_APPEND;
+	if (inode->i_op && inode->i_op->permission) {
+		retval = inode->i_op->permission(inode, submask, nd);
+		if ((retval == -EACCES) && (submask & MAY_WRITE) &&
+		    (!strcmp("nfs", (inode)->i_sb->s_type->name)) &&
+		    (nd) && (nd->mnt) && (nd->mnt->mnt_sb)) {
+			int perms;
+			perms = branchperms(nd->mnt->mnt_sb, bindex);
+			if (perms & MAY_NFSRO)
+				retval = generic_permission(inode, submask,
+							    NULL);
+		}
+	} else
+		retval = generic_permission(inode, submask, NULL);
+
+	if (retval && retval != -EROFS)	/* ignore EROFS */
+		return retval;
+
+	retval = security_inode_permission(inode, mask, nd);
+	return ((retval == -EROFS) ? 0 : retval);	/* ignore EROFS */
+}
+
+/*
+ * Don't grab the superblock read-lock in unionfs_permission, which prevents
+ * a deadlock with the branch-management "add branch" code (which grabbed
+ * the write lock).  It is safe to not grab the read lock here, because even
+ * with branch management taking place, there is no chance that
+ * unionfs_permission, or anything it calls, will use stale branch
+ * information.
+ */
+static int unionfs_permission(struct inode *inode, int mask,
+			      struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	struct inode *lower_inode = NULL;
+	int err = 0;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	const int is_file = !S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode);
+	const int write_mask = (mask & MAY_WRITE) && !(mask & MAY_READ);
+
+	bstart = ibstart(inode);
+	bend = ibend(inode);
+	if (bstart < 0 || bend < 0) {
+		/*
+		 * With branch-management, we can get a stale inode here.
+		 * If so, we return ESTALE back to link_path_walk, which
+		 * would discard the dcache entry and re-lookup the
+		 * dentry+inode.  This should be equivalent to issuing
+		 * __unionfs_d_revalidate_chain on nd.dentry here.
+		 */
+		err = -ESTALE;	/* force revalidate */
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+		if (!lower_inode)
+			continue;
+
+		/*
+		 * check the condition for D-F-D underlying files/directories,
+		 * we don't have to check for files, if we are checking for
+		 * directories.
+		 */
+		if (!is_file && !S_ISDIR(lower_inode->i_mode))
+			continue;
+
+		/*
+		 * We use our own special version of permission, such that
+		 * only the first branch returns -EROFS.
+		 */
+		err = inode_permission(lower_inode, mask, nd, bindex);
+
+		/*
+		 * The permissions are an intersection of the overall directory
+		 * permissions, so we fail if one fails.
+		 */
+		if (err)
+			goto out;
+
+		/* only the leftmost file matters. */
+		if (is_file || write_mask) {
+			if (is_file && write_mask) {
+				err = get_write_access(lower_inode);
+				if (!err)
+					put_write_access(lower_inode);
+			}
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	/* sync times which may have changed (asynchronously) below */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(inode);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_check_inode(inode);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_setattr(struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr *ia)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct inode *inode = NULL;
+	struct inode *lower_inode = NULL;
+	int bstart, bend, bindex;
+	int i;
+	int copyup = 0;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; (bindex <= bend) || (bindex == bstart);
+	     bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+		BUG_ON(lower_dentry->d_inode == NULL);
+
+		/* If the file is on a read only branch */
+		if (is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bindex)
+		    || IS_RDONLY(lower_dentry->d_inode)) {
+			if (copyup || (bindex != bstart))
+				continue;
+			/* Only if its the leftmost file, copyup the file */
+			for (i = bstart - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+				loff_t size = dentry->d_inode->i_size;
+				if (ia->ia_valid & ATTR_SIZE)
+					size = ia->ia_size;
+				err = copyup_dentry(dentry->d_parent->d_inode,
+						    dentry, bstart, i,
+						    dentry->d_name.name,
+						    dentry->d_name.len,
+						    NULL, size);
+
+				if (!err) {
+					copyup = 1;
+					lower_dentry =
+						unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+					break;
+				}
+				/*
+				 * if error is in the leftmost branch, pass
+				 * it up.
+				 */
+				if (i == 0)
+					goto out;
+			}
+
+		}
+		err = notify_change(lower_dentry, ia);
+		if (err)
+			goto out;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	/* for mmap */
+	if (ia->ia_valid & ATTR_SIZE) {
+		if (ia->ia_size != i_size_read(inode)) {
+			err = vmtruncate(inode, ia->ia_size);
+			if (err)
+				printk("unionfs_setattr: vmtruncate failed\n");
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* get the size from the first lower inode */
+	lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode(inode);
+	unionfs_copy_attr_all(inode, lower_inode);
+	fsstack_copy_inode_size(inode, lower_inode);
+	/* if setattr succeeded, then parent dir may have changed */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry->d_parent);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+struct inode_operations unionfs_symlink_iops = {
+	.readlink	= unionfs_readlink,
+	.permission	= unionfs_permission,
+	.follow_link	= unionfs_follow_link,
+	.setattr	= unionfs_setattr,
+	.put_link	= unionfs_put_link,
+};
+
+struct inode_operations unionfs_dir_iops = {
+	.create		= unionfs_create,
+	.lookup		= unionfs_lookup,
+	.link		= unionfs_link,
+	.unlink		= unionfs_unlink,
+	.symlink	= unionfs_symlink,
+	.mkdir		= unionfs_mkdir,
+	.rmdir		= unionfs_rmdir,
+	.mknod		= unionfs_mknod,
+	.rename		= unionfs_rename,
+	.permission	= unionfs_permission,
+	.setattr	= unionfs_setattr,
+#ifdef CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR
+	.setxattr	= unionfs_setxattr,
+	.getxattr	= unionfs_getxattr,
+	.removexattr	= unionfs_removexattr,
+	.listxattr	= unionfs_listxattr,
+#endif /* CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR */
+};
+
+struct inode_operations unionfs_main_iops = {
+	.permission	= unionfs_permission,
+	.setattr	= unionfs_setattr,
+#ifdef CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR
+	.setxattr	= unionfs_setxattr,
+	.getxattr	= unionfs_getxattr,
+	.removexattr	= unionfs_removexattr,
+	.listxattr	= unionfs_listxattr,
+#endif /* CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR */
+};
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/lookup.c b/fs/unionfs/lookup.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4e89a3c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/lookup.c
@@ -0,0 +1,575 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/* is the filename valid == !(whiteout for a file or opaque dir marker) */
+static int is_validname(const char *name)
+{
+	if (!strncmp(name, UNIONFS_WHPFX, UNIONFS_WHLEN))
+		return 0;
+	if (!strncmp(name, UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE_NAME,
+		     sizeof(UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE_NAME) - 1))
+		return 0;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+/* The rest of these are utility functions for lookup. */
+static noinline int is_opaque_dir(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *wh_lower_dentry;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	struct sioq_args args;
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+	lower_inode = lower_dentry->d_inode;
+
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(lower_inode->i_mode));
+
+	mutex_lock(&lower_inode->i_mutex);
+
+	if (!permission(lower_inode, MAY_EXEC, NULL))
+		wh_lower_dentry =
+			lookup_one_len(UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE, lower_dentry,
+				       sizeof(UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE) - 1);
+	else {
+		args.is_opaque.dentry = lower_dentry;
+		run_sioq(__is_opaque_dir, &args);
+		wh_lower_dentry = args.ret;
+	}
+
+	mutex_unlock(&lower_inode->i_mutex);
+
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_lower_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(wh_lower_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* This is an opaque dir iff wh_lower_dentry is positive */
+	err = !!wh_lower_dentry->d_inode;
+
+	dput(wh_lower_dentry);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Main (and complex) driver function for Unionfs's lookup
+ *
+ * Returns: NULL (ok), ERR_PTR if an error occurred, or a non-null non-error
+ * PTR if d_splice returned a different dentry.
+ */
+struct dentry *unionfs_lookup_backend(struct dentry *dentry,
+				      struct nameidata *nd, int lookupmode)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *wh_lower_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *parent_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *d_interposed = NULL;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend, bopaque;
+	int dentry_count = 0;	/* Number of positive dentries. */
+	int first_dentry_offset = -1; /* -1 is uninitialized */
+	struct dentry *first_dentry = NULL;
+	struct dentry *first_lower_dentry = NULL;
+	struct vfsmount *first_lower_mnt = NULL;
+	int locked_parent = 0;
+	int locked_child = 0;
+	int allocated_new_info = 0;
+	int opaque;
+	char *whname = NULL;
+	const char *name;
+	int namelen;
+
+	/*
+	 * We should already have a lock on this dentry in the case of a
+	 * partial lookup, or a revalidation. Otherwise it is returned from
+	 * new_dentry_private_data already locked.
+	 */
+	if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_PARTIAL || lookupmode == INTERPOSE_REVAL ||
+	    lookupmode == INTERPOSE_REVAL_NEG)
+		verify_locked(dentry);
+	else {
+		BUG_ON(UNIONFS_D(dentry) != NULL);
+		locked_child = 1;
+	}
+
+	switch(lookupmode) {
+		case INTERPOSE_PARTIAL:
+			break;
+		case INTERPOSE_LOOKUP:
+			if ((err = new_dentry_private_data(dentry)))
+				goto out;
+			allocated_new_info = 1;
+			break;
+		default:
+			if ((err = realloc_dentry_private_data(dentry)))
+				goto out;
+			allocated_new_info = 1;
+			break;
+	}
+
+	/* must initialize dentry operations */
+	dentry->d_op = &unionfs_dops;
+
+	parent_dentry = dget_parent(dentry);
+	/* We never partial lookup the root directory. */
+	if (parent_dentry != dentry) {
+		unionfs_lock_dentry(parent_dentry);
+		locked_parent = 1;
+	} else {
+		dput(parent_dentry);
+		parent_dentry = NULL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	name = dentry->d_name.name;
+	namelen = dentry->d_name.len;
+
+	/* No dentries should get created for possible whiteout names. */
+	if (!is_validname(name)) {
+		err = -EPERM;
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+
+	/* Now start the actual lookup procedure. */
+	bstart = dbstart(parent_dentry);
+	bend = dbend(parent_dentry);
+	bopaque = dbopaque(parent_dentry);
+	BUG_ON(bstart < 0);
+
+	/*
+	 * It would be ideal if we could convert partial lookups to only have
+	 * to do this work when they really need to.  It could probably improve
+	 * performance quite a bit, and maybe simplify the rest of the code.
+	 */
+	if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_PARTIAL) {
+		bstart++;
+		if ((bopaque != -1) && (bopaque < bend))
+			bend = bopaque;
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_PARTIAL && lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+		BUG_ON(lower_dentry != NULL);
+
+		lower_dir_dentry =
+			unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(parent_dentry, bindex);
+
+		/* if the parent lower dentry does not exist skip this */
+		if (!(lower_dir_dentry && lower_dir_dentry->d_inode))
+			continue;
+
+		/* also skip it if the parent isn't a directory. */
+		if (!S_ISDIR(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+			continue;
+
+		/* Reuse the whiteout name because its value doesn't change. */
+		if (!whname) {
+			whname = alloc_whname(name, namelen);
+			if (IS_ERR(whname)) {
+				err = PTR_ERR(whname);
+				goto out_free;
+			}
+		}
+
+		/* check if whiteout exists in this branch: lookup .wh.foo */
+		wh_lower_dentry = lookup_one_len(whname, lower_dir_dentry,
+						 namelen + UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+		if (IS_ERR(wh_lower_dentry)) {
+			dput(first_lower_dentry);
+			unionfs_mntput(first_dentry, first_dentry_offset);
+			err = PTR_ERR(wh_lower_dentry);
+			goto out_free;
+		}
+
+		if (wh_lower_dentry->d_inode) {
+			/* We found a whiteout so lets give up. */
+			if (S_ISREG(wh_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+				set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+				set_dbopaque(dentry, bindex);
+				dput(wh_lower_dentry);
+				break;
+			}
+			err = -EIO;
+			printk(KERN_NOTICE "unionfs: EIO: invalid whiteout "
+			       "entry type %d.\n",
+			       wh_lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode);
+			dput(wh_lower_dentry);
+			dput(first_lower_dentry);
+			unionfs_mntput(first_dentry, first_dentry_offset);
+			goto out_free;
+		}
+
+		dput(wh_lower_dentry);
+		wh_lower_dentry = NULL;
+
+		/* Now do regular lookup; lookup foo */
+		nd->dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		/* FIXME: fix following line for mount point crossing */
+		nd->mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(parent_dentry, bindex);
+
+		lower_dentry = lookup_one_len_nd(name, lower_dir_dentry,
+						 namelen, nd);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+			dput(first_lower_dentry);
+			unionfs_mntput(first_dentry, first_dentry_offset);
+			err = PTR_ERR(lower_dentry);
+			goto out_free;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * Store the first negative dentry specially, because if they
+		 * are all negative we need this for future creates.
+		 */
+		if (!lower_dentry->d_inode) {
+			if (!first_lower_dentry && (dbstart(dentry) == -1)) {
+				first_lower_dentry = lower_dentry;
+				/*
+				 * FIXME: following line needs to be changed
+				 * to allow mount-point crossing
+				 */
+				first_dentry = parent_dentry;
+				first_lower_mnt =
+					unionfs_mntget(parent_dentry, bindex);
+				first_dentry_offset = bindex;
+			} else
+				dput(lower_dentry);
+
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* number of positive dentries */
+		dentry_count++;
+
+		/* store underlying dentry */
+		if (dbstart(dentry) == -1)
+			set_dbstart(dentry, bindex);
+		unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, lower_dentry);
+		/*
+		 * FIXME: the following line needs to get fixed to allow
+		 * mount-point crossing
+		 */
+		unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex,
+					  unionfs_mntget(parent_dentry,
+							 bindex));
+		set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+
+		/* update parent directory's atime with the bindex */
+		fsstack_copy_attr_atime(parent_dentry->d_inode,
+					lower_dir_dentry->d_inode);
+
+		/* We terminate file lookups here. */
+		if (!S_ISDIR(lower_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+			if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_PARTIAL)
+				continue;
+			if (dentry_count == 1)
+				goto out_positive;
+			/* This can only happen with mixed D-*-F-* */
+			BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry)->
+					d_inode->i_mode));
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		opaque = is_opaque_dir(dentry, bindex);
+		if (opaque < 0) {
+			dput(first_lower_dentry);
+			unionfs_mntput(first_dentry, first_dentry_offset);
+			err = opaque;
+			goto out_free;
+		} else if (opaque) {
+			set_dbend(dentry, bindex);
+			set_dbopaque(dentry, bindex);
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (dentry_count)
+		goto out_positive;
+	else
+		goto out_negative;
+
+out_negative:
+	if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_PARTIAL)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* If we've only got negative dentries, then use the leftmost one. */
+	if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_REVAL) {
+		if (dentry->d_inode)
+			UNIONFS_I(dentry->d_inode)->stale = 1;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	/* This should only happen if we found a whiteout. */
+	if (first_dentry_offset == -1) {
+		nd->dentry = dentry;
+		/* FIXME: fix following line for mount point crossing */
+		nd->mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(parent_dentry, bindex);
+
+		first_lower_dentry =
+			lookup_one_len_nd(name, lower_dir_dentry,
+					  namelen, nd);
+		first_dentry_offset = bindex;
+		if (IS_ERR(first_lower_dentry)) {
+			err = PTR_ERR(first_lower_dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * FIXME: the following line needs to be changed to allow
+		 * mount-point crossing
+		 */
+		first_dentry = dentry;
+		first_lower_mnt = unionfs_mntget(dentry->d_sb->s_root,
+						 bindex);
+	}
+	unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, first_dentry_offset,
+				     first_lower_dentry);
+	unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, first_dentry_offset,
+				  first_lower_mnt);
+	set_dbstart(dentry, first_dentry_offset);
+	set_dbend(dentry, first_dentry_offset);
+
+	if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_REVAL_NEG)
+		BUG_ON(dentry->d_inode != NULL);
+	else
+		d_add(dentry, NULL);
+	goto out;
+
+/* This part of the code is for positive dentries. */
+out_positive:
+	BUG_ON(dentry_count <= 0);
+
+	/*
+	 * If we're holding onto the first negative dentry & corresponding
+	 * vfsmount - throw it out.
+	 */
+	dput(first_lower_dentry);
+	unionfs_mntput(first_dentry, first_dentry_offset);
+
+	/* Partial lookups need to re-interpose, or throw away older negs. */
+	if (lookupmode == INTERPOSE_PARTIAL) {
+		if (dentry->d_inode) {
+			unionfs_reinterpose(dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * This somehow turned positive, so it is as if we had a
+		 * negative revalidation.
+		 */
+		lookupmode = INTERPOSE_REVAL_NEG;
+
+		update_bstart(dentry);
+		bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+		bend = dbend(dentry);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Interpose can return a dentry if d_splice returned a different
+	 * dentry.
+	 */
+	d_interposed = unionfs_interpose(dentry, dentry->d_sb, lookupmode);
+	if (IS_ERR(d_interposed))
+		err = PTR_ERR(d_interposed);
+	else if (d_interposed)
+		dentry = d_interposed;
+
+	if (err)
+		goto out_drop;
+
+	goto out;
+
+out_drop:
+	d_drop(dentry);
+
+out_free:
+	/* should dput all the underlying dentries on error condition */
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	if (bstart >= 0) {
+		bend = dbend(dentry);
+		for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex));
+			unionfs_mntput(dentry, bindex);
+		}
+	}
+	kfree(UNIONFS_D(dentry)->lower_paths);
+	UNIONFS_D(dentry)->lower_paths = NULL;
+	set_dbstart(dentry, -1);
+	set_dbend(dentry, -1);
+
+out:
+	if (!err && UNIONFS_D(dentry)) {
+		BUG_ON(dbend(dentry) > UNIONFS_D(dentry)->bcount);
+		BUG_ON(dbend(dentry) > sbmax(dentry->d_sb));
+		BUG_ON(dbstart(dentry) < 0);
+	}
+	kfree(whname);
+	if (locked_parent)
+		unionfs_unlock_dentry(parent_dentry);
+	dput(parent_dentry);
+	if (locked_child || (err && allocated_new_info))
+		unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	if (!err && d_interposed)
+		return d_interposed;
+	return ERR_PTR(err);
+}
+
+/*
+ * This is a utility function that fills in a unionfs dentry.
+ *
+ * Returns: 0 (ok), or -ERRNO if an error occurred.
+ */
+int unionfs_partial_lookup(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct dentry *tmp;
+	struct nameidata nd = { .flags = 0 };
+	int err = -ENOSYS;
+
+	tmp = unionfs_lookup_backend(dentry, &nd, INTERPOSE_PARTIAL);
+	if (!tmp) {
+		err = 0;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (IS_ERR(tmp)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(tmp);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	/* need to change the interface */
+	BUG_ON(tmp != dentry);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* The dentry cache is just so we have properly sized dentries. */
+static struct kmem_cache *unionfs_dentry_cachep;
+int unionfs_init_dentry_cache(void)
+{
+	unionfs_dentry_cachep =
+		kmem_cache_create("unionfs_dentry",
+				  sizeof(struct unionfs_dentry_info),
+				  0, SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT, NULL, NULL);
+
+	return (unionfs_dentry_cachep ? 0 : -ENOMEM);
+}
+
+void unionfs_destroy_dentry_cache(void)
+{
+	if (unionfs_dentry_cachep)
+		kmem_cache_destroy(unionfs_dentry_cachep);
+}
+
+void free_dentry_private_data(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	if (!dentry || !dentry->d_fsdata)
+		return;
+	kmem_cache_free(unionfs_dentry_cachep, dentry->d_fsdata);
+	dentry->d_fsdata = NULL;
+}
+
+static inline int __realloc_dentry_private_data(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct unionfs_dentry_info *info = UNIONFS_D(dentry);
+	void *p;
+	int size;
+
+	BUG_ON(!info);
+
+	size = sizeof(struct path) * sbmax(dentry->d_sb);
+	p = krealloc(info->lower_paths, size, GFP_ATOMIC);
+	if (!p)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	info->lower_paths = p;
+
+	info->bstart = -1;
+	info->bend = -1;
+	info->bopaque = -1;
+	info->bcount = sbmax(dentry->d_sb);
+	atomic_set(&info->generation,
+			atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(dentry->d_sb)->generation));
+
+	memset(info->lower_paths, 0, size);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* UNIONFS_D(dentry)->lock must be locked */
+int realloc_dentry_private_data(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	if (!__realloc_dentry_private_data(dentry))
+		return 0;
+
+	kfree(UNIONFS_D(dentry)->lower_paths);
+	free_dentry_private_data(dentry);
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+/* allocate new dentry private data */
+int new_dentry_private_data(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct unionfs_dentry_info *info = UNIONFS_D(dentry);
+
+	BUG_ON(info);
+
+	info = kmem_cache_alloc(unionfs_dentry_cachep, GFP_ATOMIC);
+	if (!info)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	mutex_init(&info->lock);
+	mutex_lock(&info->lock);
+
+	info->lower_paths = NULL;
+
+	dentry->d_fsdata = info;
+
+	if (!__realloc_dentry_private_data(dentry))
+		return 0;
+
+	mutex_unlock(&info->lock);
+	free_dentry_private_data(dentry);
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+/*
+ * scan through the lower dentry objects, and set bstart to reflect the
+ * starting branch
+ */
+void update_bstart(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int bindex;
+	int bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	int bend = dbend(dentry);
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+		if (lower_dentry->d_inode) {
+			set_dbstart(dentry, bindex);
+			break;
+		}
+		dput(lower_dentry);
+		unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+	}
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/main.c b/fs/unionfs/main.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e437edb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/main.c
@@ -0,0 +1,762 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/moduleparam.h>
+
+/*
+ * Connect a unionfs inode dentry/inode with several lower ones.  This is
+ * the classic stackable file system "vnode interposition" action.
+ *
+ * @sb: unionfs's super_block
+ */
+struct dentry *unionfs_interpose(struct dentry *dentry, struct super_block *sb,
+				 int flag)
+{
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	int err = 0;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	int is_negative_dentry = 1;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	int skipped = 1;
+	struct dentry *spliced = NULL;
+
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+	/* Make sure that we didn't get a negative dentry. */
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		if (unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex) &&
+		    unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex)->d_inode) {
+			is_negative_dentry = 0;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	BUG_ON(is_negative_dentry);
+
+	/*
+	 * We allocate our new inode below, by calling iget.
+	 * iget will call our read_inode which will initialize some
+	 * of the new inode's fields
+	 */
+
+	/*
+	 * On revalidate we've already got our own inode and just need
+	 * to fix it up.
+	 */
+	if (flag == INTERPOSE_REVAL) {
+		inode = dentry->d_inode;
+		UNIONFS_I(inode)->bstart = -1;
+		UNIONFS_I(inode)->bend = -1;
+		atomic_set(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->generation,
+			   atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->generation));
+
+		UNIONFS_I(inode)->lower_inodes =
+			kcalloc(sbmax(sb), sizeof(struct inode *), GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!UNIONFS_I(inode)->lower_inodes) {
+			err = -ENOMEM;
+			goto out;
+		}
+	} else {
+		/* get unique inode number for unionfs */
+		inode = iget(sb, iunique(sb, UNIONFS_ROOT_INO));
+		if (!inode) {
+			err = -EACCES;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		if (atomic_read(&inode->i_count) > 1)
+			goto skip;
+	}
+
+fill_i_info:
+	skipped = 0;
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry) {
+			unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex, NULL);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* Initialize the lower inode to the new lower inode. */
+		if (!lower_dentry->d_inode)
+			continue;
+
+		unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex,
+					    igrab(lower_dentry->d_inode));
+	}
+
+	ibstart(inode) = dbstart(dentry);
+	ibend(inode) = dbend(dentry);
+
+	/* Use attributes from the first branch. */
+	lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode(inode);
+
+	/* Use different set of inode ops for symlinks & directories */
+	if (S_ISLNK(lower_inode->i_mode))
+		inode->i_op = &unionfs_symlink_iops;
+	else if (S_ISDIR(lower_inode->i_mode))
+		inode->i_op = &unionfs_dir_iops;
+
+	/* Use different set of file ops for directories */
+	if (S_ISDIR(lower_inode->i_mode))
+		inode->i_fop = &unionfs_dir_fops;
+
+	/* properly initialize special inodes */
+	if (S_ISBLK(lower_inode->i_mode) || S_ISCHR(lower_inode->i_mode) ||
+	    S_ISFIFO(lower_inode->i_mode) || S_ISSOCK(lower_inode->i_mode))
+		init_special_inode(inode, lower_inode->i_mode,
+				   lower_inode->i_rdev);
+
+	/* all well, copy inode attributes */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_all(inode, lower_inode);
+	fsstack_copy_inode_size(inode, lower_inode);
+
+	if (spliced)
+		goto out_spliced;
+skip:
+	/* only (our) lookup wants to do a d_add */
+	switch (flag) {
+	case INTERPOSE_DEFAULT:
+	case INTERPOSE_REVAL_NEG:
+		d_instantiate(dentry, inode);
+		break;
+	case INTERPOSE_LOOKUP:
+		spliced = d_splice_alias(inode, dentry);
+		if (IS_ERR(spliced))
+			err = PTR_ERR(spliced);
+
+		/*
+		 * d_splice can return a dentry if it was disconnected and
+		 * had to be moved.  We must ensure that the private data of
+		 * the new dentry is correct and that the inode info was
+		 * filled properly.  Finally we must return this new dentry.
+		 */
+		else if (spliced && spliced != dentry) {
+			spliced->d_op = &unionfs_dops;
+			spliced->d_fsdata = dentry->d_fsdata;
+			dentry->d_fsdata = NULL;
+			dentry = spliced;
+			if (skipped)
+				goto fill_i_info;
+			goto out_spliced;
+		}
+		break;
+	case INTERPOSE_REVAL:
+		/* Do nothing. */
+		break;
+	default:
+		printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: invalid interpose flag passed!");
+		BUG();
+	}
+	goto out;
+
+out_spliced:
+	if (!err)
+		return spliced;
+out:
+	return ERR_PTR(err);
+}
+
+/* like interpose above, but for an already existing dentry */
+void unionfs_reinterpose(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+
+	/* This is pre-allocated inode */
+	inode = dentry->d_inode;
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+		if (!lower_dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		if (!lower_dentry->d_inode)
+			continue;
+		if (unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex))
+			continue;
+		unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex,
+					    igrab(lower_dentry->d_inode));
+	}
+	ibstart(inode) = dbstart(dentry);
+	ibend(inode) = dbend(dentry);
+}
+
+/*
+ * make sure the branch we just looked up (nd) makes sense:
+ *
+ * 1) we're not trying to stack unionfs on top of unionfs
+ * 2) it exists
+ * 3) is a directory
+ */
+int check_branch(struct nameidata *nd)
+{
+	/* XXX: remove in ODF code -- stacking unions allowed there */
+	if (!strcmp(nd->dentry->d_sb->s_type->name, "unionfs"))
+		return -EINVAL;
+	if (!nd->dentry->d_inode)
+		return -ENOENT;
+	if (!S_ISDIR(nd->dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		return -ENOTDIR;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* checks if two lower_dentries have overlapping branches */
+static int is_branch_overlap(struct dentry *dent1, struct dentry *dent2)
+{
+	struct dentry *dent = NULL;
+
+	dent = dent1;
+	while ((dent != dent2) && (dent->d_parent != dent))
+		dent = dent->d_parent;
+
+	if (dent == dent2)
+		return 1;
+
+	dent = dent2;
+	while ((dent != dent1) && (dent->d_parent != dent))
+		dent = dent->d_parent;
+
+	return (dent == dent1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Parse branch mode helper function
+ */
+int __parse_branch_mode(const char *name)
+{
+	if (!name)
+		return 0;
+	if (!strcmp(name, "ro"))
+		return MAY_READ;
+	if (!strcmp(name, "rw"))
+		return (MAY_READ | MAY_WRITE);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Parse "ro" or "rw" options, but default to "rw" of no mode options
+ * was specified.
+ */
+int parse_branch_mode(const char *name)
+{
+	int perms =  __parse_branch_mode(name);
+
+	if (perms == 0)
+		perms = MAY_READ | MAY_WRITE;
+	return perms;
+}
+
+/* 
+ * parse the dirs= mount argument
+ *
+ * We don't need to lock the superblock private data's rwsem, as we get
+ * called only by unionfs_read_super - it is still a long time before anyone
+ * can even get a reference to us.
+ */
+static int parse_dirs_option(struct super_block *sb, struct unionfs_dentry_info
+			     *lower_root_info, char *options)
+{
+	struct nameidata nd;
+	char *name;
+	int err = 0;
+	int branches = 1;
+	int bindex = 0;
+	int i = 0;
+	int j = 0;
+	struct dentry *dent1;
+	struct dentry *dent2;
+
+	if (options[0] == '\0') {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: no branches specified\n");
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Each colon means we have a separator, this is really just a rough
+	 * guess, since strsep will handle empty fields for us.
+	 */
+	for (i = 0; options[i]; i++)
+		if (options[i] == ':')
+			branches++;
+
+	/* allocate space for underlying pointers to lower dentry */
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data =
+		kcalloc(branches, sizeof(struct unionfs_data), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_root_info->lower_paths =
+		kcalloc(branches, sizeof(struct path), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!lower_root_info->lower_paths) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* now parsing a string such as "b1:b2=rw:b3=ro:b4" */
+	branches = 0;
+	while ((name = strsep(&options, ":")) != NULL) {
+		int perms;
+		char *mode = strchr(name, '=');
+
+		if (!name)
+			continue;
+		if (!*name) {	/* bad use of ':' (extra colons) */
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		branches++;
+
+		/* strip off '=' if any */
+		if (mode)
+			*mode++ = '\0';
+
+		perms = parse_branch_mode(mode);
+		if (!bindex && !(perms & MAY_WRITE)) {
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		err = path_lookup(name, LOOKUP_FOLLOW, &nd);
+		if (err) {
+			printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: error accessing "
+			       "lower directory '%s' (error %d)\n",
+			       name, err);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		if ((err = check_branch(&nd))) {
+			printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: lower directory "
+			       "'%s' is not a valid branch\n", name);
+			path_release(&nd);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].dentry = nd.dentry;
+		lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].mnt = nd.mnt;
+
+		set_branchperms(sb, bindex, perms);
+		set_branch_count(sb, bindex, 0);
+		new_branch_id(sb, bindex);
+
+		if (lower_root_info->bstart < 0)
+			lower_root_info->bstart = bindex;
+		lower_root_info->bend = bindex;
+		bindex++;
+	}
+
+	if (branches == 0) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: no branches specified\n");
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(branches != (lower_root_info->bend + 1));
+
+	/*
+	 * Ensure that no overlaps exist in the branches.
+	 *
+	 * This test is required because the Linux kernel has no support
+	 * currently for ensuring coherency between stackable layers and
+	 * branches.  If we were to allow overlapping branches, it would be
+	 * possible, for example, to delete a file via one branch, which
+	 * would not be reflected in another branch.  Such incoherency could
+	 * lead to inconsistencies and even kernel oopses.  Rather than
+	 * implement hacks to work around some of these cache-coherency
+	 * problems, we prevent branch overlapping, for now.  A complete
+	 * solution will involve proper kernel/VFS support for cache
+	 * coherency, at which time we could safely remove this
+	 * branch-overlapping test.
+	 */
+	for (i = 0; i < branches; i++) {
+		dent1 = lower_root_info->lower_paths[i].dentry;
+		for (j = i + 1; j < branches; j++) {
+			dent2 = lower_root_info->lower_paths[j].dentry;
+			if (is_branch_overlap(dent1, dent2)) {
+				printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: branches %d and "
+				       "%d overlap\n", i, j);
+				err = -EINVAL;
+				goto out;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (err) {
+		for (i = 0; i < branches; i++)
+			if (lower_root_info->lower_paths[i].dentry) {
+				dput(lower_root_info->lower_paths[i].dentry);
+				/* initialize: can't use unionfs_mntput here */
+				mntput(lower_root_info->lower_paths[i].mnt);
+			}
+
+		kfree(lower_root_info->lower_paths);
+		kfree(UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data);
+
+		/*
+		 * MUST clear the pointers to prevent potential double free if
+		 * the caller dies later on
+		 */
+		lower_root_info->lower_paths = NULL;
+		UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data = NULL;
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Parse mount options.  See the manual page for usage instructions.
+ *
+ * Returns the dentry object of the lower-level (lower) directory;
+ * We want to mount our stackable file system on top of that lower directory.
+ */
+static struct unionfs_dentry_info *unionfs_parse_options(
+	struct super_block *sb,
+	char *options)
+{
+	struct unionfs_dentry_info *lower_root_info;
+	char *optname;
+	int err = 0;
+	int bindex;
+	int dirsfound = 0;
+
+	/* allocate private data area */
+	err = -ENOMEM;
+	lower_root_info =
+		kzalloc(sizeof(struct unionfs_dentry_info), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!lower_root_info)
+		goto out_error;
+	lower_root_info->bstart = -1;
+	lower_root_info->bend = -1;
+	lower_root_info->bopaque = -1;
+
+	while ((optname = strsep(&options, ",")) != NULL) {
+		char *optarg;
+		char *endptr;
+		int intval;
+
+		if (!optname || !*optname)
+			continue;
+
+		optarg = strchr(optname, '=');
+		if (optarg)
+			*optarg++ = '\0';
+
+		/*
+		 * All of our options take an argument now. Insert ones that
+		 * don't, above this check.
+		 */
+		if (!optarg) {
+			printk("unionfs: %s requires an argument.\n", optname);
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			goto out_error;
+		}
+
+		if (!strcmp("dirs", optname)) {
+			if (++dirsfound > 1) {
+				printk(KERN_WARNING
+				       "unionfs: multiple dirs specified\n");
+				err = -EINVAL;
+				goto out_error;
+			}
+			err = parse_dirs_option(sb, lower_root_info, optarg);
+			if (err)
+				goto out_error;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* All of these options require an integer argument. */
+		intval = simple_strtoul(optarg, &endptr, 0);
+		if (*endptr) {
+			printk(KERN_WARNING
+			       "unionfs: invalid %s option '%s'\n",
+			       optname, optarg);
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			goto out_error;
+		}
+
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		printk(KERN_WARNING
+		       "unionfs: unrecognized option '%s'\n", optname);
+		goto out_error;
+	}
+	if (dirsfound != 1) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: dirs option required\n");
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out_error;
+	}
+	goto out;
+
+out_error:
+	if (lower_root_info && lower_root_info->lower_paths) {
+		for (bindex = lower_root_info->bstart;
+		     bindex >= 0 && bindex <= lower_root_info->bend;
+		     bindex++) {
+			struct dentry *d;
+			struct vfsmount *m;
+
+			d = lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].dentry;
+			m = lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].mnt;
+
+			dput(d);
+			/* initializing: can't use unionfs_mntput here */
+			mntput(m);
+		}
+	}
+
+	kfree(lower_root_info->lower_paths);
+	kfree(lower_root_info);
+
+	kfree(UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data);
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data = NULL;
+
+	lower_root_info = ERR_PTR(err);
+out:
+	return lower_root_info;
+}
+
+/*
+ * our custom d_alloc_root work-alike
+ *
+ * we can't use d_alloc_root if we want to use our own interpose function
+ * unchanged, so we simply call our own "fake" d_alloc_root
+ */
+static struct dentry *unionfs_d_alloc_root(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct dentry *ret = NULL;
+
+	if (sb) {
+		static const struct qstr name = {.name = "/",.len = 1 };
+
+		ret = d_alloc(NULL, &name);
+		if (ret) {
+			ret->d_op = &unionfs_dops;
+			ret->d_sb = sb;
+			ret->d_parent = ret;
+		}
+	}
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * There is no need to lock the unionfs_super_info's rwsem as there is no
+ * way anyone can have a reference to the superblock at this point in time.
+ */
+static int unionfs_read_super(struct super_block *sb, void *raw_data,
+			      int silent)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct unionfs_dentry_info *lower_root_info = NULL;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+
+	if (!raw_data) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING
+		       "unionfs: read_super: missing data argument\n");
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* Allocate superblock private data */
+	sb->s_fs_info = kzalloc(sizeof(struct unionfs_sb_info), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!UNIONFS_SB(sb)) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: read_super: out of memory\n");
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->bend = -1;
+	atomic_set(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->generation, 1);
+	init_rwsem(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->rwsem);
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->high_branch_id = -1; /* -1 == invalid branch ID */
+
+	lower_root_info = unionfs_parse_options(sb, raw_data);
+	if (IS_ERR(lower_root_info)) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING
+		       "unionfs: read_super: error while parsing options "
+		       "(err = %ld)\n", PTR_ERR(lower_root_info));
+		err = PTR_ERR(lower_root_info);
+		lower_root_info = NULL;
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+	if (lower_root_info->bstart == -1) {
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+
+	/* set the lower superblock field of upper superblock */
+	bstart = lower_root_info->bstart;
+	BUG_ON(bstart != 0);
+	sbend(sb) = bend = lower_root_info->bend;
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		struct dentry *d = lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].dentry;
+		unionfs_set_lower_super_idx(sb, bindex, d->d_sb);
+	}
+
+	/* max Bytes is the maximum bytes from highest priority branch */
+	sb->s_maxbytes = unionfs_lower_super_idx(sb, 0)->s_maxbytes;
+
+	sb->s_op = &unionfs_sops;
+
+	/* See comment next to the definition of unionfs_d_alloc_root */
+	sb->s_root = unionfs_d_alloc_root(sb);
+	if (!sb->s_root) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_dput;
+	}
+
+	/* link the upper and lower dentries */
+	sb->s_root->d_fsdata = NULL;
+	if ((err = new_dentry_private_data(sb->s_root)))
+		goto out_freedpd;
+
+	/* Set the lower dentries for s_root */
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		struct dentry *d;
+		struct vfsmount *m;
+
+		d = lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].dentry;
+		m = lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].mnt;
+
+		unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(sb->s_root, bindex, d);
+		unionfs_set_lower_mnt_idx(sb->s_root, bindex, m);
+	}
+	set_dbstart(sb->s_root, bstart);
+	set_dbend(sb->s_root, bend);
+
+	/* Set the generation number to one, since this is for the mount. */
+	atomic_set(&UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->generation, 1);
+
+	/*
+	 * Call interpose to create the upper level inode.  Only
+	 * INTERPOSE_LOOKUP can return a value other than 0 on err.
+	 */
+	err = PTR_ERR(unionfs_interpose(sb->s_root, sb, 0));
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(sb->s_root);
+	if (!err)
+		goto out;
+	/* else fall through */
+
+out_freedpd:
+	if (UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)) {
+		kfree(UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->lower_paths);
+		free_dentry_private_data(sb->s_root);
+	}
+	dput(sb->s_root);
+
+out_dput:
+	if (lower_root_info && !IS_ERR(lower_root_info)) {
+		for (bindex = lower_root_info->bstart;
+		     bindex <= lower_root_info->bend; bindex++) {
+			struct dentry *d;
+			struct vfsmount *m;
+
+			d = lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].dentry;
+			m = lower_root_info->lower_paths[bindex].mnt;
+
+			dput(d);
+			/* initializing: can't use unionfs_mntput here */
+			mntput(m);
+		}
+		kfree(lower_root_info->lower_paths);
+		kfree(lower_root_info);
+		lower_root_info = NULL;
+	}
+
+out_free:
+	kfree(UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data);
+	kfree(UNIONFS_SB(sb));
+	sb->s_fs_info = NULL;
+
+out:
+	if (lower_root_info && !IS_ERR(lower_root_info)) {
+		kfree(lower_root_info->lower_paths);
+		kfree(lower_root_info);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_get_sb(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
+			  int flags, const char *dev_name,
+			  void *raw_data, struct vfsmount *mnt)
+{
+	return get_sb_nodev(fs_type, flags, raw_data, unionfs_read_super, mnt);
+}
+
+static struct file_system_type unionfs_fs_type = {
+	.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
+	.name		= "unionfs",
+	.get_sb		= unionfs_get_sb,
+	.kill_sb	= generic_shutdown_super,
+	.fs_flags	= FS_REVAL_DOT,
+};
+
+static int __init init_unionfs_fs(void)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	printk("Registering unionfs " UNIONFS_VERSION "\n");
+
+	if ((err = unionfs_init_filldir_cache()))
+		goto out;
+	if ((err = unionfs_init_inode_cache()))
+		goto out;
+	if ((err = unionfs_init_dentry_cache()))
+		goto out;
+	if ((err = init_sioq()))
+		goto out;
+	err = register_filesystem(&unionfs_fs_type);
+out:
+	if (err) {
+		stop_sioq();
+		unionfs_destroy_filldir_cache();
+		unionfs_destroy_inode_cache();
+		unionfs_destroy_dentry_cache();
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static void __exit exit_unionfs_fs(void)
+{
+	stop_sioq();
+	unionfs_destroy_filldir_cache();
+	unionfs_destroy_inode_cache();
+	unionfs_destroy_dentry_cache();
+	unregister_filesystem(&unionfs_fs_type);
+	printk("Completed unionfs module unload.\n");
+}
+
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Erez Zadok, Filesystems and Storage Lab, Stony Brook University"
+	      " (http://www.fsl.cs.sunysb.edu)");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Unionfs " UNIONFS_VERSION
+		   " (http://unionfs.filesystems.org)");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+
+module_init(init_unionfs_fs);
+module_exit(exit_unionfs_fs);
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/mmap.c b/fs/unionfs/mmap.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9cd51f0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/mmap.c
@@ -0,0 +1,353 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2006      Shaya Potter
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * Unionfs doesn't implement ->writepages, which is OK with the VFS and
+ * keeps our code simpler and smaller.  Nevertheless, somehow, our own
+ * ->writepage must be called so we can sync the upper pages with the lower
+ * pages: otherwise data changed at the upper layer won't get written to the
+ * lower layer.
+ *
+ * Some lower file systems (e.g., NFS) expect the VFS to call its writepages
+ * only, which in turn will call generic_writepages and invoke each of the
+ * lower file system's ->writepage.  NFS in particular uses the
+ * wbc->fs_private field in its nfs_writepage, which is set in its
+ * nfs_writepages.  So if we don't call the lower nfs_writepages first, then
+ * NFS's nfs_writepage will dereference a NULL wbc->fs_private and cause an
+ * OOPS.  If, however, we implement a unionfs_writepages and then we do call
+ * the lower nfs_writepages, then we "lose control" over the pages we're
+ * trying to write to the lower file system: we won't be writing our own
+ * new/modified data from the upper pages to the lower pages, and any
+ * mmap-based changes are lost.
+ *
+ * This is a fundamental cache-coherency problem in Linux.  The kernel isn't
+ * able to support such stacking abstractions cleanly.  One possible clean
+ * way would be that a lower file system's ->writepage method have some sort
+ * of a callback to validate if any upper pages for the same file+offset
+ * exist and have newer content in them.
+ *
+ * This whole NULL ptr dereference is triggered at the lower file system
+ * (NFS) because the wbc->for_writepages is set to 1.  Therefore, to avoid
+ * this NULL pointer dereference, we set this flag to 0 and restore it upon
+ * exit.  This probably means that we're slightly less efficient in writing
+ * pages out, doing them one at a time, but at least we avoid the oops until
+ * such day as Linux can better support address_space_ops in a stackable
+ * fashion.
+ */
+int unionfs_writepage(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc)
+{
+	int err = -EIO;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	struct page *lower_page;
+	char *kaddr, *lower_kaddr;
+	int saved_for_writepages = wbc->for_writepages;
+
+	inode = page->mapping->host;
+	lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode(inode);
+
+	/* find lower page (returns a locked page) */
+	lower_page = grab_cache_page(lower_inode->i_mapping, page->index);
+	if (!lower_page)
+		goto out;
+
+	/* get page address, and encode it */
+	kaddr = kmap(page);
+	lower_kaddr = kmap(lower_page);
+
+	memcpy(lower_kaddr, kaddr, PAGE_CACHE_SIZE);
+
+	kunmap(page);
+	kunmap(lower_page);
+
+	BUG_ON(!lower_inode->i_mapping->a_ops->writepage);
+
+	/* workaround for some lower file systems: see big comment on top */
+	if (wbc->for_writepages && !wbc->fs_private)
+		wbc->for_writepages = 0;
+
+	/* call lower writepage (expects locked page) */
+	err = lower_inode->i_mapping->a_ops->writepage(lower_page, wbc);
+	wbc->for_writepages = saved_for_writepages; /* restore value */
+
+	/* b/c grab_cache_page increased refcnt */
+	page_cache_release(lower_page);
+
+	if (err < 0) {
+		ClearPageUptodate(page);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (err == AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE) {
+		/*
+		 * Lower file systems such as ramfs and tmpfs, may return
+		 * AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE so that the VM won't try to
+		 * (pointlessly) write the page again for a while.  But
+		 * those lower file systems also set the page dirty bit back
+		 * again.  So we mimic that behaviour here.
+		 */
+		if (PageDirty(lower_page))
+			set_page_dirty(page);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* all is well */
+	SetPageUptodate(page);
+	/* lower mtimes has changed: update ours */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(inode);
+
+	unlock_page(page);
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * readpage is called from generic_page_read and the fault handler.
+ * If your file system uses generic_page_read for the read op, it
+ * must implement readpage.
+ *
+ * Readpage expects a locked page, and must unlock it.
+ */
+static int unionfs_do_readpage(struct file *file, struct page *page)
+{
+	int err = -EIO;
+	struct file *lower_file;
+	struct inode *inode;
+	mm_segment_t old_fs;
+	char *page_data = NULL;
+	loff_t offset;
+
+	if (UNIONFS_F(file) == NULL) {
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_file = unionfs_lower_file(file);
+	/* FIXME: is this assertion right here? */
+	BUG_ON(lower_file == NULL);
+
+	inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
+
+	page_data = (char *) kmap(page);
+	/*
+	 * Use vfs_read because some lower file systems don't have a
+	 * readpage method, and some file systems (esp. distributed ones)
+	 * don't like their pages to be accessed directly.  Using vfs_read
+	 * may be a little slower, but a lot safer, as the VFS does a lot of
+	 * the necessary magic for us.
+	 */
+	offset = lower_file->f_pos = (page->index << PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT);
+	old_fs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	err = vfs_read(lower_file, page_data, PAGE_CACHE_SIZE,
+		       &lower_file->f_pos);
+	set_fs(old_fs);
+
+	kunmap(page);
+
+	if (err < 0)
+		goto out;
+	err = 0;
+
+	/* if vfs_read succeeded above, sync up our times */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(inode);
+
+	flush_dcache_page(page);
+
+out:
+	if (err == 0)
+		SetPageUptodate(page);
+	else
+		ClearPageUptodate(page);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_readpage(struct file *file, struct page *page)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 0)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	err = unionfs_do_readpage(file, page);
+
+	if (!err) {
+		touch_atime(unionfs_lower_mnt(file->f_path.dentry),
+			    unionfs_lower_dentry(file->f_path.dentry));
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(file->f_path.dentry->d_inode);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * we have to unlock our page, b/c we _might_ have gotten a locked
+	 * page.  but we no longer have to wakeup on our page here, b/c
+	 * UnlockPage does it
+	 */
+out:
+	unlock_page(page);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_prepare_write(struct file *file, struct page *page, unsigned from,
+			  unsigned to)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	/*
+	 * This is the only place where we unconditionally copy the lower
+	 * attribute times before calling unionfs_file_revalidate.  The
+	 * reason is that our ->write calls do_sync_write which in turn will
+	 * call our ->prepare_write and then ->commit_write.  Before our
+	 * ->write is called, the lower mtimes are in sync, but by the time
+	 * the VFS calls our ->commit_write, the lower mtimes have changed.
+	 * Therefore, the only reasonable time for us to sync up from the
+	 * changed lower mtimes, and avoid an invariant violation warning,
+	 * is here, in ->prepare_write.
+	 */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(file->f_path.dentry->d_inode);
+	err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_commit_write(struct file *file, struct page *page, unsigned from,
+			 unsigned to)
+{
+	int err = -ENOMEM;
+	struct inode *inode, *lower_inode;
+	struct file *lower_file = NULL;
+	loff_t pos;
+	unsigned bytes = to - from;
+	char *page_data = NULL;
+	mm_segment_t old_fs;
+
+	BUG_ON(file == NULL);
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	if ((err = unionfs_file_revalidate(file, 1)))
+		goto out;
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+
+	inode = page->mapping->host;
+	lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode(inode);
+
+	if (UNIONFS_F(file) != NULL)
+		lower_file = unionfs_lower_file(file);
+
+	/* FIXME: is this assertion right here? */
+	BUG_ON(lower_file == NULL);
+
+	page_data = (char *)kmap(page);
+	lower_file->f_pos = (page->index << PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT) + from;
+
+	/*
+	 * SP: I use vfs_write instead of copying page data and the
+	 * prepare_write/commit_write combo because file system's like
+	 * GFS/OCFS2 don't like things touching those directly,
+	 * calling the underlying write op, while a little bit slower, will
+	 * call all the FS specific code as well
+	 */
+	old_fs = get_fs();
+	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
+	err = vfs_write(lower_file, page_data + from, bytes,
+			&lower_file->f_pos);
+	set_fs(old_fs);
+
+	kunmap(page);
+
+	if (err < 0)
+		goto out;
+
+	inode->i_blocks = lower_inode->i_blocks;
+	/* we may have to update i_size */
+	pos = ((loff_t) page->index << PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT) + to;
+	if (pos > i_size_read(inode))
+		i_size_write(inode, pos);
+	/* if vfs_write succeeded above, sync up our times */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(inode);
+	mark_inode_dirty_sync(inode);
+
+out:
+	if (err < 0)
+		ClearPageUptodate(page);
+
+	unionfs_read_unlock(file->f_path.dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_check_file(file);
+	return err;		/* assume all is ok */
+}
+
+void unionfs_sync_page(struct page *page)
+{
+	struct inode *inode;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	struct page *lower_page;
+	struct address_space *mapping;
+
+	inode = page->mapping->host;
+	lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode(inode);
+
+	/*
+	 * Find lower page (returns a locked page).
+	 *
+	 * NOTE: we used to call grab_cache_page(), but that was unnecessary
+	 * as it would have tried to create a new lower page if it didn't
+	 * exist, leading to deadlocks.  All our sync_page method needs to
+	 * do is ensure that pending I/O gets done.
+	 */
+	lower_page = find_lock_page(lower_inode->i_mapping, page->index);
+	if (!lower_page) {
+		printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: find_lock_page failed\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* do the actual sync */
+	mapping = lower_page->mapping;
+	/*
+	 * XXX: can we optimize ala RAIF and set the lower page to be
+	 * discarded after a successful sync_page?
+	 */
+	if (mapping && mapping->a_ops && mapping->a_ops->sync_page)
+		mapping->a_ops->sync_page(lower_page);
+
+	/* b/c find_lock_page locked it */
+	unlock_page(lower_page);
+	/* b/c find_lock_page increased refcnt */
+	page_cache_release(lower_page);
+
+out:
+	return;
+}
+
+struct address_space_operations unionfs_aops = {
+	.writepage	= unionfs_writepage,
+	.readpage	= unionfs_readpage,
+	.prepare_write	= unionfs_prepare_write,
+	.commit_write	= unionfs_commit_write,
+	.sync_page	= unionfs_sync_page,
+};
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/rdstate.c b/fs/unionfs/rdstate.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5c9d14b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/rdstate.c
@@ -0,0 +1,282 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/* This file contains the routines for maintaining readdir state. */
+
+/*
+ * There are two structures here, rdstate which is a hash table
+ * of the second structure which is a filldir_node.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This is a struct kmem_cache for filldir nodes, because we allocate a lot
+ * of them and they shouldn't waste memory.  If the node has a small name
+ * (as defined by the dentry structure), then we use an inline name to
+ * preserve kmalloc space.
+ */
+static struct kmem_cache *unionfs_filldir_cachep;
+
+int unionfs_init_filldir_cache(void)
+{
+	unionfs_filldir_cachep =
+		kmem_cache_create("unionfs_filldir",
+				  sizeof(struct filldir_node), 0,
+				  SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT, NULL, NULL);
+
+	return (unionfs_filldir_cachep ? 0 : -ENOMEM);
+}
+
+void unionfs_destroy_filldir_cache(void)
+{
+	if (unionfs_filldir_cachep)
+		kmem_cache_destroy(unionfs_filldir_cachep);
+}
+
+/*
+ * This is a tuning parameter that tells us roughly how big to make the
+ * hash table in directory entries per page.  This isn't perfect, but
+ * at least we get a hash table size that shouldn't be too overloaded.
+ * The following averages are based on my home directory.
+ * 14.44693	Overall
+ * 12.29	Single Page Directories
+ * 117.93	Multi-page directories
+ */
+#define DENTPAGE 4096
+#define DENTPERONEPAGE 12
+#define DENTPERPAGE 118
+#define MINHASHSIZE 1
+static int guesstimate_hash_size(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	int bindex;
+	int hashsize = MINHASHSIZE;
+
+	if (UNIONFS_I(inode)->hashsize > 0)
+		return UNIONFS_I(inode)->hashsize;
+
+	for (bindex = ibstart(inode); bindex <= ibend(inode); bindex++) {
+		if (!(lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex)))
+			continue;
+
+		if (lower_inode->i_size == DENTPAGE)
+			hashsize += DENTPERONEPAGE;
+		else
+			hashsize += (lower_inode->i_size / DENTPAGE) *
+				DENTPERPAGE;
+	}
+
+	return hashsize;
+}
+
+int init_rdstate(struct file *file)
+{
+	BUG_ON(sizeof(loff_t) !=
+	       (sizeof(unsigned int) + sizeof(unsigned int)));
+	BUG_ON(UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate != NULL);
+
+	UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate = alloc_rdstate(file->f_path.dentry->d_inode,
+						 fbstart(file));
+
+	return (UNIONFS_F(file)->rdstate ? 0 : -ENOMEM);
+}
+
+struct unionfs_dir_state *find_rdstate(struct inode *inode, loff_t fpos)
+{
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate = NULL;
+	struct list_head *pos;
+
+	spin_lock(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdlock);
+	list_for_each(pos, &UNIONFS_I(inode)->readdircache) {
+		struct unionfs_dir_state *r =
+			list_entry(pos, struct unionfs_dir_state, cache);
+		if (fpos == rdstate2offset(r)) {
+			UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdcount--;
+			list_del(&r->cache);
+			rdstate = r;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdlock);
+	return rdstate;
+}
+
+struct unionfs_dir_state *alloc_rdstate(struct inode *inode, int bindex)
+{
+	int i = 0;
+	int hashsize;
+	unsigned long mallocsize = sizeof(struct unionfs_dir_state);
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate;
+
+	hashsize = guesstimate_hash_size(inode);
+	mallocsize += hashsize * sizeof(struct list_head);
+	mallocsize = __roundup_pow_of_two(mallocsize);
+
+	/* This should give us about 500 entries anyway. */
+	if (mallocsize > PAGE_SIZE)
+		mallocsize = PAGE_SIZE;
+
+	hashsize = (mallocsize - sizeof(struct unionfs_dir_state)) /
+		sizeof(struct list_head);
+
+	rdstate = kmalloc(mallocsize, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!rdstate)
+		return NULL;
+
+	spin_lock(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdlock);
+	if (UNIONFS_I(inode)->cookie >= (MAXRDCOOKIE - 1))
+		UNIONFS_I(inode)->cookie = 1;
+	else
+		UNIONFS_I(inode)->cookie++;
+
+	rdstate->cookie = UNIONFS_I(inode)->cookie;
+	spin_unlock(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdlock);
+	rdstate->offset = 1;
+	rdstate->access = jiffies;
+	rdstate->bindex = bindex;
+	rdstate->dirpos = 0;
+	rdstate->hashentries = 0;
+	rdstate->size = hashsize;
+	for (i = 0; i < rdstate->size; i++)
+		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&rdstate->list[i]);
+
+	return rdstate;
+}
+
+static void free_filldir_node(struct filldir_node *node)
+{
+	if (node->namelen >= DNAME_INLINE_LEN_MIN)
+		kfree(node->name);
+	kmem_cache_free(unionfs_filldir_cachep, node);
+}
+
+void free_rdstate(struct unionfs_dir_state *state)
+{
+	struct filldir_node *tmp;
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < state->size; i++) {
+		struct list_head *head = &(state->list[i]);
+		struct list_head *pos, *n;
+
+		/* traverse the list and deallocate space */
+		list_for_each_safe(pos, n, head) {
+			tmp = list_entry(pos, struct filldir_node, file_list);
+			list_del(&tmp->file_list);
+			free_filldir_node(tmp);
+		}
+	}
+
+	kfree(state);
+}
+
+struct filldir_node *find_filldir_node(struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate,
+				       const char *name, int namelen)
+{
+	int index;
+	unsigned int hash;
+	struct list_head *head;
+	struct list_head *pos;
+	struct filldir_node *cursor = NULL;
+	int found = 0;
+
+	BUG_ON(namelen <= 0);
+
+	hash = full_name_hash(name, namelen);
+	index = hash % rdstate->size;
+
+	head = &(rdstate->list[index]);
+	list_for_each(pos, head) {
+		cursor = list_entry(pos, struct filldir_node, file_list);
+
+		if (cursor->namelen == namelen && cursor->hash == hash &&
+		    !strncmp(cursor->name, name, namelen)) {
+			/*
+			 * a duplicate exists, and hence no need to create
+			 * entry to the list
+			 */
+			found = 1;
+
+			/*
+			 * if the duplicate is in this branch, then the file
+			 * system is corrupted.
+			 */
+			if (cursor->bindex == rdstate->bindex) {
+				printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: filldir: possible "
+				       "I/O error: a file is duplicated "
+				       "in the same branch %d: %s\n",
+				       rdstate->bindex, cursor->name);
+			}
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!found)
+		cursor = NULL;
+
+	return cursor;
+}
+
+int add_filldir_node(struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate, const char *name,
+		     int namelen, int bindex, int whiteout)
+{
+	struct filldir_node *new;
+	unsigned int hash;
+	int index;
+	int err = 0;
+	struct list_head *head;
+
+	BUG_ON(namelen <= 0);
+
+	hash = full_name_hash(name, namelen);
+	index = hash % rdstate->size;
+	head = &(rdstate->list[index]);
+
+	new = kmem_cache_alloc(unionfs_filldir_cachep, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!new) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&new->file_list);
+	new->namelen = namelen;
+	new->hash = hash;
+	new->bindex = bindex;
+	new->whiteout = whiteout;
+
+	if (namelen < DNAME_INLINE_LEN_MIN)
+		new->name = new->iname;
+	else {
+		new->name = kmalloc(namelen + 1, GFP_KERNEL);
+		if (!new->name) {
+			kmem_cache_free(unionfs_filldir_cachep, new);
+			new = NULL;
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+
+	memcpy(new->name, name, namelen);
+	new->name[namelen] = '\0';
+
+	rdstate->hashentries++;
+
+	list_add(&(new->file_list), head);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/rename.c b/fs/unionfs/rename.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1761f8b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/rename.c
@@ -0,0 +1,521 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+static int __unionfs_rename(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
+			    struct inode *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry,
+			    int bindex, struct dentry **wh_old)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_old_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_new_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_old_dir_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_new_dir_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_wh_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_wh_dir_dentry;
+	char *wh_name = NULL;
+
+	lower_new_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(new_dentry, bindex);
+	lower_old_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(old_dentry, bindex);
+
+	if (!lower_new_dentry) {
+		lower_new_dentry =
+			create_parents(new_dentry->d_parent->d_inode,
+				       new_dentry, new_dentry->d_name.name,
+				       bindex);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_new_dentry)) {
+			printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: error creating directory "
+			       "tree for rename, bindex = %d, err = %ld\n",
+			       bindex, PTR_ERR(lower_new_dentry));
+			err = PTR_ERR(lower_new_dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+
+	wh_name = alloc_whname(new_dentry->d_name.name,
+			       new_dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(wh_name)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(wh_name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_wh_dentry = lookup_one_len(wh_name, lower_new_dentry->d_parent,
+					 new_dentry->d_name.len +
+					 UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+	if (IS_ERR(lower_wh_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(lower_wh_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (lower_wh_dentry->d_inode) {
+		/* get rid of the whiteout that is existing */
+		if (lower_new_dentry->d_inode) {
+			printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: both a whiteout and a "
+			       "dentry exist when doing a rename!\n");
+			err = -EIO;
+
+			dput(lower_wh_dentry);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		lower_wh_dir_dentry = lock_parent(lower_wh_dentry);
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(old_dentry->d_sb, bindex)))
+			err = vfs_unlink(lower_wh_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					 lower_wh_dentry);
+
+		dput(lower_wh_dentry);
+		unlock_dir(lower_wh_dir_dentry);
+		if (err)
+			goto out;
+	} else
+		dput(lower_wh_dentry);
+
+	dget(lower_old_dentry);
+	lower_old_dir_dentry = dget_parent(lower_old_dentry);
+	lower_new_dir_dentry = dget_parent(lower_new_dentry);
+
+	lock_rename(lower_old_dir_dentry, lower_new_dir_dentry);
+
+	err = is_robranch_super(old_dentry->d_sb, bindex);
+	if (err)
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	/*
+	 * ready to whiteout for old_dentry. caller will create the actual
+	 * whiteout, and must dput(*wh_old)
+	 */
+	if (wh_old) {
+		char *whname;
+		whname = alloc_whname(old_dentry->d_name.name,
+				      old_dentry->d_name.len);
+		err = PTR_ERR(whname);
+		if (IS_ERR(whname))
+			goto out_unlock;
+		*wh_old = lookup_one_len(whname, lower_old_dir_dentry,
+					 old_dentry->d_name.len +
+					 UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+		kfree(whname);
+		err = PTR_ERR(*wh_old);
+		if (IS_ERR(*wh_old)) {
+			*wh_old = NULL;
+			goto out_unlock;
+		}
+	}
+
+	err = vfs_rename(lower_old_dir_dentry->d_inode, lower_old_dentry,
+			 lower_new_dir_dentry->d_inode, lower_new_dentry);
+
+out_unlock:
+	unlock_rename(lower_old_dir_dentry, lower_new_dir_dentry);
+
+	dput(lower_old_dir_dentry);
+	dput(lower_new_dir_dentry);
+	dput(lower_old_dentry);
+
+out:
+	if (!err) {
+		/* Fixup the new_dentry. */
+		if (bindex < dbstart(new_dentry))
+			set_dbstart(new_dentry, bindex);
+		else if (bindex > dbend(new_dentry))
+			set_dbend(new_dentry, bindex);
+	}
+
+	kfree(wh_name);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Main rename code.  This is sufficiently complex, that it's documented in
+ * Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/rename.txt.  This routine calls
+ * __unionfs_rename() above to perform some of the work.
+ */
+static int do_unionfs_rename(struct inode *old_dir,
+			     struct dentry *old_dentry,
+			     struct inode *new_dir,
+			     struct dentry *new_dentry)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	int bindex, bwh_old;
+	int old_bstart, old_bend;
+	int new_bstart, new_bend;
+	int do_copyup = -1;
+	struct dentry *parent_dentry;
+	int local_err = 0;
+	int eio = 0;
+	int revert = 0;
+	struct dentry *wh_old = NULL;
+
+	old_bstart = dbstart(old_dentry);
+	bwh_old = old_bstart;
+	old_bend = dbend(old_dentry);
+	parent_dentry = old_dentry->d_parent;
+
+	new_bstart = dbstart(new_dentry);
+	new_bend = dbend(new_dentry);
+
+	/* Rename source to destination. */
+	err = __unionfs_rename(old_dir, old_dentry, new_dir, new_dentry,
+			       old_bstart, &wh_old);
+	if (err) {
+		if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+			goto out;
+		do_copyup = old_bstart - 1;
+	} else
+		revert = 1;
+
+	/*
+	 * Unlink all instances of destination that exist to the left of
+	 * bstart of source. On error, revert back, goto out.
+	 */
+	for (bindex = old_bstart - 1; bindex >= new_bstart; bindex--) {
+		struct dentry *unlink_dentry;
+		struct dentry *unlink_dir_dentry;
+
+		unlink_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(new_dentry, bindex);
+		if (!unlink_dentry)
+			continue;
+
+		unlink_dir_dentry = lock_parent(unlink_dentry);
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(old_dir->i_sb, bindex)))
+			err = vfs_unlink(unlink_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					 unlink_dentry);
+
+		fsstack_copy_attr_times(new_dentry->d_parent->d_inode,
+					unlink_dir_dentry->d_inode);
+		/* propagate number of hard-links */
+		new_dentry->d_parent->d_inode->i_nlink =
+			unionfs_get_nlinks(new_dentry->d_parent->d_inode);
+
+		unlock_dir(unlink_dir_dentry);
+		if (!err) {
+			if (bindex != new_bstart) {
+				dput(unlink_dentry);
+				unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(new_dentry,
+							     bindex, NULL);
+			}
+		} else if (IS_COPYUP_ERR(err)) {
+			do_copyup = bindex - 1;
+		} else if (revert) {
+			dput(wh_old);
+			goto revert;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (do_copyup != -1) {
+		for (bindex = do_copyup; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+			/*
+			 * copyup the file into some left directory, so that
+			 * you can rename it
+			 */
+			err = copyup_dentry(old_dentry->d_parent->d_inode,
+					    old_dentry, old_bstart, bindex,
+					    old_dentry->d_name.name,
+					    old_dentry->d_name.len,
+					    NULL, old_dentry->d_inode->i_size);
+			/* if copyup failed, try next branch to the left */
+			if (err)
+				continue;
+			dput(wh_old);
+			bwh_old = bindex;
+			err = __unionfs_rename(old_dir, old_dentry,
+					       new_dir, new_dentry,
+					       bindex, &wh_old);
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* make it opaque */
+	if (S_ISDIR(old_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+		err = make_dir_opaque(old_dentry, dbstart(old_dentry));
+		if (err)
+			goto revert;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Create whiteout for source, only if:
+	 * (1) There is more than one underlying instance of source.
+	 * (2) We did a copy_up
+	 */
+	if ((old_bstart != old_bend) || (do_copyup != -1)) {
+		struct dentry *lower_parent;
+		if (!wh_old || wh_old->d_inode || bwh_old < 0) {
+			printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: rename error "
+			       "(wh_old=%p/%p bwh_old=%d)\n", wh_old,
+			       (wh_old ? wh_old->d_inode : NULL), bwh_old);
+			err = -EIO;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		lower_parent = lock_parent(wh_old);
+		local_err = vfs_create(lower_parent->d_inode, wh_old, S_IRUGO,
+				       NULL);
+		unlock_dir(lower_parent);
+		if (!local_err)
+			set_dbopaque(old_dentry, bwh_old);
+		else {
+			/*
+			 * we can't fix anything now, so we cop-out and use
+			 * -EIO.
+			 */
+			printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: can't create a whiteout for "
+			       "the source in rename!\n");
+			err = -EIO;
+		}
+	}
+
+out:
+	dput(wh_old);
+	return err;
+
+revert:
+	/* Do revert here. */
+	local_err = unionfs_refresh_lower_dentry(new_dentry, old_bstart);
+	if (local_err) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: revert failed in rename: "
+		       "the new refresh failed.\n");
+		eio = -EIO;
+	}
+
+	local_err = unionfs_refresh_lower_dentry(old_dentry, old_bstart);
+	if (local_err) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: revert failed in rename: "
+		       "the old refresh failed.\n");
+		eio = -EIO;
+		goto revert_out;
+	}
+
+	if (!unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(new_dentry, bindex) ||
+	    !unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(new_dentry, bindex)->d_inode) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: revert failed in rename: "
+		       "the object disappeared from under us!\n");
+		eio = -EIO;
+		goto revert_out;
+	}
+
+	if (unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(old_dentry, bindex) &&
+	    unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(old_dentry, bindex)->d_inode) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: revert failed in rename: "
+		       "the object was created underneath us!\n");
+		eio = -EIO;
+		goto revert_out;
+	}
+
+	local_err = __unionfs_rename(new_dir, new_dentry,
+				     old_dir, old_dentry, old_bstart, NULL);
+
+	/* If we can't fix it, then we cop-out with -EIO. */
+	if (local_err) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: revert failed in rename!\n");
+		eio = -EIO;
+	}
+
+	local_err = unionfs_refresh_lower_dentry(new_dentry, bindex);
+	if (local_err)
+		eio = -EIO;
+	local_err = unionfs_refresh_lower_dentry(old_dentry, bindex);
+	if (local_err)
+		eio = -EIO;
+
+revert_out:
+	if (eio)
+		err = eio;
+	return err;
+}
+
+static struct dentry *lookup_whiteout(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	char *whname;
+	int bindex = -1, bstart = -1, bend = -1;
+	struct dentry *parent, *lower_parent, *wh_dentry;
+
+	whname = alloc_whname(dentry->d_name.name, dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(whname))
+		return (void *)whname;
+
+	parent = dget_parent(dentry);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(parent);
+	bstart = dbstart(parent);
+	bend = dbend(parent);
+	wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_parent = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(parent, bindex);
+		if (!lower_parent)
+			continue;
+		wh_dentry = lookup_one_len(whname, lower_parent,
+					   dentry->d_name.len + UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+		if (IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+			continue;
+		if (wh_dentry->d_inode)
+			break;
+		dput(wh_dentry);
+		wh_dentry = ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
+	}
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(parent);
+	dput(parent);
+	kfree(whname);
+	return wh_dentry;
+}
+
+/*
+ * We can't copyup a directory, because it may involve huge numbers of
+ * children, etc.  Doing that in the kernel would be bad, so instead we
+ * return EXDEV to the user-space utility that caused this, and let the
+ * user-space recurse and ask us to copy up each file separately.
+ */
+static int may_rename_dir(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err, bstart;
+
+	err = check_empty(dentry, NULL);
+	if (err == -ENOTEMPTY) {
+		if (is_robranch(dentry))
+			return -EXDEV;
+	} else if (err)
+		return err;
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	if (dbend(dentry) == bstart || dbopaque(dentry) == bstart)
+		return 0;
+
+	set_dbstart(dentry, bstart + 1);
+	err = check_empty(dentry, NULL);
+	set_dbstart(dentry, bstart);
+	if (err == -ENOTEMPTY)
+		err = -EXDEV;
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_rename(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
+		   struct inode *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *wh_dentry;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(old_dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_double_lock_dentry(old_dentry, new_dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(old_dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (!d_deleted(new_dentry) && new_dentry->d_inode &&
+	    !__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(new_dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!S_ISDIR(old_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+		err = unionfs_partial_lookup(old_dentry);
+	else
+		err = may_rename_dir(old_dentry);
+
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = unionfs_partial_lookup(new_dentry);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * if new_dentry is already lower because of whiteout,
+	 * simply override it even if the whited-out dir is not empty.
+	 */
+	wh_dentry = lookup_whiteout(new_dentry);
+	if (!IS_ERR(wh_dentry))
+		dput(wh_dentry);
+	else if (new_dentry->d_inode) {
+		if (S_ISDIR(old_dentry->d_inode->i_mode) !=
+		    S_ISDIR(new_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+			err = S_ISDIR(old_dentry->d_inode->i_mode) ?
+				-ENOTDIR : -EISDIR;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		if (S_ISDIR(new_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+			struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist;
+			/* check if this unionfs directory is empty or not */
+			err = check_empty(new_dentry, &namelist);
+			if (err)
+				goto out;
+
+			if (!is_robranch(new_dentry))
+				err = delete_whiteouts(new_dentry,
+						       dbstart(new_dentry),
+						       namelist);
+
+			free_rdstate(namelist);
+
+			if (err)
+				goto out;
+		}
+	}
+	err = do_unionfs_rename(old_dir, old_dentry, new_dir, new_dentry);
+out:
+	if (err)
+		/* clear the new_dentry stuff created */
+		d_drop(new_dentry);
+	else {
+		/*
+		 * force re-lookup since the dir on ro branch is not renamed,
+		 * and lower dentries still indicate the un-renamed ones.
+		 */
+		if (S_ISDIR(old_dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+			atomic_dec(&UNIONFS_D(old_dentry)->generation);
+		else
+			unionfs_purge_extras(old_dentry);
+		if (new_dentry->d_inode &&
+		    !S_ISDIR(new_dentry->d_inode->i_mode)) {
+			unionfs_purge_extras(new_dentry);
+			unionfs_inherit_mnt(new_dentry);
+			if (!unionfs_lower_inode(new_dentry->d_inode)) {
+				/*
+				 * If we get here, it means that no copyup
+				 * was needed, and that a file by the old
+				 * name already existing on the destination
+				 * branch; that file got renamed earlier in
+				 * this function, so all we need to do here
+				 * is set the lower inode.
+				 */
+				struct inode *inode;
+				inode = unionfs_lower_inode(
+					old_dentry->d_inode);
+				atomic_inc(&inode->i_count);
+				unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(
+					new_dentry->d_inode,
+					dbstart(new_dentry), inode);
+			}
+
+		}
+		/* if all of this renaming succeeded, update our times */
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(old_dir);
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(new_dir);
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(old_dentry->d_inode);
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(new_dentry->d_inode);
+		unionfs_check_inode(old_dir);
+		unionfs_check_inode(new_dir);
+		unionfs_check_dentry(old_dentry);
+		unionfs_check_dentry(new_dentry);
+	}
+
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(new_dentry);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(old_dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(old_dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/sioq.c b/fs/unionfs/sioq.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..478041d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/sioq.c
@@ -0,0 +1,123 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * Super-user IO work Queue - sometimes we need to perform actions which
+ * would fail due to the unix permissions on the parent directory (e.g.,
+ * rmdir a directory which appears empty, but in reality contains
+ * whiteouts).
+ */
+
+static struct workqueue_struct *superio_workqueue;
+
+int __init init_sioq(void)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	superio_workqueue = create_workqueue("unionfs_siod");
+	if (!IS_ERR(superio_workqueue))
+		return 0;
+
+	err = PTR_ERR(superio_workqueue);
+	printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: create_workqueue failed %d\n", err);
+	superio_workqueue = NULL;
+	return err;
+}
+
+void stop_sioq(void)
+{
+	if (superio_workqueue)
+		destroy_workqueue(superio_workqueue);
+}
+
+void run_sioq(work_func_t func, struct sioq_args *args)
+{
+	INIT_WORK(&args->work, func);
+
+	init_completion(&args->comp);
+	while (!queue_work(superio_workqueue, &args->work)) {
+		/* TODO: do accounting if needed */
+		schedule();
+	}
+	wait_for_completion(&args->comp);
+}
+
+void __unionfs_create(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct sioq_args *args = container_of(work, struct sioq_args, work);
+	struct create_args *c = &args->create;
+
+	args->err = vfs_create(c->parent, c->dentry, c->mode, c->nd);
+	complete(&args->comp);
+}
+
+void __unionfs_mkdir(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct sioq_args *args = container_of(work, struct sioq_args, work);
+	struct mkdir_args *m = &args->mkdir;
+
+	args->err = vfs_mkdir(m->parent, m->dentry, m->mode);
+	complete(&args->comp);
+}
+
+void __unionfs_mknod(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct sioq_args *args = container_of(work, struct sioq_args, work);
+	struct mknod_args *m = &args->mknod;
+
+	args->err = vfs_mknod(m->parent, m->dentry, m->mode, m->dev);
+	complete(&args->comp);
+}
+
+void __unionfs_symlink(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct sioq_args *args = container_of(work, struct sioq_args, work);
+	struct symlink_args *s = &args->symlink;
+
+	args->err = vfs_symlink(s->parent, s->dentry, s->symbuf, s->mode);
+	complete(&args->comp);
+}
+
+void __unionfs_unlink(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct sioq_args *args = container_of(work, struct sioq_args, work);
+	struct unlink_args *u = &args->unlink;
+
+	args->err = vfs_unlink(u->parent, u->dentry);
+	complete(&args->comp);
+}
+
+void __delete_whiteouts(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct sioq_args *args = container_of(work, struct sioq_args, work);
+	struct deletewh_args *d = &args->deletewh;
+
+	args->err = do_delete_whiteouts(d->dentry, d->bindex, d->namelist);
+	complete(&args->comp);
+}
+
+void __is_opaque_dir(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+	struct sioq_args *args = container_of(work, struct sioq_args, work);
+
+	args->ret = lookup_one_len(UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE, args->is_opaque.dentry,
+				   sizeof(UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE) - 1);
+	complete(&args->comp);
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/sioq.h b/fs/unionfs/sioq.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e180756
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/sioq.h
@@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _SIOQ_H
+#define _SIOQ_H
+
+struct deletewh_args {
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	int bindex;
+};
+
+struct is_opaque_args {
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+};
+
+struct create_args {
+	struct inode *parent;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	umode_t mode;
+	struct nameidata *nd;
+};
+
+struct mkdir_args {
+	struct inode *parent;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	umode_t mode;
+};
+
+struct mknod_args {
+	struct inode *parent;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	umode_t mode;
+	dev_t dev;
+};
+
+struct symlink_args {
+	struct inode *parent;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+	char *symbuf;
+	umode_t mode;
+};
+
+struct unlink_args {
+	struct inode *parent;
+	struct dentry *dentry;
+};
+
+
+struct sioq_args {
+	struct completion comp;
+	struct work_struct work;
+	int err;
+	void *ret;
+
+	union {
+		struct deletewh_args deletewh;
+		struct is_opaque_args is_opaque;
+		struct create_args create;
+		struct mkdir_args mkdir;
+		struct mknod_args mknod;
+		struct symlink_args symlink;
+		struct unlink_args unlink;
+	};
+};
+
+/* Extern definitions for SIOQ functions */
+extern int __init init_sioq(void);
+extern void stop_sioq(void);
+extern void run_sioq(work_func_t func, struct sioq_args *args);
+
+/* Extern definitions for our privilege escalation helpers */
+extern void __unionfs_create(struct work_struct *work);
+extern void __unionfs_mkdir(struct work_struct *work);
+extern void __unionfs_mknod(struct work_struct *work);
+extern void __unionfs_symlink(struct work_struct *work);
+extern void __unionfs_unlink(struct work_struct *work);
+extern void __delete_whiteouts(struct work_struct *work);
+extern void __is_opaque_dir(struct work_struct *work);
+
+#endif /* not _SIOQ_H */
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/subr.c b/fs/unionfs/subr.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5db9e62
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/subr.c
@@ -0,0 +1,240 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * Pass an unionfs dentry and an index.  It will try to create a whiteout
+ * for the filename in dentry, and will try in branch 'index'.  On error,
+ * it will proceed to a branch to the left.
+ */
+int create_whiteout(struct dentry *dentry, int start)
+{
+	int bstart, bend, bindex;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_wh_dentry;
+	char *name = NULL;
+	int err = -EINVAL;
+
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+
+	bstart = dbstart(dentry);
+	bend = dbend(dentry);
+
+	/* create dentry's whiteout equivalent */
+	name = alloc_whname(dentry->d_name.name, dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(name)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(name);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	for (bindex = start; bindex >= 0; bindex--) {
+		lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+
+		if (!lower_dentry) {
+			/*
+			 * if lower dentry is not present, create the
+			 * entire lower dentry directory structure and go
+			 * ahead.  Since we want to just create whiteout, we
+			 * only want the parent dentry, and hence get rid of
+			 * this dentry.
+			 */
+			lower_dentry = create_parents(dentry->d_inode,
+						      dentry,
+						      dentry->d_name.name,
+						      bindex);
+			if (!lower_dentry || IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+				printk(KERN_DEBUG "unionfs: create_parents "
+				       "failed for bindex = %d\n", bindex);
+				continue;
+			}
+		}
+
+		lower_wh_dentry =
+			lookup_one_len(name, lower_dentry->d_parent,
+				       dentry->d_name.len + UNIONFS_WHLEN);
+		if (IS_ERR(lower_wh_dentry))
+			continue;
+
+		/*
+		 * The whiteout already exists. This used to be impossible,
+		 * but now is possible because of opaqueness.
+		 */
+		if (lower_wh_dentry->d_inode) {
+			dput(lower_wh_dentry);
+			err = 0;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(lower_wh_dentry);
+		if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bindex)))
+			err = vfs_create(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode,
+					 lower_wh_dentry,
+					 ~current->fs->umask & S_IRWXUGO,
+					 NULL);
+		unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+		dput(lower_wh_dentry);
+
+		if (!err || !IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+			break;
+	}
+
+	/* set dbopaque so that lookup will not proceed after this branch */
+	if (!err)
+		set_dbopaque(dentry, bindex);
+
+out:
+	kfree(name);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This is a helper function for rename, which ends up with hosed over
+ * dentries when it needs to revert.
+ */
+int unionfs_refresh_lower_dentry(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_parent;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	verify_locked(dentry);
+
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry->d_parent);
+	lower_parent = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry->d_parent, bindex);
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry->d_parent);
+
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(lower_parent->d_inode->i_mode));
+
+	lower_dentry = lookup_one_len(dentry->d_name.name, lower_parent,
+				      dentry->d_name.len);
+	if (IS_ERR(lower_dentry)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(lower_dentry);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	dput(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex));
+	iput(unionfs_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex));
+	unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex, NULL);
+
+	if (!lower_dentry->d_inode) {
+		dput(lower_dentry);
+		unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, NULL);
+	} else {
+		unionfs_set_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex, lower_dentry);
+		unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(dentry->d_inode, bindex,
+					    igrab(lower_dentry->d_inode));
+	}
+
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+int make_dir_opaque(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry, *diropq;
+	struct inode *lower_dir;
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+	lower_dir = lower_dentry->d_inode;
+	BUG_ON(!S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode) ||
+	       !S_ISDIR(lower_dir->i_mode));
+
+	mutex_lock(&lower_dir->i_mutex);
+	diropq = lookup_one_len(UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE, lower_dentry,
+				sizeof(UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE) - 1);
+	if (IS_ERR(diropq)) {
+		err = PTR_ERR(diropq);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (!diropq->d_inode)
+		err = vfs_create(lower_dir, diropq, S_IRUGO, NULL);
+	if (!err)
+		set_dbopaque(dentry, bindex);
+
+	dput(diropq);
+
+out:
+	mutex_unlock(&lower_dir->i_mutex);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * returns the sum of the n_link values of all the underlying inodes of the
+ * passed inode
+ */
+int unionfs_get_nlinks(const struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int sum_nlinks = 0;
+	int dirs = 0;
+	int bindex;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+
+	/* don't bother to do all the work since we're unlinked */
+	if (inode->i_nlink == 0)
+		return 0;
+
+	if (!S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode))
+		return unionfs_lower_inode(inode)->i_nlink;
+
+	for (bindex = ibstart(inode); bindex <= ibend(inode); bindex++) {
+		lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+
+		/* ignore files */
+		if (!lower_inode || !S_ISDIR(lower_inode->i_mode))
+			continue;
+
+		BUG_ON(lower_inode->i_nlink < 0);
+
+		/* A deleted directory. */
+		if (lower_inode->i_nlink == 0)
+			continue;
+		dirs++;
+
+		/*
+		 * A broken directory...
+		 *
+		 * Some filesystems don't properly set the number of links
+		 * on empty directories
+		 */
+		if (lower_inode->i_nlink == 1)
+			sum_nlinks += 2;
+		else
+			sum_nlinks += (lower_inode->i_nlink - 2);
+	}
+
+	return (!dirs ? 0 : sum_nlinks + 2);
+}
+
+/* construct whiteout filename */
+char *alloc_whname(const char *name, int len)
+{
+	char *buf;
+
+	buf = kmalloc(len + UNIONFS_WHLEN + 1, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!buf)
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+
+	strcpy(buf, UNIONFS_WHPFX);
+	strlcat(buf, name, len + UNIONFS_WHLEN + 1);
+
+	return buf;
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/super.c b/fs/unionfs/super.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f4118df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/super.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1007 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/*
+ * The inode cache is used with alloc_inode for both our inode info and the
+ * vfs inode.
+ */
+static struct kmem_cache *unionfs_inode_cachep;
+
+static void unionfs_read_inode(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	extern struct address_space_operations unionfs_aops;
+	int size;
+	struct unionfs_inode_info *info = UNIONFS_I(inode);
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(inode->i_sb);
+
+	memset(info, 0, offsetof(struct unionfs_inode_info, vfs_inode));
+	info->bstart = -1;
+	info->bend = -1;
+	atomic_set(&info->generation,
+		   atomic_read(&UNIONFS_SB(inode->i_sb)->generation));
+	spin_lock_init(&info->rdlock);
+	info->rdcount = 1;
+	info->hashsize = -1;
+	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&info->readdircache);
+
+	size = sbmax(inode->i_sb) * sizeof(struct inode *);
+	info->lower_inodes = kzalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!info->lower_inodes) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "unionfs: no kernel memory when allocating "
+		       "lower-pointer array!\n");
+		BUG();
+	}
+
+	inode->i_version++;
+	inode->i_op = &unionfs_main_iops;
+	inode->i_fop = &unionfs_main_fops;
+
+	inode->i_mapping->a_ops = &unionfs_aops;
+
+	unionfs_read_unlock(inode->i_sb);
+}
+
+/*
+ * we now define delete_inode, because there are two VFS paths that may
+ * destroy an inode: one of them calls clear inode before doing everything
+ * else that's needed, and the other is fine.  This way we truncate the inode
+ * size (and its pages) and then clear our own inode, which will do an iput
+ * on our and the lower inode.
+ *
+ * No need to lock sb info's rwsem.
+ */
+static void unionfs_delete_inode(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	inode->i_size = 0;	/* every f/s seems to do that */
+
+	if (inode->i_data.nrpages)
+		truncate_inode_pages(&inode->i_data, 0);
+
+	clear_inode(inode);
+}
+
+/*
+ * final actions when unmounting a file system
+ *
+ * No need to lock rwsem.
+ */
+static void unionfs_put_super(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	struct unionfs_sb_info *spd;
+	int leaks = 0;
+
+	spd = UNIONFS_SB(sb);
+	if (!spd)
+		return;
+
+	bstart = sbstart(sb);
+	bend = sbend(sb);
+
+	/* Make sure we have no leaks of branchget/branchput. */
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++)
+		if (branch_count(sb, bindex) != 0) {
+			printk("unionfs: branch %d has %d references left!\n",
+			       bindex, branch_count(sb, bindex));
+			leaks = 1;
+		}
+	BUG_ON(leaks != 0);
+
+	kfree(spd->data);
+	kfree(spd);
+	sb->s_fs_info = NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Since people use this to answer the "How big of a file can I write?"
+ * question, we report the size of the highest priority branch as the size of
+ * the union.
+ */
+static int unionfs_statfs(struct dentry *dentry, struct kstatfs *buf)
+{
+	int err	= 0;
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+
+	sb = dentry->d_sb;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(sb->s_root);
+	err = vfs_statfs(lower_dentry, buf);
+
+	/* set return buf to our f/s to avoid confusing user-level utils */
+	buf->f_type = UNIONFS_SUPER_MAGIC;
+	/*
+	 * Our maximum file name can is shorter by a few bytes because every
+	 * file name could potentially be whited-out.
+	 *
+	 * XXX: this restriction goes away with ODF.
+	 */
+	buf->f_namelen -= UNIONFS_WHLEN;
+
+	/*
+	 * reset two fields to avoid confusing user-land.
+	 * XXX: is this still necessary?
+	 */
+	memset(&buf->f_fsid, 0, sizeof(__kernel_fsid_t));
+	memset(&buf->f_spare, 0, sizeof(buf->f_spare));
+
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* handle mode changing during remount */
+static noinline int do_remount_mode_option(char *optarg, int cur_branches,
+					   struct unionfs_data *new_data,
+					   struct path *new_lower_paths)
+{
+	int err = -EINVAL;
+	int perms, idx;
+	char *modename = strchr(optarg, '=');
+	struct nameidata nd;
+
+	/* by now, optarg contains the branch name */
+	if (!*optarg) {
+		printk("unionfs: no branch specified for mode change.\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+	if (!modename) {
+		printk("unionfs: branch \"%s\" requires a mode.\n", optarg);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	*modename++ = '\0';
+	perms = __parse_branch_mode(modename);
+	if (perms == 0) {
+		printk("unionfs: invalid mode \"%s\" for \"%s\".\n",
+		       modename, optarg);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Find matching branch index.  For now, this assumes that nothing
+	 * has been mounted on top of this Unionfs stack.  Once we have /odf
+	 * and cache-coherency resolved, we'll address the branch-path
+	 * uniqueness.
+	 */
+	err = path_lookup(optarg, LOOKUP_FOLLOW, &nd);
+	if (err) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: error accessing "
+		       "lower directory \"%s\" (error %d)\n",
+		       optarg, err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	for (idx=0; idx<cur_branches; idx++)
+		if (nd.mnt == new_lower_paths[idx].mnt &&
+		    nd.dentry == new_lower_paths[idx].dentry)
+			break;
+	path_release(&nd);	/* no longer needed */
+	if (idx == cur_branches) {
+		err = -ENOENT;	/* err may have been reset above */
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: branch \"%s\" "
+		       "not found\n", optarg);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	/* check/change mode for existing branch */
+	/* we don't warn if perms==branchperms */
+	new_data[idx].branchperms = perms;
+	err = 0;
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* handle branch deletion during remount */
+static noinline int do_remount_del_option(char *optarg, int cur_branches,
+					  struct unionfs_data *new_data,
+					  struct path *new_lower_paths)
+{
+	int err = -EINVAL;
+	int idx;
+	struct nameidata nd;
+
+	/* optarg contains the branch name to delete */
+
+	/*
+	 * Find matching branch index.  For now, this assumes that nothing
+	 * has been mounted on top of this Unionfs stack.  Once we have /odf
+	 * and cache-coherency resolved, we'll address the branch-path
+	 * uniqueness.
+	 */
+	err = path_lookup(optarg, LOOKUP_FOLLOW, &nd);
+	if (err) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: error accessing "
+		       "lower directory \"%s\" (error %d)\n",
+		       optarg, err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	for (idx=0; idx < cur_branches; idx++)
+		if (nd.mnt == new_lower_paths[idx].mnt &&
+		    nd.dentry == new_lower_paths[idx].dentry)
+			break;
+	path_release(&nd);	/* no longer needed */
+	if (idx == cur_branches) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: branch \"%s\" "
+		       "not found\n", optarg);
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	/* check if there are any open files on the branch to be deleted */
+	if (atomic_read(&new_data[idx].open_files) > 0) {
+		err = -EBUSY;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Now we have to delete the branch.  First, release any handles it
+	 * has.  Then, move the remaining array indexes past "idx" in
+	 * new_data and new_lower_paths one to the left.  Finally, adjust
+	 * cur_branches.
+	 */
+	pathput(&new_lower_paths[idx]);
+
+	if (idx < cur_branches - 1) {
+		/* if idx==cur_branches-1, we delete last branch: easy */
+		memmove(&new_data[idx], &new_data[idx+1],
+			(cur_branches - 1 - idx) *
+			sizeof(struct unionfs_data));
+		memmove(&new_lower_paths[idx], &new_lower_paths[idx+1],
+			(cur_branches - 1 - idx) * sizeof(struct path));
+	}
+
+	err = 0;
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* handle branch insertion during remount */
+static noinline int do_remount_add_option(char *optarg, int cur_branches,
+					  struct unionfs_data *new_data,
+					  struct path *new_lower_paths,
+					  int *high_branch_id)
+{
+	int err = -EINVAL;
+	int perms;
+	int idx = 0;		/* default: insert at beginning */
+	char *new_branch , *modename = NULL;
+	struct nameidata nd;
+
+	/*
+	 * optarg can be of several forms:
+	 *
+	 * /bar:/foo		insert /foo before /bar
+	 * /bar:/foo=ro		insert /foo in ro mode before /bar
+	 * /foo			insert /foo in the beginning (prepend)
+	 * :/foo		insert /foo at the end (append)
+	 */
+	if (*optarg == ':') {	/* append? */
+		new_branch = optarg + 1; /* skip ':' */
+		idx = cur_branches;
+		goto found_insertion_point;
+	}
+	new_branch = strchr(optarg, ':');
+	if (!new_branch) {	/* prepend? */
+		new_branch = optarg;
+		goto found_insertion_point;
+	}
+	*new_branch++ = '\0';	/* holds path+mode of new branch */
+
+	/*
+	 * Find matching branch index.  For now, this assumes that nothing
+	 * has been mounted on top of this Unionfs stack.  Once we have /odf
+	 * and cache-coherency resolved, we'll address the branch-path
+	 * uniqueness.
+	 */
+	err = path_lookup(optarg, LOOKUP_FOLLOW, &nd);
+	if (err) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: error accessing "
+		       "lower directory \"%s\" (error %d)\n",
+		       optarg, err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	for (idx=0; idx < cur_branches; idx++)
+		if (nd.mnt == new_lower_paths[idx].mnt &&
+		    nd.dentry == new_lower_paths[idx].dentry)
+			break;
+	path_release(&nd);	/* no longer needed */
+	if (idx == cur_branches) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: branch \"%s\" "
+		       "not found\n", optarg);
+		err = -ENOENT;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * At this point idx will hold the index where the new branch should
+	 * be inserted before.
+	 */
+found_insertion_point:
+	/* find the mode for the new branch */
+	if (new_branch)
+		modename = strchr(new_branch, '=');
+	if (modename)
+		*modename++ = '\0';
+	perms = parse_branch_mode(modename);
+
+	if (!new_branch || !*new_branch) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: null new branch\n");
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	err = path_lookup(new_branch, LOOKUP_FOLLOW, &nd);
+	if (err) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: error accessing "
+		       "lower directory \"%s\" (error %d)\n",
+		       new_branch, err);
+		goto out;
+	}
+	/*
+	 * It's probably safe to check_mode the new branch to insert.  Note:
+	 * we don't allow inserting branches which are unionfs's by
+	 * themselves (check_branch returns EINVAL in that case).  This is
+	 * because this code base doesn't support stacking unionfs: the ODF
+	 * code base supports that correctly.
+	 */
+	if ((err = check_branch(&nd))) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "unionfs: lower directory "
+		       "\"%s\" is not a valid branch\n", optarg);
+		path_release(&nd);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Now we have to insert the new branch.  But first, move the bits
+	 * to make space for the new branch, if needed.  Finally, adjust
+	 * cur_branches.
+	 * We don't release nd here; it's kept until umount/remount.
+	 */
+	if (idx < cur_branches) {
+		/* if idx==cur_branches, we append: easy */
+		memmove(&new_data[idx+1], &new_data[idx],
+			(cur_branches - idx) * sizeof(struct unionfs_data));
+		memmove(&new_lower_paths[idx+1], &new_lower_paths[idx],
+			(cur_branches - idx) * sizeof(struct path));
+	}
+	new_lower_paths[idx].dentry = nd.dentry;
+	new_lower_paths[idx].mnt = nd.mnt;
+
+	new_data[idx].sb = nd.dentry->d_sb;
+	atomic_set(&new_data[idx].open_files, 0);
+	new_data[idx].branchperms = perms;
+	new_data[idx].branch_id = ++*high_branch_id; /* assign new branch ID */
+
+	err = 0;
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Support branch management options on remount.
+ *
+ * See Documentation/filesystems/unionfs/ for details.
+ *
+ * @flags: numeric mount options
+ * @options: mount options string
+ *
+ * This function can rearrange a mounted union dynamically, adding and
+ * removing branches, including changing branch modes.  Clearly this has to
+ * be done safely and atomically.  Luckily, the VFS already calls this
+ * function with lock_super(sb) and lock_kernel() held, preventing
+ * concurrent mixing of new mounts, remounts, and unmounts.  Moreover,
+ * do_remount_sb(), our caller function, already called shrink_dcache_sb(sb)
+ * to purge dentries/inodes from our superblock, and also called
+ * fsync_super(sb) to purge any dirty pages.  So we're good.
+ *
+ * XXX: however, our remount code may also need to invalidate mapped pages
+ * so as to force them to be re-gotten from the (newly reconfigured) lower
+ * branches.  This has to wait for proper mmap and cache coherency support
+ * in the VFS.
+ *
+ */
+static int unionfs_remount_fs(struct super_block *sb, int *flags,
+			      char *options)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	int i;
+	char *optionstmp, *tmp_to_free;	/* kstrdup'ed of "options" */
+	char *optname;
+	int cur_branches = 0;	/* no. of current branches */
+	int new_branches = 0;	/* no. of branches actually left in the end */
+	int add_branches;	/* est. no. of branches to add */
+	int del_branches;	/* est. no. of branches to del */
+	int max_branches;	/* max possible no. of branches */
+	struct unionfs_data *new_data = NULL, *tmp_data = NULL;
+	struct path *new_lower_paths = NULL, *tmp_lower_paths = NULL;
+	struct inode **new_lower_inodes = NULL;
+	int new_high_branch_id;	/* new high branch ID */
+	int old_ibstart, old_ibend;
+	int size;		/* memory allocation size, temp var */
+
+	unionfs_write_lock(sb);
+
+	/*
+	 * The VFS will take care of "ro" and "rw" flags, so anything else
+	 * is an error.  So we need to check if any other flags may have
+	 * been passed (none are allowed/supported as of now).
+	 */
+	if ((*flags & ~MS_RDONLY) != 0) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING
+		       "unionfs: remount flags 0x%x unsupported\n", *flags);
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out_error;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If 'options' is NULL, it's probably because the user just changed
+	 * the union to a "ro" or "rw" and the VFS took care of it.  So
+	 * nothing to do and we're done.
+	 */
+	if (!options || options[0] == '\0')
+		goto out_error;
+
+	/*
+	 * Find out how many branches we will have in the end, counting
+	 * "add" and "del" commands.  Copy the "options" string because
+	 * strsep modifies the string and we need it later.
+	 */
+	optionstmp = tmp_to_free = kstrdup(options, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!optionstmp) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+	new_branches = cur_branches = sbmax(sb); /* current no. branches */
+	add_branches = del_branches = 0;
+	new_high_branch_id = sbhbid(sb); /* save current high_branch_id */
+	while ((optname = strsep(&optionstmp, ",")) != NULL) {
+		char *optarg;
+
+		if (!optname || !*optname)
+			continue;
+
+		optarg = strchr(optname, '=');
+		if (optarg)
+			*optarg++ = '\0';
+
+		if (!strcmp("add", optname))
+			add_branches++;
+		else if (!strcmp("del", optname))
+			del_branches++;
+	}
+	kfree(tmp_to_free);
+	/* after all changes, will we have at least one branch left? */
+	if ((new_branches + add_branches - del_branches) < 1) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING
+		       "unionfs: no branches left after remount\n");
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Since we haven't actually parsed all the add/del options, nor
+	 * have we checked them for errors, we don't know for sure how many
+	 * branches we will have after all changes have taken place.  In
+	 * fact, the total number of branches left could be less than what
+	 * we have now.  So we need to allocate space for a temporary
+	 * placeholder that is at least as large as the maximum number of
+	 * branches we *could* have, which is the current number plus all
+	 * the additions.  Once we're done with these temp placeholders, we
+	 * may have to re-allocate the final size, copy over from the temp,
+	 * and then free the temps (done near the end of this function).
+	 */
+	max_branches = cur_branches + add_branches;
+	/* allocate space for new pointers to lower dentry */
+	tmp_data = kcalloc(max_branches,
+			   sizeof(struct unionfs_data), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!tmp_data) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+	/* allocate space for new pointers to lower paths */
+	tmp_lower_paths = kcalloc(max_branches,
+				  sizeof(struct path), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!tmp_lower_paths) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+	/* copy current info into new placeholders, incrementing refcnts */
+	memcpy(tmp_data, UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data,
+	       cur_branches * sizeof(struct unionfs_data));
+	memcpy(tmp_lower_paths, UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->lower_paths,
+	       cur_branches * sizeof(struct path));
+	for (i=0; i<cur_branches; i++)
+		pathget(&tmp_lower_paths[i]); /* drop refs at end of fxn */
+
+	/*******************************************************************
+	 * For each branch command, do path_lookup on the requested branch,
+	 * and apply the change to a temp branch list.  To handle errors, we
+	 * already dup'ed the old arrays (above), and increased the refcnts
+	 * on various f/s objects.  So now we can do all the path_lookups
+	 * and branch-management commands on the new arrays.  If it fail mid
+	 * way, we free the tmp arrays and *put all objects.  If we succeed,
+	 * then we free old arrays and *put its objects, and then replace
+	 * the arrays with the new tmp list (we may have to re-allocate the
+	 * memory because the temp lists could have been larger than what we
+	 * actually needed).
+	 *******************************************************************/
+
+	while ((optname = strsep(&options, ",")) != NULL) {
+		char *optarg;
+
+		if (!optname || !*optname)
+			continue;
+		/*
+		 * At this stage optname holds a comma-delimited option, but
+		 * without the commas.  Next, we need to break the string on
+		 * the '=' symbol to separate CMD=ARG, where ARG itself can
+		 * be KEY=VAL.  For example, in mode=/foo=rw, CMD is "mode",
+		 * KEY is "/foo", and VAL is "rw".
+		 */
+		optarg = strchr(optname, '=');
+		if (optarg)
+			*optarg++ = '\0';
+		/* incgen remount option (instead of old ioctl) */
+		if (!strcmp("incgen", optname)) {
+			err = 0;
+			goto out_no_change;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * All of our options take an argument now.  (Insert ones
+		 * that don't above this check.)  So at this stage optname
+		 * contains the CMD part and optarg contains the ARG part.
+		 */
+		if (!optarg || !*optarg) {
+			printk("unionfs: all remount options require "
+			       "an argument (%s).\n", optname);
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			goto out_release;
+		}
+
+		if (!strcmp("add", optname)) {
+			err = do_remount_add_option(optarg, new_branches,
+						    tmp_data,
+						    tmp_lower_paths,
+						    &new_high_branch_id);
+			if (err)
+				goto out_release;
+			new_branches++;
+			if (new_branches > UNIONFS_MAX_BRANCHES) {
+				printk("unionfs: command exceeds "
+				       "%d branches\n", UNIONFS_MAX_BRANCHES);
+				err = -E2BIG;
+				goto out_release;
+			}
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("del", optname)) {
+			err = do_remount_del_option(optarg, new_branches,
+						    tmp_data,
+						    tmp_lower_paths);
+			if (err)
+				goto out_release;
+			new_branches--;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("mode", optname)) {
+			err = do_remount_mode_option(optarg, new_branches,
+						     tmp_data,
+						     tmp_lower_paths);
+			if (err)
+				goto out_release;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * When you use "mount -o remount,ro", mount(8) will
+		 * reportedly pass the original dirs= string from
+		 * /proc/mounts.  So for now, we have to ignore dirs= and
+		 * not consider it an error, unless we want to allow users
+		 * to pass dirs= in remount.  Note that to allow the VFS to
+		 * actually process the ro/rw remount options, we have to
+		 * return 0 from this function.
+		 */
+		if (!strcmp("dirs", optname)) {
+			printk(KERN_WARNING
+			       "unionfs: remount ignoring option \"%s\".\n",
+			       optname);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		printk(KERN_WARNING
+		       "unionfs: unrecognized option \"%s\"\n", optname);
+		goto out_release;
+	}
+
+out_no_change:
+
+	/******************************************************************
+	 * WE'RE ALMOST DONE: check if leftmost branch might be read-only,
+	 * see if we need to allocate a small-sized new vector, copy the
+	 * vectors to their correct place, release the refcnt of the older
+	 * ones, and return.  Also handle invalidating any pages that will
+	 * have to be re-read.
+	 *******************************************************************/
+
+	if (!(tmp_data[0].branchperms & MAY_WRITE)) {
+		printk("unionfs: leftmost branch cannot be read-only "
+		       "(use \"remount,ro\" to create a read-only union)\n");
+		err = -EINVAL;
+		goto out_release;
+	}
+
+	/* (re)allocate space for new pointers to lower dentry */
+	size = new_branches * sizeof(struct unionfs_data);
+	new_data = krealloc(tmp_data, size, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!new_data) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_release;
+	}
+	/* allocate space for new pointers to lower paths */
+	size = new_branches * sizeof(struct path);
+	new_lower_paths = krealloc(tmp_lower_paths, size, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!new_lower_paths) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_release;
+ 	}
+	/* allocate space for new pointers to lower inodes */
+	new_lower_inodes = kcalloc(new_branches,
+				   sizeof(struct inode *), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!new_lower_inodes) {
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_release;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * OK, just before we actually put the new set of branches in place,
+	 * we need to ensure that our own f/s has no dirty objects left.
+	 * Luckily, do_remount_sb() already calls shrink_dcache_sb(sb) and
+	 * fsync_super(sb), taking care of dentries, inodes, and dirty
+	 * pages.  So all that's left is for us to invalidate any leftover
+	 * (non-dirty) pages to ensure that they will be re-read from the
+	 * new lower branches (and to support mmap).
+	 */
+
+	/*
+	 * Now we call drop_pagecache_sb() to invalidate all pages in this
+	 * super.  This function calls invalidate_inode_pages(mapping),
+	 * which calls invalidate_mapping_pages(): the latter, however, will
+	 * not invalidate pages which are dirty, locked, under writeback, or
+	 * mapped into page tables.  We shouldn't have to worry about dirty
+	 * or under-writeback pages, because do_remount_sb() called
+	 * fsync_super() which would not have returned until all dirty pages
+	 * were flushed.
+	 *
+	 * But do we have to worry about locked pages?  Is there any chance
+	 * that in here we'll get locked pages?
+	 *
+	 * XXX: what about pages mapped into pagetables?  Are these pages
+	 * which user processes may have mmap(2)'ed?  If so, then we need to
+	 * invalidate those too, no?  Maybe we'll have to write our own
+	 * version of invalidate_mapping_pages() which also handled mapped
+	 * pages.
+	 *
+	 * XXX: Alternatively, maybe we should call truncate_inode_pages(),
+	 * which use two passes over the pages list, and will truncate all
+	 * pages.
+	 */
+	drop_pagecache_sb(sb);
+
+	/* copy new vectors into their correct place */
+	tmp_data = UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data;
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data = new_data;
+	new_data = NULL;	/* so don't free good pointers below */
+	tmp_lower_paths = UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->lower_paths;
+	UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->lower_paths = new_lower_paths;
+	new_lower_paths = NULL;	/* so don't free good pointers below */
+
+	/* update our unionfs_sb_info and root dentry index of last branch */
+	i = sbmax(sb);		/* save no. of branches to release at end */
+	sbend(sb) = new_branches - 1;
+	set_dbend(sb->s_root, new_branches - 1);
+	old_ibstart = ibstart(sb->s_root->d_inode);
+	old_ibend = ibend(sb->s_root->d_inode);
+	ibend(sb->s_root->d_inode) = new_branches - 1;
+	UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->bcount = new_branches;
+	new_branches = i; /* no. of branches to release below */
+
+	/*
+	 * Update lower inodes: 3 steps
+	 * 1. grab ref on all new lower inodes
+	 */
+	for (i=dbstart(sb->s_root); i<=dbend(sb->s_root); i++) {
+		struct dentry *lower_dentry =
+			unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(sb->s_root, i);
+		igrab(lower_dentry->d_inode);
+		new_lower_inodes[i] = lower_dentry->d_inode;
+	}
+	/* 2. release reference on all older lower inodes */
+	for (i=old_ibstart; i<=old_ibend; i++) {
+		iput(unionfs_lower_inode_idx(sb->s_root->d_inode, i));
+		unionfs_set_lower_inode_idx(sb->s_root->d_inode, i, NULL);
+	}
+	kfree(UNIONFS_I(sb->s_root->d_inode)->lower_inodes);
+	/* 3. update root dentry's inode to new lower_inodes array */
+	UNIONFS_I(sb->s_root->d_inode)->lower_inodes = new_lower_inodes;
+	new_lower_inodes = NULL;
+
+	/* maxbytes may have changed */
+	sb->s_maxbytes = unionfs_lower_super_idx(sb, 0)->s_maxbytes;
+	/* update high branch ID */
+	sbhbid(sb) = new_high_branch_id;
+
+	/* update our sb->generation for revalidating objects */
+	i = atomic_inc_return(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->generation);
+	atomic_set(&UNIONFS_D(sb->s_root)->generation, i);
+	atomic_set(&UNIONFS_I(sb->s_root->d_inode)->generation, i);
+	if (!(*flags & MS_SILENT))
+		printk("unionfs: new generation number %d\n", i);
+	/* finally, update the root dentry's times */
+	unionfs_copy_attr_times(sb->s_root->d_inode);
+	err = 0;		/* reset to success */
+
+	/*
+	 * The code above falls through to the next label, and releases the
+	 * refcnts of the older ones (stored in tmp_*): if we fell through
+	 * here, it means success.  However, if we jump directly to this
+	 * label from any error above, then an error occurred after we
+	 * grabbed various refcnts, and so we have to release the
+	 * temporarily constructed structures.
+	 */
+out_release:
+	/* no need to cleanup/release anything in tmp_data */
+	if (tmp_lower_paths)
+		for (i=0; i<new_branches; i++)
+			pathput(&tmp_lower_paths[i]);
+out_free:
+	kfree(tmp_lower_paths);
+	kfree(tmp_data);
+	kfree(new_lower_paths);
+	kfree(new_data);
+	kfree(new_lower_inodes);
+out_error:
+	unionfs_write_unlock(sb);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(sb->s_root);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called by iput() when the inode reference count reached zero
+ * and the inode is not hashed anywhere.  Used to clear anything
+ * that needs to be, before the inode is completely destroyed and put
+ * on the inode free list.
+ *
+ * No need to lock sb info's rwsem.
+ */
+static void unionfs_clear_inode(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	struct inode *lower_inode;
+	struct list_head *pos, *n;
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate;
+
+	list_for_each_safe(pos, n, &UNIONFS_I(inode)->readdircache) {
+		rdstate = list_entry(pos, struct unionfs_dir_state, cache);
+		list_del(&rdstate->cache);
+		free_rdstate(rdstate);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Decrement a reference to a lower_inode, which was incremented
+	 * by our read_inode when it was created initially.
+	 */
+	bstart = ibstart(inode);
+	bend = ibend(inode);
+	if (bstart >= 0) {
+		for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+			lower_inode = unionfs_lower_inode_idx(inode, bindex);
+			if (!lower_inode)
+				continue;
+			iput(lower_inode);
+		}
+	}
+
+	kfree(UNIONFS_I(inode)->lower_inodes);
+	UNIONFS_I(inode)->lower_inodes = NULL;
+}
+
+static struct inode *unionfs_alloc_inode(struct super_block *sb)
+{
+	struct unionfs_inode_info *i;
+
+	i = kmem_cache_alloc(unionfs_inode_cachep, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!i)
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* memset everything up to the inode to 0 */
+	memset(i, 0, offsetof(struct unionfs_inode_info, vfs_inode));
+
+	i->vfs_inode.i_version = 1;
+	return &i->vfs_inode;
+}
+
+static void unionfs_destroy_inode(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	kmem_cache_free(unionfs_inode_cachep, UNIONFS_I(inode));
+}
+
+/* unionfs inode cache constructor */
+static void init_once(void *v, struct kmem_cache *cachep, unsigned long flags)
+{
+	struct unionfs_inode_info *i = v;
+
+	inode_init_once(&i->vfs_inode);
+}
+
+int unionfs_init_inode_cache(void)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+
+	unionfs_inode_cachep =
+		kmem_cache_create("unionfs_inode_cache",
+				  sizeof(struct unionfs_inode_info), 0,
+				  SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT, init_once, NULL);
+	if (!unionfs_inode_cachep)
+		err = -ENOMEM;
+	return err;
+}
+
+/* unionfs inode cache destructor */
+void unionfs_destroy_inode_cache(void)
+{
+	if (unionfs_inode_cachep)
+		kmem_cache_destroy(unionfs_inode_cachep);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called when we have a dirty inode, right here we only throw out
+ * parts of our readdir list that are too old.
+ *
+ * No need to grab sb info's rwsem.
+ */
+static int unionfs_write_inode(struct inode *inode, int sync)
+{
+	struct list_head *pos, *n;
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate;
+
+	spin_lock(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdlock);
+	list_for_each_safe(pos, n, &UNIONFS_I(inode)->readdircache) {
+		rdstate = list_entry(pos, struct unionfs_dir_state, cache);
+		/* We keep this list in LRU order. */
+		if ((rdstate->access + RDCACHE_JIFFIES) > jiffies)
+			break;
+		UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdcount--;
+		list_del(&rdstate->cache);
+		free_rdstate(rdstate);
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&UNIONFS_I(inode)->rdlock);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Used only in nfs, to kill any pending RPC tasks, so that subsequent
+ * code can actually succeed and won't leave tasks that need handling.
+ */
+static void unionfs_umount_begin(struct vfsmount *mnt, int flags)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb, *lower_sb;
+	struct vfsmount *lower_mnt;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+
+	if (!(flags & MNT_FORCE))
+		/*
+		 * we are not being MNT_FORCE'd, therefore we should emulate
+		 * old behavior
+		 */
+		return;
+
+	sb = mnt->mnt_sb;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(sb);
+
+	bstart = sbstart(sb);
+	bend = sbend(sb);
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		lower_mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(sb->s_root, bindex);
+		lower_sb = unionfs_lower_super_idx(sb, bindex);
+
+		if (lower_mnt && lower_sb && lower_sb->s_op &&
+		    lower_sb->s_op->umount_begin)
+			lower_sb->s_op->umount_begin(lower_mnt, flags);
+	}
+
+	unionfs_read_unlock(sb);
+}
+
+static int unionfs_show_options(struct seq_file *m, struct vfsmount *mnt)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb = mnt->mnt_sb;
+	int ret = 0;
+	char *tmp_page;
+	char *path;
+	int bindex, bstart, bend;
+	int perms;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(sb);
+
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(sb->s_root);
+
+	tmp_page = (char*) __get_free_page(GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!tmp_page) {
+		ret = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	bstart = sbstart(sb);
+	bend = sbend(sb);
+
+	seq_printf(m, ",dirs=");
+	for (bindex = bstart; bindex <= bend; bindex++) {
+		path = d_path(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(sb->s_root, bindex),
+			      unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(sb->s_root, bindex),
+			      tmp_page, PAGE_SIZE);
+		if (IS_ERR(path)) {
+			ret = PTR_ERR(path);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		perms = branchperms(sb, bindex);
+
+		seq_printf(m, "%s=%s", path,
+			   perms & MAY_WRITE ? "rw" : "ro");
+		if (bindex != bend)
+			seq_printf(m, ":");
+	}
+
+out:
+	free_page((unsigned long) tmp_page);
+
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(sb->s_root);
+
+	unionfs_read_unlock(sb);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+struct super_operations unionfs_sops = {
+	.read_inode	= unionfs_read_inode,
+	.delete_inode	= unionfs_delete_inode,
+	.put_super	= unionfs_put_super,
+	.statfs		= unionfs_statfs,
+	.remount_fs	= unionfs_remount_fs,
+	.clear_inode	= unionfs_clear_inode,
+	.umount_begin	= unionfs_umount_begin,
+	.show_options	= unionfs_show_options,
+	.write_inode	= unionfs_write_inode,
+	.alloc_inode	= unionfs_alloc_inode,
+	.destroy_inode	= unionfs_destroy_inode,
+};
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/union.h b/fs/unionfs/union.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cd1f37c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/union.h
@@ -0,0 +1,583 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _UNION_H_
+#define _UNION_H_
+
+#include <linux/dcache.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include <linux/list.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/mount.h>
+#include <linux/namei.h>
+#include <linux/page-flags.h>
+#include <linux/pagemap.h>
+#include <linux/poll.h>
+#include <linux/security.h>
+#include <linux/seq_file.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/smp_lock.h>
+#include <linux/statfs.h>
+#include <linux/string.h>
+#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
+#include <linux/writeback.h>
+#include <linux/buffer_head.h>
+#include <linux/xattr.h>
+#include <linux/fs_stack.h>
+#include <linux/magic.h>
+#include <linux/log2.h>
+
+#include <asm/mman.h>
+#include <asm/system.h>
+
+#include <linux/union_fs.h>
+
+/* the file system name */
+#define UNIONFS_NAME "unionfs"
+
+/* unionfs root inode number */
+#define UNIONFS_ROOT_INO     1
+
+/* number of times we try to get a unique temporary file name */
+#define GET_TMPNAM_MAX_RETRY	5
+
+/* maximum number of branches we support, to avoid memory blowup */
+#define UNIONFS_MAX_BRANCHES	128
+
+/* Operations vectors defined in specific files. */
+extern struct file_operations unionfs_main_fops;
+extern struct file_operations unionfs_dir_fops;
+extern struct inode_operations unionfs_main_iops;
+extern struct inode_operations unionfs_dir_iops;
+extern struct inode_operations unionfs_symlink_iops;
+extern struct super_operations unionfs_sops;
+extern struct dentry_operations unionfs_dops;
+
+/* How long should an entry be allowed to persist */
+#define RDCACHE_JIFFIES	(5*HZ)
+
+/* file private data. */
+struct unionfs_file_info {
+	int bstart;
+	int bend;
+	atomic_t generation;
+
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate;
+	struct file **lower_files;
+	int *saved_branch_ids; /* IDs of branches when file was opened */
+};
+
+/* unionfs inode data in memory */
+struct unionfs_inode_info {
+	int bstart;
+	int bend;
+	atomic_t generation;
+	int stale;
+	/* Stuff for readdir over NFS. */
+	spinlock_t rdlock;
+	struct list_head readdircache;
+	int rdcount;
+	int hashsize;
+	int cookie;
+
+	/* The lower inodes */
+	struct inode **lower_inodes;
+	/* to keep track of reads/writes for unlinks before closes */
+	atomic_t totalopens;
+
+	struct inode vfs_inode;
+};
+
+/* unionfs dentry data in memory */
+struct unionfs_dentry_info {
+	/*
+	 * The semaphore is used to lock the dentry as soon as we get into a
+	 * unionfs function from the VFS.  Our lock ordering is that children
+	 * go before their parents.
+	 */
+	struct mutex lock;
+	int bstart;
+	int bend;
+	int bopaque;
+	int bcount;
+	atomic_t generation;
+	struct path *lower_paths;
+};
+
+/* These are the pointers to our various objects. */
+struct unionfs_data {
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	atomic_t open_files;	/* number of open files on branch */
+	int branchperms;
+	int branch_id;		/* unique branch ID at re/mount time */
+};
+
+/* unionfs super-block data in memory */
+struct unionfs_sb_info {
+	int bend;
+
+	atomic_t generation;
+
+	/*
+	 * This rwsem is used to make sure that a branch management
+	 * operation...
+	 *   1) will not begin before all currently in-flight operations
+	 *      complete
+	 *   2) any new operations do not execute until the currently
+	 *      running branch management operation completes
+	 */
+	struct rw_semaphore rwsem;
+	int high_branch_id;	/* last unique branch ID given */
+	struct unionfs_data *data;
+};
+
+/*
+ * structure for making the linked list of entries by readdir on left branch
+ * to compare with entries on right branch
+ */
+struct filldir_node {
+	struct list_head file_list;	/* list for directory entries */
+	char *name;		/* name entry */
+	int hash;		/* name hash */
+	int namelen;		/* name len since name is not 0 terminated */
+
+	/*
+	 * we can check for duplicate whiteouts and files in the same branch
+	 * in order to return -EIO.
+	 */
+	int bindex;
+
+	/* is this a whiteout entry? */
+	int whiteout;
+
+	/* Inline name, so we don't need to separately kmalloc small ones */
+	char iname[DNAME_INLINE_LEN_MIN];
+};
+
+/* Directory hash table. */
+struct unionfs_dir_state {
+	unsigned int cookie;	/* the cookie, based off of rdversion */
+	unsigned int offset;	/* The entry we have returned. */
+	int bindex;
+	loff_t dirpos;		/* offset within the lower level directory */
+	int size;		/* How big is the hash table? */
+	int hashentries;	/* How many entries have been inserted? */
+	unsigned long access;
+
+	/* This cache list is used when the inode keeps us around. */
+	struct list_head cache;
+	struct list_head list[0];
+};
+
+/* externs needed for fanout.h or sioq.h */
+extern int unionfs_get_nlinks(const struct inode *inode);
+
+/* include miscellaneous macros */
+#include "fanout.h"
+#include "sioq.h"
+
+/* externs for cache creation/deletion routines */
+extern void unionfs_destroy_filldir_cache(void);
+extern int unionfs_init_filldir_cache(void);
+extern int unionfs_init_inode_cache(void);
+extern void unionfs_destroy_inode_cache(void);
+extern int unionfs_init_dentry_cache(void);
+extern void unionfs_destroy_dentry_cache(void);
+
+/* Initialize and free readdir-specific  state. */
+extern int init_rdstate(struct file *file);
+extern struct unionfs_dir_state *alloc_rdstate(struct inode *inode,
+					       int bindex);
+extern struct unionfs_dir_state *find_rdstate(struct inode *inode,
+					      loff_t fpos);
+extern void free_rdstate(struct unionfs_dir_state *state);
+extern int add_filldir_node(struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate,
+			    const char *name, int namelen, int bindex,
+			    int whiteout);
+extern struct filldir_node *find_filldir_node(struct unionfs_dir_state *rdstate,
+					      const char *name, int namelen);
+
+extern struct dentry **alloc_new_dentries(int objs);
+extern struct unionfs_data *alloc_new_data(int objs);
+
+/* We can only use 32-bits of offset for rdstate --- blech! */
+#define DIREOF (0xfffff)
+#define RDOFFBITS 20		/* This is the number of bits in DIREOF. */
+#define MAXRDCOOKIE (0xfff)
+/* Turn an rdstate into an offset. */
+static inline off_t rdstate2offset(struct unionfs_dir_state *buf)
+{
+	off_t tmp;
+
+	tmp = ((buf->cookie & MAXRDCOOKIE) << RDOFFBITS)
+		| (buf->offset & DIREOF);
+	return tmp;
+}
+
+#define unionfs_read_lock(sb)	 down_read(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->rwsem)
+#define unionfs_read_unlock(sb)	 up_read(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->rwsem)
+#define unionfs_write_lock(sb)	 down_write(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->rwsem)
+#define unionfs_write_unlock(sb) up_write(&UNIONFS_SB(sb)->rwsem)
+
+static inline void unionfs_double_lock_dentry(struct dentry *d1,
+					      struct dentry *d2)
+{
+	if (d2 < d1) {
+		struct dentry *tmp = d1;
+		d1 = d2;
+		d2 = tmp;
+	}
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(d1);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(d2);
+}
+
+extern int realloc_dentry_private_data(struct dentry *dentry);
+extern int new_dentry_private_data(struct dentry *dentry);
+extern void free_dentry_private_data(struct dentry *dentry);
+extern void update_bstart(struct dentry *dentry);
+
+/*
+ * EXTERNALS:
+ */
+
+/* replicates the directory structure up to given dentry in given branch */
+extern struct dentry *create_parents(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+				     const char *name, int bindex);
+extern int make_dir_opaque(struct dentry *dir, int bindex);
+
+/* partial lookup */
+extern int unionfs_partial_lookup(struct dentry *dentry);
+
+/*
+ * Pass an unionfs dentry and an index and it will try to create a whiteout
+ * in branch 'index'.
+ *
+ * On error, it will proceed to a branch to the left
+ */
+extern int create_whiteout(struct dentry *dentry, int start);
+/* copies a file from dbstart to newbindex branch */
+extern int copyup_file(struct inode *dir, struct file *file, int bstart,
+		       int newbindex, loff_t size);
+extern int copyup_named_file(struct inode *dir, struct file *file,
+			     char *name, int bstart, int new_bindex,
+			     loff_t len);
+/* copies a dentry from dbstart to newbindex branch */
+extern int copyup_dentry(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+			 int bstart, int new_bindex, const char *name,
+			 int namelen, struct file **copyup_file, loff_t len);
+/* helper functions for post-copyup cleanup */
+extern void unionfs_inherit_mnt(struct dentry *dentry);
+extern void unionfs_purge_extras(struct dentry *dentry);
+
+extern int remove_whiteouts(struct dentry *dentry,
+			    struct dentry *lower_dentry, int bindex);
+
+extern int do_delete_whiteouts(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex,
+			       struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist);
+
+/* Is this directory empty: 0 if it is empty, -ENOTEMPTY if not. */
+extern int check_empty(struct dentry *dentry,
+		       struct unionfs_dir_state **namelist);
+/* Delete whiteouts from this directory in branch bindex. */
+extern int delete_whiteouts(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex,
+			    struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist);
+
+/* Re-lookup a lower dentry. */
+extern int unionfs_refresh_lower_dentry(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex);
+
+extern void unionfs_reinterpose(struct dentry *this_dentry);
+extern struct super_block *unionfs_duplicate_super(struct super_block *sb);
+
+/* Locking functions. */
+extern int unionfs_setlk(struct file *file, int cmd, struct file_lock *fl);
+extern int unionfs_getlk(struct file *file, struct file_lock *fl);
+
+/* Common file operations. */
+extern int unionfs_file_revalidate(struct file *file, int willwrite);
+extern int unionfs_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file);
+extern int unionfs_file_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file);
+extern int unionfs_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id);
+extern long unionfs_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned int cmd,
+			  unsigned long arg);
+extern int unionfs_fsync(struct file *file, struct dentry *dentry,
+			 int datasync);
+extern int unionfs_fasync(int fd, struct file *file, int flag);
+
+/* Inode operations */
+extern int unionfs_rename(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry,
+			  struct inode *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry);
+extern int unionfs_unlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry);
+extern int unionfs_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry);
+
+extern int __unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(struct dentry *dentry,
+					struct nameidata *nd, int willwrite);
+extern int is_newer_lower(const struct dentry *dentry);
+
+/* The values for unionfs_interpose's flag. */
+#define INTERPOSE_DEFAULT	0
+#define INTERPOSE_LOOKUP	1
+#define INTERPOSE_REVAL		2
+#define INTERPOSE_REVAL_NEG	3
+#define INTERPOSE_PARTIAL	4
+
+extern struct dentry *unionfs_interpose(struct dentry *this_dentry,
+					struct super_block *sb, int flag);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR
+/* Extended attribute functions. */
+extern void *unionfs_xattr_alloc(size_t size, size_t limit);
+extern void unionfs_xattr_free(void *ptr, size_t size);
+
+extern ssize_t unionfs_getxattr(struct dentry *dentry, const char *name,
+				void *value, size_t size);
+extern int unionfs_removexattr(struct dentry *dentry, const char *name);
+extern ssize_t unionfs_listxattr(struct dentry *dentry, char *list,
+				 size_t size);
+extern int unionfs_setxattr(struct dentry *dentry, const char *name,
+			    const void *value, size_t size, int flags);
+#endif /* CONFIG_UNION_FS_XATTR */
+
+/* The root directory is unhashed, but isn't deleted. */
+static inline int d_deleted(struct dentry *d)
+{
+	return d_unhashed(d) && (d != d->d_sb->s_root);
+}
+
+struct dentry *unionfs_lookup_backend(struct dentry *dentry,
+				      struct nameidata *nd, int lookupmode);
+
+/* unionfs_permission, check if we should bypass error to facilitate copyup */
+#define IS_COPYUP_ERR(err) ((err) == -EROFS)
+
+/* unionfs_open, check if we need to copyup the file */
+#define OPEN_WRITE_FLAGS (O_WRONLY | O_RDWR | O_APPEND)
+#define IS_WRITE_FLAG(flag) ((flag) & OPEN_WRITE_FLAGS)
+
+static inline int branchperms(const struct super_block *sb, int index)
+{
+	BUG_ON(index < 0);
+	return UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].branchperms;
+}
+
+static inline int set_branchperms(struct super_block *sb, int index, int perms)
+{
+	BUG_ON(index < 0);
+	UNIONFS_SB(sb)->data[index].branchperms = perms;
+	return perms;
+}
+
+/* Is this file on a read-only branch? */
+static inline int is_robranch_super(const struct super_block *sb, int index)
+{
+	int ret;
+
+  	ret = (!(branchperms(sb, index) & MAY_WRITE)) ? -EROFS : 0;
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/* Is this file on a read-only branch? */
+static inline int is_robranch_idx(const struct dentry *dentry, int index)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+
+	BUG_ON(index < 0);
+
+	if ((!(branchperms(dentry->d_sb, index) & MAY_WRITE)) ||
+	    IS_RDONLY(unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, index)->d_inode))
+		err = -EROFS;
+	return err;
+}
+
+static inline int is_robranch(const struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int index;
+
+	index = UNIONFS_D(dentry)->bstart;
+	BUG_ON(index < 0);
+
+	return is_robranch_idx(dentry, index);
+}
+
+/* What do we use for whiteouts. */
+#define UNIONFS_WHPFX ".wh."
+#define UNIONFS_WHLEN 4
+/*
+ * If a directory contains this file, then it is opaque.  We start with the
+ * .wh. flag so that it is blocked by lookup.
+ */
+#define UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE_NAME "__dir_opaque"
+#define UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE UNIONFS_WHPFX UNIONFS_DIR_OPAQUE_NAME
+
+#ifndef DEFAULT_POLLMASK
+#define DEFAULT_POLLMASK (POLLIN | POLLOUT | POLLRDNORM | POLLWRNORM)
+#endif /* not DEFAULT_POLLMASK */
+
+/*
+ * EXTERNALS:
+ */
+extern char *alloc_whname(const char *name, int len);
+extern int check_branch(struct nameidata *nd);
+extern int __parse_branch_mode(const char *name);
+extern int parse_branch_mode(const char *name);
+
+/*
+ * These two functions are here because it is kind of daft to copy and paste
+ * the contents of the two functions to 32+ places in unionfs
+ */
+static inline struct dentry *lock_parent(struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct dentry *dir = dget(dentry->d_parent);
+
+	mutex_lock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
+	return dir;
+}
+
+static inline void unlock_dir(struct dentry *dir)
+{
+	mutex_unlock(&dir->d_inode->i_mutex);
+	dput(dir);
+}
+
+static inline struct vfsmount *unionfs_mntget(struct dentry *dentry,
+					      int bindex)
+{
+	struct vfsmount *mnt;
+
+	if (!dentry) {
+		if (bindex < 0)
+			return NULL;
+		if (!dentry && bindex >= 0) {
+#ifdef UNIONFS_DEBUG
+			printk(KERN_DEBUG
+			       "unionfs_mntget: dentry=%p bindex=%d\n",
+			       dentry, bindex);
+#endif /* UNIONFS_DEBUG */
+			return NULL;
+		}
+	}
+	mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex);
+	if (!mnt) {
+		if (bindex < 0)
+			return NULL;
+		if (!mnt && bindex >= 0) {
+#ifdef UNIONFS_DEBUG
+			printk(KERN_DEBUG
+			       "unionfs_mntget: mnt=%p bindex=%d\n",
+			       mnt, bindex);
+#endif /* UNIONFS_DEBUG */
+			return NULL;
+		}
+	}
+	mnt = mntget(mnt);
+	return mnt;
+}
+
+static inline void unionfs_mntput(struct dentry *dentry, int bindex)
+{
+	struct vfsmount *mnt;
+
+	if (!dentry) {
+		if (bindex < 0)
+			return;
+		if (!dentry && bindex >= 0) {
+#ifdef UNIONFS_DEBUG
+			printk(KERN_DEBUG
+			       "unionfs_mntput: dentry=%p bindex=%d\n",
+			       dentry, bindex);
+#endif /* UNIONFS_DEBUG */
+			return;
+		}
+	}
+	mnt = unionfs_lower_mnt_idx(dentry, bindex);
+	if (!mnt) {
+		if (bindex < 0)
+			return;
+		if (!mnt && bindex >= 0) {
+#ifdef UNIONFS_DEBUG
+			/*
+			 * Directories can have NULL lower objects in
+			 * between start/end, but NOT if at the start/end
+			 * range.  We cannot verify that this dentry is a
+			 * type=DIR, because it may already be a negative
+			 * dentry.  But if dbstart is greater than dbend, we
+			 * know that this couldn't have been a regular file:
+			 * it had to have been a directory.
+			 */
+			if (!(bindex > dbstart(dentry) && bindex < dbend(dentry)))
+				printk(KERN_WARNING
+				       "unionfs_mntput: mnt=%p bindex=%d\n",
+				       mnt, bindex);
+#endif /* UNIONFS_DEBUG */
+			return;
+		}
+	}
+	mntput(mnt);
+}
+
+#ifdef UNIONFS_DEBUG
+
+/* useful for tracking code reachability */
+#define UDBG printk("DBG:%s:%s:%d\n",__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+
+#define unionfs_check_inode(i)	__unionfs_check_inode((i),	\
+	__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+#define unionfs_check_dentry(d)	__unionfs_check_dentry((d),	\
+	__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+#define unionfs_check_file(f)	__unionfs_check_file((f),	\
+	__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+#define show_branch_counts(sb)	__show_branch_counts((sb),	\
+	__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+#define show_inode_times(i)	__show_inode_times((i),		\
+	__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+#define show_dinode_times(d)	__show_dinode_times((d),	\
+	__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+#define show_inode_counts(i)	__show_inode_counts((i),	\
+	__FILE__,__FUNCTION__,__LINE__)
+
+extern void __unionfs_check_inode(const struct inode *inode, const char *fname,
+				  const char *fxn, int line);
+extern void __unionfs_check_dentry(const struct dentry *dentry,
+				   const char *fname, const char *fxn,
+				   int line);
+extern void __unionfs_check_file(const struct file *file,
+				 const char *fname, const char *fxn, int line);
+extern void __show_branch_counts(const struct super_block *sb,
+				 const char *file, const char *fxn, int line);
+extern void __show_inode_times(const struct inode *inode,
+			       const char *file, const char *fxn, int line);
+extern void __show_dinode_times(const struct dentry *dentry,
+				const char *file, const char *fxn, int line);
+extern void __show_inode_counts(const struct inode *inode,
+			        const char *file, const char *fxn, int line);
+
+#else /* not UNIONFS_DEBUG */
+
+/* we leave useful hooks for these check functions throughout the code */
+#define unionfs_check_inode(i)
+#define unionfs_check_dentry(d)
+#define unionfs_check_file(f)
+#define show_branch_counts(sb)
+#define show_inode_times(i)
+#define show_dinode_times(d)
+#define show_inode_counts(i)
+
+#endif /* not UNIONFS_DEBUG */
+
+#endif	/* not _UNION_H_ */
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/unlink.c b/fs/unionfs/unlink.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..47bebab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/unlink.c
@@ -0,0 +1,192 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/* unlink a file by creating a whiteout */
+static int unionfs_unlink_whiteout(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry;
+	int bindex;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	if ((err = unionfs_partial_lookup(dentry)))
+		goto out;
+
+	bindex = dbstart(dentry);
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry_idx(dentry, bindex);
+	if (!lower_dentry)
+		goto out;
+
+	lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+
+	/* avoid destroying the lower inode if the file is in use */
+	dget(lower_dentry);
+	if (!(err = is_robranch_super(dentry->d_sb, bindex)))
+		err = vfs_unlink(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode, lower_dentry);
+	/* if vfs_unlink succeeded, update our inode's times */
+	if (!err)
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(dentry->d_inode);
+	dput(lower_dentry);
+	fsstack_copy_attr_times(dir, lower_dir_dentry->d_inode);
+	unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+
+	if (err && !IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (err) {
+		if (dbstart(dentry) == 0)
+			goto out;
+		err = create_whiteout(dentry, dbstart(dentry) - 1);
+	} else if (dbopaque(dentry) != -1)
+		/* There is a lower lower-priority file with the same name. */
+		err = create_whiteout(dentry, dbopaque(dentry));
+	else
+		err = create_whiteout(dentry, dbstart(dentry));
+
+out:
+	if (!err)
+		dentry->d_inode->i_nlink--;
+
+	/* We don't want to leave negative leftover dentries for revalidate. */
+	if (!err && (dbopaque(dentry) != -1))
+		update_bstart(dentry);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_unlink(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+
+	err = unionfs_unlink_whiteout(dir, dentry);
+	/* call d_drop so the system "forgets" about us */
+	if (!err) {
+		if (!S_ISDIR(dentry->d_inode->i_mode))
+			unionfs_purge_extras(dentry);
+		d_drop(dentry);
+		/*
+		 * if unlink/whiteout succeeded, parent dir mtime has
+		 * changed
+		 */
+		unionfs_copy_attr_times(dir);
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (!err) {
+		unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+		unionfs_check_inode(dir);
+	}
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+static int unionfs_rmdir_first(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry,
+			       struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry;
+	struct dentry *lower_dir_dentry = NULL;
+
+	/* Here we need to remove whiteout entries. */
+	err = delete_whiteouts(dentry, dbstart(dentry), namelist);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	lower_dir_dentry = lock_parent(lower_dentry);
+
+	/* avoid destroying the lower inode if the file is in use */
+	dget(lower_dentry);
+	if (!(err = is_robranch(dentry)))
+		err = vfs_rmdir(lower_dir_dentry->d_inode, lower_dentry);
+	dput(lower_dentry);
+
+	fsstack_copy_attr_times(dir, lower_dir_dentry->d_inode);
+	/* propagate number of hard-links */
+	dentry->d_inode->i_nlink = unionfs_get_nlinks(dentry->d_inode);
+
+out:
+	if (lower_dir_dentry)
+		unlock_dir(lower_dir_dentry);
+	return err;
+}
+
+int unionfs_rmdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct unionfs_dir_state *namelist = NULL;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+
+	/* check if this unionfs directory is empty or not */
+	err = check_empty(dentry, &namelist);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = unionfs_rmdir_first(dir, dentry, namelist);
+	/* create whiteout */
+	if (!err)
+		err = create_whiteout(dentry, dbstart(dentry));
+	else {
+		int new_err;
+
+		if (dbstart(dentry) == 0)
+			goto out;
+
+		/* exit if the error returned was NOT -EROFS */
+		if (!IS_COPYUP_ERR(err))
+			goto out;
+
+		new_err = create_whiteout(dentry, dbstart(dentry) - 1);
+		if (new_err != -EEXIST)
+			err = new_err;
+	}
+
+out:
+	/* call d_drop so the system "forgets" about us */
+	if (!err)
+		d_drop(dentry);
+
+	if (namelist)
+		free_rdstate(namelist);
+
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
diff --git a/fs/unionfs/xattr.c b/fs/unionfs/xattr.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d6f4d53
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/unionfs/xattr.c
@@ -0,0 +1,165 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2006 Charles P. Wright
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Junjiro Okajima
+ * Copyright (c) 2005      Arun M. Krishnakumar
+ * Copyright (c) 2004-2006 David P. Quigley
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Mohammad Nayyer Zubair
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Puja Gupta
+ * Copyright (c) 2003      Harikesavan Krishnan
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include "union.h"
+
+/* This is lifted from fs/xattr.c */
+void *unionfs_xattr_alloc(size_t size, size_t limit)
+{
+	void *ptr;
+
+	if (size > limit)
+		return ERR_PTR(-E2BIG);
+
+	if (!size)		/* size request, no buffer is needed */
+		return NULL;
+	else if (size <= PAGE_SIZE)
+		ptr = kmalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
+	else
+		ptr = vmalloc(size);
+	if (!ptr)
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+	return ptr;
+}
+
+void unionfs_xattr_free(void *ptr, size_t size)
+{
+	if (!size)		/* size request, no buffer was needed */
+		return;
+	else if (size <= PAGE_SIZE)
+		kfree(ptr);
+	else
+		vfree(ptr);
+}
+
+/*
+ * BKL held by caller.
+ * dentry->d_inode->i_mutex locked
+ */
+ssize_t unionfs_getxattr(struct dentry *dentry, const char *name, void *value,
+			 size_t size)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	int err = -EOPNOTSUPP;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	err = vfs_getxattr(lower_dentry, (char*) name, value, size);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * BKL held by caller.
+ * dentry->d_inode->i_mutex locked
+ */
+int unionfs_setxattr(struct dentry *dentry, const char *name,
+		     const void *value, size_t size, int flags)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	int err = -EOPNOTSUPP;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	err = vfs_setxattr(lower_dentry, (char*) name, (void*) value,
+			   size, flags);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * BKL held by caller.
+ * dentry->d_inode->i_mutex locked
+ */
+int unionfs_removexattr(struct dentry *dentry, const char *name)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	int err = -EOPNOTSUPP;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	err = vfs_removexattr(lower_dentry, (char*) name);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * BKL held by caller.
+ * dentry->d_inode->i_mutex locked
+ */
+ssize_t unionfs_listxattr(struct dentry *dentry, char *list, size_t size)
+{
+	struct dentry *lower_dentry = NULL;
+	int err = -EOPNOTSUPP;
+	char *encoded_list = NULL;
+
+	unionfs_read_lock(dentry->d_sb);
+	unionfs_lock_dentry(dentry);
+
+	if (!__unionfs_d_revalidate_chain(dentry, NULL, 0)) {
+		err = -ESTALE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	lower_dentry = unionfs_lower_dentry(dentry);
+
+	encoded_list = list;
+	err = vfs_listxattr(lower_dentry, encoded_list, size);
+
+out:
+	unionfs_unlock_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_check_dentry(dentry);
+	unionfs_read_unlock(dentry->d_sb);
+	return err;
+}
diff --git a/include/linux/fs_stack.h b/include/linux/fs_stack.h
index bb516ce..2599c5b 100644
--- a/include/linux/fs_stack.h
+++ b/include/linux/fs_stack.h
@@ -1,17 +1,28 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
 #ifndef _LINUX_FS_STACK_H
 #define _LINUX_FS_STACK_H
 
-/* This file defines generic functions used primarily by stackable
+/*
+ * This file defines generic functions used primarily by stackable
  * filesystems; none of these functions require i_mutex to be held.
  */
 
 #include <linux/fs.h>
 
 /* externs for fs/stack.c */
-extern void fsstack_copy_attr_all(struct inode *dest, const struct inode *src,
-				int (*get_nlinks)(struct inode *));
-
-extern void fsstack_copy_inode_size(struct inode *dst, const struct inode *src);
+extern void fsstack_copy_attr_all(struct inode *dest, const struct inode *src);
+extern void fsstack_copy_inode_size(struct inode *dst,
+				    const struct inode *src);
 
 /* inlines */
 static inline void fsstack_copy_attr_atime(struct inode *dest,
@@ -28,4 +39,4 @@ static inline void fsstack_copy_attr_times(struct inode *dest,
 	dest->i_ctime = src->i_ctime;
 }
 
-#endif /* _LINUX_FS_STACK_H */
+#endif /* not _LINUX_FS_STACK_H */
diff --git a/include/linux/magic.h b/include/linux/magic.h
index 9d713c0..a1da278 100644
--- a/include/linux/magic.h
+++ b/include/linux/magic.h
@@ -36,6 +36,8 @@
 #define REISER2FS_SUPER_MAGIC_STRING	"ReIsEr2Fs"
 #define REISER2FS_JR_SUPER_MAGIC_STRING	"ReIsEr3Fs"
 
+#define UNIONFS_SUPER_MAGIC 0xf15f083d
+
 #define SMB_SUPER_MAGIC		0x517B
 #define USBDEVICE_SUPER_MAGIC	0x9fa2
 
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index 1c12074..063f7dc 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -1199,6 +1199,7 @@ int drop_caches_sysctl_handler(struct ctl_table *, int, struct \
file *,
 					void __user *, size_t *, loff_t *);
 unsigned long shrink_slab(unsigned long scanned, gfp_t gfp_mask,
 			unsigned long lru_pages);
+extern void drop_pagecache_sb(struct super_block *);
 void drop_pagecache(void);
 void drop_slab(void);
 
diff --git a/include/linux/namei.h b/include/linux/namei.h
index b7dd249..1658291 100644
--- a/include/linux/namei.h
+++ b/include/linux/namei.h
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
 
 #include <linux/dcache.h>
 #include <linux/linkage.h>
+#include <linux/mount.h>
 
 struct vfsmount;
 
@@ -47,6 +48,7 @@ enum {LAST_NORM, LAST_ROOT, LAST_DOT, LAST_DOTDOT, LAST_BIND};
  *  - internal "there are more path compnents" flag
  *  - locked when lookup done with dcache_lock held
  *  - dentry cache is untrusted; force a real lookup
+ *  - lookup path from given dentry/vfsmount pair
  */
 #define LOOKUP_FOLLOW		 1
 #define LOOKUP_DIRECTORY	 2
@@ -54,6 +56,7 @@ enum {LAST_NORM, LAST_ROOT, LAST_DOT, LAST_DOTDOT, LAST_BIND};
 #define LOOKUP_PARENT		16
 #define LOOKUP_NOALT		32
 #define LOOKUP_REVAL		64
+#define LOOKUP_ONE	       128
 /*
  * Intent data
  */
@@ -81,9 +84,16 @@ extern struct file *lookup_instantiate_filp(struct nameidata *nd, \
struct dentry
 extern struct file *nameidata_to_filp(struct nameidata *nd, int flags);
 extern void release_open_intent(struct nameidata *);
 
-extern struct dentry * lookup_one_len(const char *, struct dentry *, int);
+extern struct dentry * lookup_one_len_nd(const char *, struct dentry *,
+					 int, struct nameidata *);
 extern struct dentry *lookup_one_len_kern(const char *, struct dentry *, int);
 
+static inline struct dentry *lookup_one_len(const char *name,
+			struct dentry *dir, int len)
+{
+	return lookup_one_len_nd(name, dir, len, NULL);
+}
+
 extern int follow_down(struct vfsmount **, struct dentry **);
 extern int follow_up(struct vfsmount **, struct dentry **);
 
@@ -100,4 +110,16 @@ static inline char *nd_get_link(struct nameidata *nd)
 	return nd->saved_names[nd->depth];
 }
 
+static inline void pathget(struct path *path)
+{
+	mntget(path->mnt);
+	dget(path->dentry);
+}
+
+static inline void pathput(struct path *path)
+{
+	dput(path->dentry);
+	mntput(path->mnt);
+}
+
 #endif /* _LINUX_NAMEI_H */
diff --git a/include/linux/union_fs.h b/include/linux/union_fs.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..223ccab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/union_fs.h
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Erez Zadok
+ * Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Josef 'Jeff' Sipek
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Stony Brook University
+ * Copyright (c) 2003-2007 The Research Foundation of SUNY
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _LINUX_UNION_FS_H
+#define _LINUX_UNION_FS_H
+
+#define UNIONFS_VERSION  "2.0"
+/*
+ * DEFINITIONS FOR USER AND KERNEL CODE:
+ */
+# define UNIONFS_IOCTL_INCGEN		_IOR(0x15, 11, int)
+# define UNIONFS_IOCTL_QUERYFILE	_IOR(0x15, 15, int)
+
+/* We don't support normal remount, but unionctl uses it. */
+# define UNIONFS_REMOUNT_MAGIC		0x4a5a4380
+
+/* should be at least LAST_USED_UNIONFS_PERMISSION<<1 */
+#define MAY_NFSRO			16
+
+#endif /* _LINUX_UNIONFS_H */
+
Linux 2.6.21.1-r3 3980  118854 Luca...
The Linux Kernel.
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Linux 2.6.16.14-r1 3980  168270 Luca...
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Linux 2.6.15.2-r1 3980  177165 Carl...
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Linux 2.6.14.4-r1 3980  150166 Jona...
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Linux 2.6.14.3-r1 3980  150060 Jona...
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Linux 2.6.14.2-r1 3980  149791 Carl...
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Linux 2.6.13.2-r1 3980  56611 Jona...
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Linux 2.6.7-r1 3980  22610 Luca...
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The Linux Kernel.